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PC Nuts & Bolts II Columbus AFCC September 28, 2007 Debra K. Carter, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "PC Nuts & Bolts II Columbus AFCC September 28, 2007 Debra K. Carter, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 PC Nuts & Bolts II Columbus AFCC September 28, 2007 Debra K. Carter, Ph.D.

2 Integrated Model of Parenting Coordination Therapist Skills Evaluator Skills Mediator Skills Educator Skills Consultant Skills

3 Boundaries within PC Process Establishing Boundaries PC Role & Responsibilities Rules of Engagement Maintaining Boundaries Boundary Violations

4 Cardinal Features of Parents in Hostile Custody Disputes Pattern of defensiveness Rigidity in thinking Lacking in ability to empathize with others

5 Impact of Parental Conflict on Childrens Adjustment Following Divorce Effects of exposure to Chronic Parental Conflict –Insecurity and Agitation –Shame and Guilt –Helplessness –Fear of Abuse –Less Parental Involvement –Rejection

6 Two Types of Inter-actional Impasse Type I: –Couples maintain highly positive, idealized view of each other –Deeply enmeshed –Cycle through repeated reconciliations that dissipate into bitter disappointments –Enormously ambivalent about the separation

7 Type I Impasse - Children The divorce is never final, and their reconciliation fantasies are continually fueled. Often neglected by their parents because the parents are absorbed with each other. Often the focus of the post-divorce disputes as an extension of the parents smoldering passions for one another.

8 Type II Inter-actional Impasse Extremely negative, polarized view of each other for which there is no evidence in current reality. View each other as crazy and mentally disturbed or as morally reprehensible monsters. Resist their childrens contact with the other parent.

9 Type II Inter-actional Impasse (cont.) They mirror each other in a victim stance, each viewing the other as the persecutor. They avoid contact. They refuse to communicate directly and use others as spokespersons.

10 Type II Interactional Impasse - Children Receive overt or covert messages that the other parent is bad, immoral, or neglectful. Are often prohibited from seeing the non- residential parent. Transitions between parental homes are lonely and frightening.

11 Stress Responses of Children Caught in Post-divorce Conflict Problems at visitation Times –younger preschool children ages 2-3, separation anxiety was the most common response –older preschoolers, high levels of tension and apprehension, regressive behaviors, and tantrums –Young school-age children 6-8 used emotional withdrawal as a predominate method to cope with the stress. Somatic symptoms increased in this group

12 Stress Responses of Children cont... –Older school-age children: regressive behaviors and tantrums reduced significantly, still most likely to be withdrawn, quiet, anxious, and apprehensive; nearly half still experienced physical symptoms, more than half were still resistant to visitations; much more argumentative, likely to take action to avoid visitations

13 Stress Responses of Children Exposure to Conflict Post-divorce Conflict on Childrens Adjustment:frequency of visitation Role of Temperament Role of Cognitive Style Roles of Appraisal and Coping

14 Interventions in Type I (Ambivalent Separating) Point out dichotomy between their views and the facts. Communication about children without emotional re-engagement. Re-direct any interaction that alludes to a shared private experience. Discourage sharing of personal information. Encourage arrangements that require minimal contact between them.

15 Interventions in Type II Impasse Perceived experience of being suddenly and unexpectedly left. Separation involves inordinate degrees of humiliation, anger, defeat, guilt, and fear. Period following the actual separation is marked by desperate, unusual, and atypical behavior that seems quite irrational.

16 Factors Within the Situation Is there high tension, overt conflict at the time of transition? Are the transitions very frequent? Is the child triangulated? Are the homes extremely different? Is there no communication or coordination between the parents?

17 Factors Within the Child Does the child have an irritable, disruptive temperament? Anxious? Distractible? Inattentive? Does the child have separation anxiety? Is the child strongly allied with one parent? Is the child maneuvering? Is the child equilibrating? Is the child depressed? Does the child have poor coping skills?

18 Factors in the Residential Parent (RP) Does the RP have poor parenting skills? Does the RP have a poor relationship with the child? Is the RP hostile toward the other parent? Is the RP anxious or withdrawn at the time of visitation? Does the RP have a history of seeking to the reduce the involvement of the NRP parent?

19 Factors in the Nonresidential Parenting (NRP) Does the NRP have a poor bond with the child? Does the NRP provide a home situation that is lonely and unstimulating? Does the NRP spend time with the child? Is the NRP hostile toward the primary parent? Could the child be abused or neglected?

20 Referral for Adjunct Services Psychotherapy Anger Management Impulse Control Intervention Parenting Class Fitness Evaluation EMDR Reunification Therapy Preparation for Step-Parenting/Blending Families Post-divorce check-ups for children

21 When & How to Refer for Support Services Establishing a Team Coordinating a Team Communication between Team Members Measuring Effectiveness

22 Thorny Ethical Issues Dual Roles Appearance of Bias Mandatory Reporting Duty to Warn Privacy Practicing Outside Area of Expertise Financial Arrangements

23 Special Circumstances ADA requirements Accommodations for disabilities Cultural issues –Awareness –Impact –Interventions

24 Trouble Shooting When to Request a Case Management or Status Conference When to Request Removal as PC Professional Consultation with Colleagues

25 Protection for Professionals Physical Safety Professional Liability Handling Threats of a Lawsuit Handling Threats of a Professional Board Complaint Know the Professional Standards & Guidelines for your Profession HIPPA

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