12 Other Dell social efforts 1980s: listservs, for example.April 2006: Online Community Outreach teamJuly 2006: Direct2Dell blog and burning batteriesSummer 2006: Expanded blog outreach to include any conversations about Dell.Sept. 2006: StudioDellEarly 2007: IdeaStorm – tell Dell what to do“Tech Brad” on Yahoo Answers – so popular being used in ads
13 Happy ending“In the age of customers empowered by blogs and social media, Dell has leapt from worst to first." – Jeff Jarvis, Business WeekFirst step: Dell dispatched technicians to reach out to complaining bloggers and solve their problems, earning pleasantly surprised buzz in return.
14 "These conversations are going to occur whether you like it or not, O "These conversations are going to occur whether you like it or not, O.K.? Well, do you want to be part of that or not? My argument is you absolutely do. You can learn from that. You can improve your reaction time. And you can be a better company by listening and being involved in that conversation.”– Michael Dell
15 Michael Dell: I think a strong company is one that constantly learns Michael Dell: I think a strong company is one that constantly learns. One of the best ways to constantly learn is to really listen to customers. The rapidly changing tech landscape makes it efficient and easier than ever before to listen, learn and connect with customers. The emergence of social media is a tremendous opportunity to bring the "outside" in to your company.
16 Measurable resultsDell saw a 27 point decrease in negative blog posts, from 49 percent at the peak of Dell Hell to the current 22 percent.Cost would have been hundreds of millions for similar ad campaign.How much would they have had to spend on an ad campaign to achieve that same result? if that same result is even possible through advertising. Hundreds of millions of dollars for a brand that large.
17 Michael Dell: "A company this size is not going to be about a couple of people coming up with ideas. It's going to be about millions of people and harnessing the power of those ideas."
18 Tips from Bob Pearson, Dell Focus group with 10 people, or listen to 10,000?Customers = partnersCommunities > individualsYou should be easy to see and talk toBe truthful, transparent, diligentCustomers = people, not lines of businessDon’t try to fit old thinking to new environment. New set of metrics.
19 Social media is an umbrella term that defines the various activities that integrate technology, social interaction, and the construction of words, pictures, videos and audio. This interaction, and the manner in which information is presented, depends on the varied perspectives and "building" of shared meaning, as people share their stories, and understandings.- WikipediaWhat is social media?
20 Social media is ... a way of using the Internet to instantly collaborate, share information, or have a conversation ideas or causes we care about. It’s a world where anyone can be a publisher, a reporter, an artist, a filmmaker, a photographer or pundit …. Even an activist or citizen philanthropist!“- Beth Kanter in presentationWhat is social media?
21 Best way to find out is to compare to what we had before: NewspapersMagazinesTelevisionRadioBooksCDsDVDsA box of photosPhysical, paper mail and catalogsYellow PagesWhat is social media?
22 What is social media? Can be changed Can participate Can sense popularity – comments, bookmarks, TechmemeArchivesMixed media – photos, videosNo publishing committeesInfinite – no quantity limits like words or timeSyndicated - opennessMashable – widgets from 3rd parties- Robert ScobleWhat is social media?
25 Sites considered social media: BlogsMessage boardsForumsSocial networksVideo sharingMicrobloggingSlideshowsPicture sharing (Photobucket)PodcastsVidcastsWikisGroupsVirtual words or communities (Second life)
26 Base: US online adult social networking site users, Source: North American Technographics Media And Marketing Online Survey, Q3 2007
27 What is Web 2.0? Stickiness syndication Web 1.0 Web 2.0 DoubleClick Google AdSenseOfoto FlickrAkamai BitTorrentmp3.com NapsterBritannica Online Wikipediapersonal websites bloggingevite upcoming.orgdomain name speculation SEOpage views cost per clickscreen scraping web servicesPublishing participationCMS Wikisdirectories (taxonomy) tagging ("folksonomy")Stickiness syndicationWhat is Web 2.0?
32 RSS Benefits Portable Mashable No email, guaranteed delivery Secure channel, can’t be spammedEasily shareMore visibilityGood for time-sensitive info (special deals, etc., events)Users can control flow of info -> trustBuilds up inbound links
33 TrackbacksTells other blogs you linked to them, and then an excerpt of your post appears with a link back to your blog in the comments section of their post that you linked to
34 PingbacksYou get a notification that other bloggers linked to your blog, and an excerpt of their post appears on your blog with a link to their blog (opposite of trackbacks)
37 PingsBlogs set up to ping send an automatic message to tens or hundreds of blog directories, telling them you just published something new.This not only spreads your blog further, but Google is known to follow these blog directories, and it helps Google pick up on new blogs quickly.Pingomatic.com is an example of a pinging service.
38 TagsGood for search engines; gives them more info on what the post is aboutGood for Technorati blog directoryGood for finer categorization of posts
41 “It’s a new media world that really returns us to old Main Street ethics. A shopkeeper within the town builds great relationships with his/her community members. There’s an intrinsic understanding that they need the community as much if not more so than the community needs the shop. And so the shopkeeper works hard for the community, and treats it well.“- The Participation Ethos
43 Other wastes of time:“Airplanes are interesting toys but of no military value.” –Marechal Ferdinand Foch“The wireless music box has no imaginable commercial value. Who would pay for a message sent to nobody in particular?” –David Sarnoff’s associates in response to his urgings for investment in the radio in the 1920s.“Who the hell wants to hear actors talk?” --H.M. “Harry” Warner, Warner Brothers, 1927.
44 Social computing is not a fad Social computing is not a fad. Nor is it something that will pass you or your company by. Gradually, social computing will impact almost every role, at every kind of company, in all parts of the world.- Forrester Research, Social Computing – How Networks Erode Institutional Power, And What To Do About It
49 Growth of the blogosphere It is now over 60 times bigger than it was 3 years agoOn average, a new weblog is created every second of every day19.4 million bloggers (55%) are still posting 3 months after their blogs are createdTechnorati tracks about 1.2 Million new blog posts each day, about 50,000 per hour34% of large corporations currently have a blog solution, 70% plan one by the end of the year
50 Who’s on the web? 70% of US adults use the Internet 91% of Internet users use91% use search engines39% read blogs5 of the top 10 most-visited sites are social
56 Word of MouthIt is claimed that a satisfied customer tells an average of three people about a product or service he/she likes, and eleven people about a product or service which he/she did not like. Viral marketing is based on this natural human behaviour. (Wikipedia)
57 They don’t buy it anymore "76% of consumers don't believe that companies tell the truth in advertising." Yankelovich"85% of Chinese stop watching TV during commercial breaks. More than half change the channel, while the rest do housework, eat, chat or use the bathroom." (McKinsey & Co.)
58 They don’t buy it anymore "In 1965, 80% of year olds in the US could be reached with three 60-second TV spots. In 2002, it required prime-time commercials to do the same." Jim Stengel, Global Marketing Officer, P&G
63 WOM Spending…more than $1 billion is spent a year on word-of-mouth campaigns targeting Influentials, an amount growing at 36% a year, faster than any other part of marketing and advertising. That’s on top of billions more in PR and ads leveled at the cognoscenti.The Age and Influence of Social Media
65 ROI for Social Networking Community users remain customers 50% longer than non-community users. (AT&T, 2002)43% of support forums visits are in lieu of opening up a support case. (Cisco, 2004).Community users spend 54% more than non-community users (EBay, 2006)In customer support, live interaction costs 87% more per transaction on average than forums and other web self-service options. (ASP, 2002)Cost per interaction in customers support averages $12 via the contact center versus $0.25 via self-service options. (Forrester, 2006)
66 ROICommunity users visit nine times more often than non-community users (McKinsey, 2000).Community users have four times as many page views as non-community users (McKinsey, 2000).56% percent of online community members log in once a day or more (Annenberg, 2007)Customers report good experiences in forums more than twice as often as they do via calls or mail. (Jupiter, 2006)
67 Measurable results: ROI Media attentionSpeaking requestsCustomer loyaltyInbound links to the blogSearch engine ranking for the corporate site
68 Measurable results: ROI Corporate website trafficLeads/sales initiatedVolume of blog trafficTechnorati and other credible rankingsSearch engine ranking for the blog
69 Measurable results: ROI Increased company visibility within the industryIncreased media coverageImproved customer loyaltyIncreased sales leads/revenue/new customers
70 Today’s leading brandSource: Millward Brown’s Brandz
71 Nature of advantage is shifting The big boys: Coke, P&GGoogleDecades and billions$0 on ads
73 “To blog or not to blog. The answer, simply enough, is to blog “To blog or not to blog? The answer, simply enough, is to blog. No better opportunity exists to engage in an open dialog and exchange of ideas with customers and potential customers.”Bob Lutz, Vice Chairman, General Motors
74 "If you blog, you exist."- Shai Agassi, former Board Member, SAP
75 Benefits Low cost and fast to set up Transparent and authentic Information is always up-to-dateBlogging is innovative = you are innovativeInexpensive tool for external communicationQuickly respond to critics
76 Benefits: ReachGet the right information to the right people at the right time.Broad reach via RSS and subscriptionsOpening a new marketing channel for products and services
77 Benefits: Financial Test out ideas on the blog before development Forrester research: savings from customer insightsLow-cost, targeted for recessions: Brands which took advantage of social media marketing in 2007 avoided the slump in sales which affected some sectors and profited from their efforts, a new report has claimed.
78 Benefits: Search Engines Increased site trafficIncreased rankingsSearch engines like:Sites that publish fresh contentSites with inbound linksKeywords
79 Benefits: Thought Leadership Position you and your company as thought leaders in competitive marketsEstablish a true, credible voice in the marketplaceGain knowledge, stay on top of your fieldTim Ferris launched The 4 Hour Workweek to New York Times bestseller list through blogging
80 Benefits: Branding Strengthen and promote your brand Give your company a human faceForrester research: increased brand visibilityForrester research: reduced impact from negative user-generated content, and increased sales efficiency
81 Benefits: PR Free and controlled news desk Damage control! Rapid response toolCreate buzz - give small hints abt. new products, generate press interestAnnounce conferences/eventsProduct development and launch
82 Benefits: Customer Relations Customer queries answered leading to reduced customer service or technical support callsEnhance customer loyaltyBuild sense of communityTurn customers into your sales forceReach an active, passionate consumer baseReach people on their own terms
83 Benefits: Lead Generation Better communication with prospectsLeverage existing customer base to spread your messageIncreased enquiries generated; subscriptions to newsletter/rss = ongoingA living white paper
84 Benefits: Lead Generation Customer supportEducation-based marketingMore friends = Word of Mouth - 80% of online users trust the opinion of a friend or acquaintance more than any other possible web source
85 Benefits - miscellaneous Put a human face on the companyComment = customer buy-inLeverage opinion leaders’ influence
86 Benefits: Intelligence GM's Fastlane Blog’s Bob Lutz, says he receives better consumer intelligence from reading the comments on his blog than those from traditional market research channels, like surveys and focus groups.Quickly and easily poll your customersGet feedbackBuild better products from 2-way conversation
87 Benefits: Collaboration Company news and updatesProject notesCentralized archivesInstant documentation
88 Industry Benefits: B2B What going on in my market? What are my competitors doing?What activities do my buyers engage in?
89 Challenges Open criticism Lack of control Time consuming Need to be consistentNeed to make changes in how you workYour audience is not onlineNeed to teach staff about it.
90 “I’ve never really found the time to blog, so to speak “I’ve never really found the time to blog, so to speak....I always have my BlackBerry with me. When I’m feeling inspired I jot something down. I’ve always been this way.”Bob Lutz, Vice President General Motors
91 Challenges Compliance and legal issues Untrustworthy member data 50% of blogs abandoned within 90 daysLoss in workplace productivityHard to measure successNeed for openness
92 Challenges Most blogs don’t get a lot of traffic No ending date Blogging employees don’t represent the brandCost – GMs cost $240k
98 “Applegate”May 2007: “…earlier yesterday technology blog Engadget published what it claimed was an internal from Apple that stated the iPhone launch would be delayed until October and that the Leopard operating system would be delayed until January Six minutes after the post, Apple's share value had sunk to $103.42, cutting Apple's company value by $4bn. - TechCrunch
99 “Applegate”“Apple has received formal government approval to sell its much-anticipated iPhone in the US, just a day after a bogus , dubbed "Applegate", wiped $4bn from the company's stock market value.“ - Guardian
101 Target PR NightmareRep from non-profit concerned with media and marketing’s impact on kids writes to Target objecting to their ad.Target: “unfortunately we are unable to respond to your inquiry because Target does not participate with non-traditional media outlets. This practice is in place to allow us to focus on publications that reach our core guest.”
107 Johnson&Johnson sues Red Cross over use of Red Cross! vs.Johnson&Johnson sues Red Cross over use of Red Cross!J&J takes the dialogue beyond the standard corporate PR, and posts about this on their blog.
109 vs.The result? A large number of comments and stories generally providing broad support for J&J's point of view. While there are negative comments, the blog achieved what no other crisis communication's vehicle would have delivered.
110 GM leader in social media GM launched blog in 2005 – FastlaneWritten by Vice Chairman200 years: GM expanding social media strategy to include GMNextIsn’t that a waste of time?
111 GM says yes to SMForrester compared the results of GM’s Fastlane blog to those of a focus group, and since a focus group costs about $15,000 a month, which works out to $180,000 each year, GM has achieved similar results via their blog, and saved itself $180,000 in cash per year.
112 GM says yes to SMGM is trying to engage their customers one car at a time.TransparencyIncreases chances of reaching younger buyersProfit? Increase of 2.6% in sales compared with January last year.
113 Growing pains: FordFord recently released their first social media release.Ford’s lawyers did a very unsocial thing and stopped some of their most exuberant fans from printing up a fan calendar with photos of their own Ford cars in it.
114 Growing pains: Ford“The folks at BMC (Black Mustang Club) automotive forum wanted to put together a calendar featuring members’ cars, and print it through CafePress. Photos were submitted, the layout was set, and… CafePress notifies the site admin that pictures of Ford cars cannot be printed. Not just Ford logos, not just Mustang logos, the car -as a whole- is a Ford trademark and its image can’t be reproduced without permission. So even though Ford has a lineup of enthusiasts who want to show off their Ford cars, the company is bent on alienating them. ‘Them’ being some of the most loyal owners and future buyers that they have. Or rather, that they had, because many have decided that they will not be doing business with Ford again if this matter isn’t resolved.” (From BoingBoing - read more there)
115 “Ford pulled the spark-plug right outta their hearts.” – Todd Defren Source:
120 facebook statistics 40-50 million users. Over 40% over 35 Over 42m monthly uniquesOver 78m widgets6000 applications deployedAverage visitor stays 20 minutesCollege educatedWhite collar- Source: Your Facebook Strategy: Opportunities of a Ready-Made Platform
121 Things you can do with fb Conduct polls – 25 cents per responseFacebook insights: Track demographicsAdd Flash or HTML to a PageTrack page statsTags in notes, videos, photos
122 Companies with fb widgets American Airlines: Travel Bag, lets Facebook friends share personal tips and experiences. Goal: to know more about travel preferencesCoors Light - Consumers 21 and older able to send their friends invitations to meet for Coors Light
123 Power of facebookUK bank HSBC reinstitutes overdraft fees for recent college grads. 6,000 on facebook threaten boycottErnst & Young answers questions from college students on facebook
126 Ways to use twitter Personal Branding Get feedback Hire people Direct trafficRead newsNetworkCompany intranetNotify your customersEvent updatesFind prospectsProvide live coverageSet up meetingsSupport your social media strategy – get votes for articles, etc.
128 twitter case study: Comcast guy @comcastcaresnoticed a tweet from Michael Arrington, Eliason reached out to help, and Comcast soon dispatched a team to Arrington’s house to fix his Internet connection. It was, Eliason says, a turning point, but not in quite the way you’d think. Sure, Arrington’s experience with Eliason turned into a lengthy post on TechCrunch, but what seems to have interested Eliason more is how his Twitter followers rallied around him when some said that Comcast had only helped Arrington because he was Arrington. No, his supporters said, he’d helped out many other people too. Comcastcares was forming relationships.
129 twitter for B2B Sign up and spread the word Use it as a portable broadcasting channelShare knowledge from eventsGet feedback and opinionsPublish product/service updates with links to sitePublish useful info about your industry
130 Figure 2 Twitter Users Are Heavy Social Computing Adopters
131 Twitter Users Are Open To Advertising And Likely To Buzz
133 StumbleUpon for business Personalize your profile page.Join communities related to your businessAdd friends with similar interestsStumble oftenLabel and tag your submitted pages appropriatelySponsor your site – very cheap and targeted
139 YouTube 100 million videos watched every day Brand your video Less than 1 minutePut URL in descriptionCreate your own channelChoose good screenshotUse words like “exclusive”Push push push! You’ve got 48 hours!
140 Second Life More than 10 million user accounts 1.5 million residents log in every monthOver $1m US spent every day (1st millionaire)Can own private property
141 Second life and branding Toyota – in-game models to promote ScionPeugeuot – virtual race track coincided with Frankfurt Motor ShowBBC Radio 1 – stage with avatars of presenters and bands performing, virtual digital radio to listen
144 To social or not to social? Can I spare the time?What will the lawyers say?Will my employees waste time?Will my brand be damaged?Can I write?Will I see business results?Is it too technical for me?I’m afraid of losing control.
146 How to social Have a personality Don’t be afraid of failure Pick the right social media for your audienceMake friendsAdd value to the communityDon’t self-promote
147 How to social (cont) Be accurate Be transparent Be patient Increase your linkabilityMake tagging and bookmarking easyHelp your content travel
148 If you give to your community 95% of the time, you win the right to take, i.e. promote yourself. Without giving, there is no taking.
149 How to set up guidelines Clarify what is off limitsCan employees social on company time?Disclaimer?Be careful…
150 Wholefoods blog, Nov. 2007 Dear Stakeholders, A Special Committee of our Board of Directors' is conducting an independent internal investigation into online financial message board postings related to Whole Foods Market and Wild Oats Markets. In light of this, it is in the best interest of the company to temporarily hold off on posting on my Company blog. The ability to post comments to this blog will be disabled during this time as well. I look forward to resuming our conversations and plan on being in touch with you again soon.Best regards,John
151 4 basic rules for social activity Personal ResponsibilityKeep SecretsKeep RulesBe Nice
152 Setting up social guidelines Do not defame a colleague or discuss their behaviorDo not write anything defamatoryDo (or do not) social on company timeDo not reveal confidential info or trade secrets.Do not refer to customers or partners without their permissionCopyright
153 Setting up social ethics (Do not) Avoid inflammatory or controversial topics.Respect your audienceTake privacy seriously
154 Why business blogs fail Not getting many commentsNot enough subscribersDidn't see any increase in traffic to their websiteToo hard to come up with new content every weekCouldn't figure out how to promote their products and services
155 Over 50% of blogs are abandoned within 90 days. So let’s get it right…
157 Strategy questions What are our goals? Who is our audience? Are they using SM?What will it take to get there?Activities and tactics: what will you do?Outcomes and benchmarks: what happened?
158 Goals Impacts Improved Services to Members Improved Positioning of OrganizationGreater involvement of Members in the organizationGrowth of the organization
159 Goals Goals Programs Organizational Capacity Partnerships or Alliances New MembersNew GatekeepersNew Donors/SponsorsMore or Diversified FundingOrganizational Visibility or RecognitionPositioningMedia CoverageAwarenessSalienceAttitudes or Beliefs - CommitmentPublic WillMembership GrowthGrowth of non-traditional membership demographic - new audiences
160 Audience Members Nonmembers Industry/Community Leaders Investors Business LeadersSponsors/DonorsPopular Culture GatekeepersMediaStaff/Volunteers
161 Who’s on the web? 70% of US adults 17% of global adults 91% of internet users use91% use search engines67% get news66% visit a government website39% read blogs93% of teens are online
163 Does my audience use SM? Age Gender Occupation (What else?) Social networkTool: Forrester Social Technographic Ladder
164 What will it take? Capacity: Funding – can be costly: GM's program cost $240k, but it had a profitable ROI.SkillsInfrastructureStaff
165 What will it take? Preparation and planning Data Problem assessment Goal settingPartnersMessageMaterials
166 Activities and tactics Evaluation, Analysis, ResearchRelationship Building with Decision-Makers and Thought LeadersBoard, Staff, Gatekeeper EducationProposal Development
167 Activities and Tactics PRNewsletter (electronic or print)Media coverageBriefings/PresentationsViral - participation within existing communitiesBlogs
168 Outcomes and Benchmarks Benchmark first, so you can measure success.Desired outcomes:New partnershipsNew users/clientsEmbracing new demographicNew sponsors/donorsIncreased funding/profitsIncreased visibilityBrand strengtheningMedia coverageAwareness
169 Forrester’s POSTPeople – who are you targeting – social technographic toolObjectives – what are your goalsStrategy – how will you do thisTechnology – what tools will you use
170 Types of people – Forrester Creators – publishers of original materialCritics – ratings, comments, forums, wikiCollectors – tags, rss feeds, diggJoiners – has profile on social networksSpectators – reads, watches, listensInactives - nada- The Forrester Social Technographics Ladder
173 Co-marketers Brand Evangelists - they LOVE you. Promoters - they are loyal, but not crazy, and will promote you.Co-creators - These people thrive on being part of a group that helps you make a product better, launch a new product, advise you on new menu items or even helps you co-create marketing.
174 Objectives Listening – learn from customers (used to be research) Speaking – create emotional attachment, advertising (marketing)Energizing – Excite your fans, WOM (sales)Supporting – peer-to-peer support (support)Embracing – Members become contributors (development)
175 Strategizing Build or join Experimentation Market intelligence AdvertisingEmbrace and lead communitiesDeploy campaign
177 Levels of Corporate Adoption "The Tower" - Purely centralized adoption of social media tools; Central person/organization that mandates all social media activities."The Tire" - Uncoordinated adoption at the edge of the organization; Organization that works on the edges of the company. Not coordinated."Hub & Spoke" - Best model. Central organization with flexibility at the edges.
178 Roles Social media strategist: organizes and supports the program Internal facing program managerCommunity managerExternal facing program managerCustomer supportPRBlogger Relations, etc.
179 How Can’t spread yourself too thin, or you won’t have any results Listen before speaking – needs of members firstMembers are in controlAllow for discussionsBe transparent – admit you’re marketingBecome a resource – best way to startIntegrate with other marketing initiatives
182 Step 2: Naming your blogBlog is extension of brand and marketing goalsResearch competitors’ blogsResearch industry keywords: Keyword Discovery or WordtrackerSimple URL
183 Step 3: Incorporate with site Give blog prominent placement in site’s navigation and vice versaShare branding elements: colors, styles, fontsPublish press release/newsletter announcment
184 Design Simple, uncluttered – don’t make them think! Attractive=professional; brandingDo not use a template, and if you do, make sure you’ve modified it enough.About page!Examples: uses templateOgilvy, Hill & Knowlton, CEO and Senior Exec blogs
185 Selecting a platform Blogger Typepad Movable Type WordPress.com WordPress.org
186 Spice it up Latest readers Recent comments Categories Tag cloud Recent postsFeatured videoPhoto gallerySubscribe to /RSS
187 Create blogging strategy Write with a human voicePost frequentlyBe transparent about who’s writingCreate a conversationLink to useful resourcesComment on other blogs
188 Blog etiquette Try to balance facts and opinion Link to reliable sourcesBe careful…
189 Measure your progress Feedburner Technorati twitter Blogpulse Google Blog SearchCompeteGoogle AnalyticsAlexaSocial networks
190 Identifying key bloggers TechnoratiGoogle blog searchBlogpulseTechmemeBlog directoriesOther blogs
191 Staying on top of things Google AlertsRSS feedssubscriptionsAggregators (popurls, Techmeme, twitter, facebook, MediaPost)
201 Basic Weekly Blog Schedule ½-1 hour 3 times/wkRead RSS feeds and Google Alerts find new blogs3-5 posts/wkWrite blog posts1 hour/wkManaging comments & responding1 hour a weekWriting comments on other blogs2 hours/wkStudy analytics (subscribers, visitors, web mentions)
202 Bonus blog tasks Write pillar articles Interview a “celebrity” Guest blog on other sitesRelease press releaseAdwords campaignCreate a videoOffer free white paper
203 Simulation: Blog for “Accelerate” Accelerate is a new sports drink released by Enerdrinks Ltd. Enerdrinks is a small company with limited resources that wants to increase brand awareness.Accelerate is unique for the following reasons:Organic, no chemicals etc.Special squeezy bottle with velcro strap for portabilityGreen promotion: Every purchase puts 10 cents to buy a treeAccelerate is targeting year olds, and while they don’t have much money, they can afford to invest time in a blog.Help them create a blogging strategy.
204 Accelerate Blog Strategy Who are they targeting?What are their goals for the blog?What steps do they need to take?Current state of brand?Competitors?ActivitiesExtra offeringsGuidelinesLayoutWhat are you measuring?
207 "To find something comparable, you have to go back 500 years to the printing press, the birth of mass media...Technology is shifting power away from the editors, the publishers, the establishment, the media elite. Now it's the people who are taking control." Rupert Murdoch, quoted in Wired, July 2006.
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