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RAte Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation A Randomized Comparison of Lenient Rate Control versus Strict Rate Control Concerning Morbidity.

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Presentation on theme: "RAte Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation A Randomized Comparison of Lenient Rate Control versus Strict Rate Control Concerning Morbidity."— Presentation transcript:

1 RAte Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation A Randomized Comparison of Lenient Rate Control versus Strict Rate Control Concerning Morbidity and Mortality RACE II

2 Rate control is an acceptable alternative for treatment of persistent AF and may even be adopted as first choice therapy AFFIRM, RACE

3 Background RACE II The optimal level of heart rate control during atrial fibrillation is unknown

4 Heart rate control - guidelines Fuster et al. Guidelines Eur Heart J 2006  Heart rate in rest bpm  Heart rate during moderate exercise bpm

5 Strict rate control ?  Pro  lower incidence CHF  fewer strokes  better survival  fewer symptoms  improved quality of life  Contra  irregular HR still present?  adverse effects drugs  pacemaker implants  higher costs  more difficult to achieve

6 Hypothesis Lenient rate control is not inferior to strict rate control in patients with permanent AF in terms of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity

7 Inclusion criteria  Age ≤ 80 years  Permanent AF ≤ 12 months  Heart rate > 80 bpm  On oral anticoagulation

8 Exclusion criteria  Paroxysmal or transient AF  Known contra-indications for strict or lenient RC (e.g. previous adverse effects on AAD)  Unstable heart failure  Cardiac surgery < 3 months  Stroke  Current or foreseen PM/ ICD/ CRT  Inability to walk or bike

9 Primary endpoint (composite)  Cardiovascular mortality  Hospitalization for heart failure  Stroke, systemic emboli, major bleeding  Syncope, sustained VT, cardiac arrest  Life-threatening adverse effects of RC drugs  Pacemaker implantation for bradycardia  ICD implantation for ventricular arrhythmias

10 Stroke  Sudden onset of focal neurological deficit consistent with occlusion major cerebral artery  Documented by CT or MR imaging  Categorized as ischemic, hemorrhagic or indeterminate

11 Major bleeding  Requiring hospitalization with reduction of hemoglobin level of at least 20 mg/L  Requiring transfusion of at least 2 units  Symptomatic bleeding in critical area or organ  Fatal

12 Severe adverse effects RC drugs  Digitalis intoxication  Conduction disturbances necessitating hospitalization

13 Statistical Analysis Non-inferiority boundary is 10% absolute difference Statistical hypotheses H o : R RC - R ECV > 10% (inferiority) H 1 : R RC - R ECV < 10% (non-inferiority) The null hypothesis of inferiority will be rejected when the upper limit of the 2-sided 90% confidence interval of the risk difference does not exceed 10%.

14 Treatment  Patients were randomized to  Lenient rate control  Strict rate control

15 Treatment  Patients were treated with negative dromotropic drugs (i.e. beta-blockers, non- dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers and digoxin, alone or in combination)  Dosages of drugs were increased or drugs combined until the heart rate target was achieved

16 Permanent AF > 80 bpm lenientstrict

17 Permanent AF > 80 bpm lenientstrict HR < 110 bpm (12 lead ECG)

18 Permanent AF > 80 bpm lenientstrict HR < 110 bpm (12 lead ECG)

19 Permanent AF > 80 bpm lenientstrict HR < 110 bpm (12 lead ECG) HR < 80 bpm (12 lead ECG) and HR < 110 bpm (at 25% of maximal exercise)

20 total exercise recovery 25% exercise duration

21 HR < 110 total exercise recovery 25% exercise duration

22 Permanent AF > 80 bpm lenientstrict HR < 110 bpm (12 lead ECG) HR < 80 bpm (12 lead ECG) and HR < 110 bpm (at 25% of maximal exercise) After achieving rate control target: Holter for safety

23 Baseline characteristics Lenient controlStrict control n= 311n=303 Age69±867±9 years Male66%65% Duration AF Total duration16 (6-54) 20 (6-64) months Permanent AF3 (1-6) 2 (1-5) months

24 Baseline characteristics Lenient controlStrict control n= 311n=303 Hypertension64%58% CAD22%15% Valve disease21%20% COPD12%14% Diabetes mellitus12%11% Lone AF2%2%

25 Baseline characteristics Lenient controlStrict control n= 311n=303 CHADS 2 score 1.4±1.01.4± %64% 230%22% 3-613%14%

26 Baseline characteristics Lenient controlStrict control n= 311n=303 Echocardiograpy (mm) Left atrial size 46±646±7 LV end-diastolic size 51±751±8 LV end-systolic size 36±836±9 LV ejection fraction 52±1152±12

27 Heart rate during study * * P<0.001 * * months Lenient Strict No. At Risk Lenient Strict Heart rate (beats per minute)

28 Rate control targets at end of dose adjustment phase Lenient controlStrict control n= 311n=303 Rate control target98%67%* Resting target98%75% Exercise target-73% Visits to achieve target75684* Median0 (0-0)2 (1-3) * P<0.001

29 Primary outcome Estimated cumulative incidence at 3 years Lenient controlStrict control Endpoint12.9% 14.9% Risk difference-2.0% 90% CI(-7.6%, 3.5%) Upper limit10% P <0.001 for prespecified noninferiority margin Rejection of inferiority hypothesis

30 No. At Risk Strict Lenient Lenient Strict Cumulative Incidence (%) 14.9% 12.9% months Cumulative incidence primary outcome

31 Causes of cardiovascular death 2.9% 3.9% Lenient control noncardiac vascular cardiac nonarrhythmic cardiac arrhythmic Strict control % Endpoint

32 Nonfatal and fatal endpoints 12.9% 14.9% fatal nonfatal Strict control Lenient control % Endpoint

33 Components of primary outcome Lenient controlStrict control n= 311n=303 Primary outcome12.9%14.9% CV mortality2.9%3.9% Heart failure3.8%4.1% Stroke1.6%3.9% Bleeding5.3%4.5% Adverse effects1.1%0.7% Pacemaker0.8%1.4% Syncope1.0%1.0% ICD0%0.4%

34 Nonfatal and fatal endpoints 5.1% Lenient Strict nonfatal fatal CHADS 2 ≥ 2CHADS 2 < % 4.5% 3.5% % Endpoint

35 Symptoms Lenient controlStrict control At baseline56%58% Palpitations20%27% Dyspnea34%37% Fatigue28%32% At end of study46%46% Palpitations11%10% Dyspnea30%30% Fatigue24%23%

36 Conclusion  The RACE II study shows that lenient rate control is not inferior to strict rate control  Lenient rate control is more convenient since fewer outpatient visits and examinations are needed

37 Clinical implications  Lenient rate control may be adopted as first choice rate control strategy in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation  This applies for high and low risk patients with permanent atrial fibrillation

38 Van Gelder, Groenveld, Van Veldhuisen, Van den Berg Janssen, Tukkie Bendermacher, Olthof Robles de Medina Kuijer, Zwart Crijns Alings Post Peters, Van Stralen, Buys Daniëls Timmermans Kuijper, Van Doorn University Medical Center Groningen Kennemer Hospital Haarlem Elkerliek Hospital Helmond Hospital Leyenburg The Hague Hospital Bernhoven Oss Maastricht University Medical Center Amphia Hospital Breda Hospital Hengelo Hengelo Hospital Gooi Noord Blaricum Jeroen Bosch Hospital Den Bosch Medical Spectrum Twente Enschede Spaarne Hospital Hoofddorp

39 Hoogslag Den Hartog Van Rugge Bosker, Derksen Hamraoui De Milliano Kamp Kragten Linssen Badings, Tuininga Nierop Gratama Diaconessen Hospital Meppel Hospital Gelderse Vallei Ede Diaconessen Hospital Leiden Rijnstate Hospital Arnhem Tweesteden Hospital Tilburg Hospital Hilversum Hilversum VU University Medical Center Adam Atrium Medical Center Heerlen Twenteborg Hospital Almelo Deventer Hospital Deventer St Fransiscus Hospital Rotterdam VieCurie Venlo

40 Thijssen Nio, Muys, Van den Berg Van Dijkman Cornel Van der Galiën Spanjaard Bartels Boersma Bronzwaer Maxima Medical Center Veldhoven IJsselland Hospital Cappelle a/d IJssel Bronovo Hospital The Hague Medical Center Alkmaar St. Lucas Hospital Winschoten Delfzicht Hospital Delfzijl Martini Hospital Groningen St. Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein Zaans Medical Center Zaandam

41 Steering Committee Isabelle C Van Gelder Harry JGM Crijns Jan GP Tijssen Hans L Hillege Ype S Tuininga A Marco Alings Hans A Bosker Jan H Cornel Otto Kamp Dirk J Van Veldhuisen Maarten P Van den Berg Thesis of Hessel F Groenveld Data Safety and Monitoring Board Hein J Wellens Richard N Hauer Arthur A Wilde Adjudication Committee Jan Van der Meer † Gert J Luijckx Johan Brügemann Trial Coordination Center Hans L Hillege Janneke A Bergsma Marco Assmann Olga Eriks-De Vries Myke Mol

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