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Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-1A “Free Flight with Airborne Separation will result in an uncontrolled,

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Presentation on theme: "Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-1A “Free Flight with Airborne Separation will result in an uncontrolled,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-1A “Free Flight with Airborne Separation will result in an uncontrolled, dangerous jungle without a firm central controlling element such as ATC.” “Pilots haven’t got the time, the training nor the mental resources available to function as ATC on top of flying the aircraft.”

2 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-2A NASA/FAA/RLD/NLR Free Flight study Jacco Hoekstra Ronald van Gent Rob Ruigrok

3 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-3A Free Flight goals l Reduce Costs via user preferred routing –Horizontally direct to destination optimum speed –Vertically optimum level cruise climb l More capacity

4 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-4A Operational concept l No ATC –Probe the limits for HF problems l All aircraft fully equipped –Linked via e.g. ADS-B –EFIS-CDTI l Full user preferred routing –Direct routing –Optimal cruise altitude

5 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-5A 1997: Three sub-studies: l CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Tool: Traffic Manager: Off-line simulations –Find a suitable base-line concept l SAFETY ANALYSIS Tool: TOPAZ (Traffic Organization and Perturbation AnalyZer) –Compare safety of Airborne Separation with safety ATC l MAN-IN-THE-LOOP EXPERIMENT phase I Tool: Research Flight Simulator –Validation of concept with Man-in-the-Loop –Man Machine Interface Validation

6 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-6A 1998: Four sub-studies: l CONFLICT GEOMETRY STUDY Tool: Traffic Manager: Off-line simulations –Check critical geometries: wall, etc. l AVIONICS STUDY Literature survey –Check requirements for RNP, ADS-B etc. l COST-BENEFITS & PERFORMANCE Tool: Traffic Manager: Off-line simulations –Costs of conflict resolution l MAN-IN-THE-LOOP EXPERIMENT phase II Tool: Research Flight Simulator –Validation of PredASAS & mixed equipage

7 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-7A 1999: Three activities: l DISSEMINATION Conferences, Web site, Contract report, RTCA, ICAO –Explain results obtained so far l DATA ANALYSIS phase II trials - Analysing data generated in phase II trials l DEVELOPMENT HUMAN INTERACTION EXP Tool: Traffic Manager, Freesim & internet –Effect of competition

8 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-8A 2000+: Current and future activities l HUMAN INTERACTION EXPERIMENT Traffic Manager, FreeSim, internet - High number of participants, humans vs models, competition l PHASE III FLIGHT SIMULATOR TRIALS NLR simulator, NASA Langley Simulations, HIE cfg(?) - How low can you go? From cruise to final incl. SUA, weather, RTA l Continue dissemination efforts Web site, symposia, conferences, RTCA, SAE, (IF)ALPA

9 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-9A Traffic & Experiment Manager

10 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-10A l Resolution advisories Several concepts studied: –Altitude step –Cross product of speed vectors –Extended VFR rules (not implemented) –Variations of TCAS manoeuvres –Voltage potential l Co-operative manoeuvring vs. priority l Minimal bandwidth/HF: no intent in Conflict Detection Result Traffic Manager simulations

11 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-11A Conflict Detection & Resolution Intruder’s protected zone Heading distance Speed change Avoidance vector Minimum distance Ownship Intruder

12 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-12A Complex Conflict geometries l ‘Wall’ scenarios, ‘super conflict’ (n = 4,8,10,12,16) and ‘crossing the street’

13 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-13A Man-in-the-loop Simulation Configuration AIRSIM RFS TEM

14 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-14A Traffic Symbol added to ND l Symbology on Navigation display based on data available via ADS-B l Track indicated with arrow shaped symbol instead of track line to avoid clutter l Label text selectable with de-clutter switches l Call sign added to label of traffic symbol for inter-traffic and crew communication

15 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-15A Conflict Detection & Resolution l Symbology based on resolution algorithm l Provides insight into resolution l Colour indicates urgency: Amber = min Red = min (time to loss of separation)

16 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-16A Navigation Display

17 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-17A Man-in-the-Loop experiment Hypotheses First explorative HF experiment, so probably using ‘simple’ Mk 1 system would yield: l Less than acceptable l Subjectively less safe l More workload Result: MMI problem areas

18 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-18A Man-in-the-Loop experiment Results - Acceptability

19 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-19A Man-in-the-Loop experiment Results- Subjective Safety

20 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-20A Man-in-the-Loop experiment Results

21 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-21A Task comparison Controlled vs. Free Flight

22 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-22A Predictive ASAS Calculates which track, vertical speed and speed selections will result in a conflict within the look ahead time Predicts a conflict by the red/amber zone moving to the actual values Indications do not require pilot actions

23 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-23A Predictive ASAS Don’t go indications: Track Vertical speed Speed

24 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-24A Preliminary conclusions PASAS l With predictive ASAS even conflict alerts could be avoided l Enhances situational awareness l Might provide solution without use of intent information for Free Flight!

25 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-25A Mixed equipage ATM concepts l Flight Level division: Above FF level only equipped aircraft l Protected Airways: Controlled aircraft should stay on airways and have right of way l Fully Mixed: ATC uses longer ‘look ahead’ time, so equipped aircraft have effectively ‘right of way’

26 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-26A 1998 NASA / FAA / RLD Results: Workload Airborne Subjective:Objective:

27 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-27A 1998 NASA / FAA / RLD Results: Workload Ground F(2,8)= 9.7, P<.008

28 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-28A 1998 Man-in-the-loop Conclusions l The future ATM design has to be chosen very carefully: –Full Mixed ATM condition is best from the pilot’s perspective –Protected Airways ATM condition is sensitive to equipage level (transition in time) –Flight Level ATC condition is most optimal from Air Traffic Controller’s perspective (Hilburn, Pekela) l The flight deck crew was able to handle higher traffic densities than the ground controller

29 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-29A Current men-in-the-loop experiment: human interaction experiment l Logging into Traffic Manager via internet using downloadable FreeSim flight simulation program Goal: Test effect of humans vs models competition

30 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-30A Airport on FF perspective: bad news(?) l Dramatic airspace capacity increase in FF airspace (en-route) => airports will be bottleneck (again)

31 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-31A Airport perspective on FF: good news l ASAS equipment (especially traffic display) could facilitate more efficient use under IMC of: –airspace (curved, merging, station keeping) –runways (concurrent use of parallel and crossing runways) –taxiways (showing other a/c and ground vehicles) l => potential to increase sustained capacity

32 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-32A More information l Web site: l Comprehensive report on overall studies Will soon be published. Check web site for downloads! l Demo sessions of human interaction experiment configuration will be announced on the website


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