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Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-1A “Free Flight with Airborne Separation will result in an uncontrolled,

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Presentation on theme: "Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-1A “Free Flight with Airborne Separation will result in an uncontrolled,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-1A “Free Flight with Airborne Separation will result in an uncontrolled, dangerous jungle without a firm central controlling element such as ATC.” “Pilots haven’t got the time, the training nor the mental resources available to function as ATC on top of flying the aircraft.”

2 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-2A Man-in-the-loop part of study looking at a Free Flight Concept Jacco Hoekstra Ronald van Gent Rob Ruigrok

3 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-3A Free Flight goals l Reduce Costs via user preferred routing –Horizontally direct to destination optimum speed –Vertically optimum level cruise climb l More capacity

4 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-4A Starting points l No ATC –Probe the limits for HF problems l All aircraft fully equipped –Linked via e.g. ADS-B –EFIS-CDTI l Full user preferred routing –Direct routing –Optimal cruise altitude

5 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-5A Three sub-studies: l CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Tool: Traffic Manager: Off-line simulations –Find a suitable base-line concept l SAFETY ANALYSIS Tool: TOPAZ (Traffic Organization and Perturbation AnalyZer) –Compare safety of Airborne Separation with safety ATC l MAN-IN-THE-LOOP EXPERIMENT Tool: Research Flight Simulator –Validation of concept with Man-in-the-Loop –Man Machine Interface Validation

6 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-6A Traffic & Experiment Manager

7 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-7A l Resolution advisories Several concepts studied: –Altitude step –Cross product of speed vectors –Extended VFR rules (not implemented) –Variations of TCAS manoeuvres –Voltage potential l Co-operative manoeuvring vs. priority l Minimal bandwidth/HF: no intent in Conflict Detection Conceptual Design

8 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-8A Conflict Detection & Resolution Intruder’s protected zone Heading distance Speed change Avoidance vector Minimum distance Ownship Intruder

9 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-9A Topaz Safety Analysis l Two airways in opposite direction l Independent variables: route spacing, non-nominals l Dependent: Collision risk l ASAS equipped, airborne separation, good weather, no global ADS-B failure, independent transmitter & receiver Airway Route spacing

10 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-10A TOPAZ : ATC vs. ASAS

11 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-11A Man-in-the-Loop experiment Hypotheses First explorative HF experiment, so probably: l Less than acceptable l Subjectively less safe l More workload Result: MMI problem areas

12 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-12A Airborne Separation subtasks l Monitoring traffic situation on display l Conflict detection l Conflict resolution l Inter-traffic R/T

13 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-13A Monitoring traffic situation on display l Symbology on Navigation display based on data available via ADS-B l Track indicated with arrow shaped symbol instead of track line to avoid clutter l Label text selectable with declutter switches

14 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-14A Conflict Detection & Resolution l Symbology based on resolution algorithm l Provides insight into resolution l Colour indicates urgency: Amber = min Red = min (time to loss of separation)

15 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-15A Inter Traffic R/T l Call sign added to label of traffic symbol

16 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-16A Navigation Display

17 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-17A Man Machine Interface l Modifications to Navigation Display –Traffic symbology –Conflict detection –Resolution Advisories –Vertical Navigation Display –Extra EFIS Control Panel functionality l Modifications to Autopilot –Execute combined –Execute separate l Aural alerts l Dedicated blue light under glareshield

18 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-18A Man-in-the-loop simulation

19 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-19A Experimental Design Place of non-nominals in matrix changed between subject crews 18 runs per crew air line pilots 2 days incl. half a day of training

20 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-20A Man-in-the-loop Simulation Configuration AIRSIM RFS TEM

21 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-21A Man-in-the-Loop experiment Results - Acceptability

22 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-22A Man-in-the-Loop experiment Results- Subjective Safety

23 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-23A Man-in-the-Loop experiment Results

24 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-24A Task comparison Controlled vs. Free Flight

25 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-25A Conclusions l Free Flight concept as implemented is acceptable in cruise phase, even in higher than WE densities l Workload in a future Free Flight scenario in cruise phase is not higher than in present day ATC scenario l Free Flight concept is at least as safe as present day ATC l None of the three sub-studies (off-line simulations, TOPAZ safety analysis, Man-in-the-Loop experiment) could refute the feasibility of an Airborne Separation Assurance concept for a future Free Flight environment.

26 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-26A Recommendations l Fine tuning of conflict detection & resolution based on remarks of pilots l Intended Flight Level in label? l Extra rule to prevent turning into short-term conflicts: =>Predictive ASAS

27 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-27A Predictive ASAS Calculates which track, vertical speed and speed selections will result in a conflict within the look ahead time Predicts a conflict by the red/amber zone moving to the actual values Indications do not require pilot actions

28 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-28A Predictive ASAS Don’t go indications: Track Vertical speed Speed

29 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-29A Mixed equipage ATM concepts l Flight Level division: Above FF level only equipped aircraft l Protected Airways: Controlled aircraft should stay on airways and have right of way l Fully Mixed: ATC uses longer ‘look ahead’ time, so equipped aircraft have effectively ‘right of way’ Preliminary result: Protected airways concept not feasible

30 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-30A NLR Free Flight Web site or via NLR home page and select hosted sites

31 Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium National Aerospace Laboratory NLR CXXX-31A Demonstration PC version Traffic Manager l Resolution method l Ground & air perspective l Navigation display symbology


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