Presentation on theme: "Close Reading College Readers . . ."— Presentation transcript:
1Close Reading . . . College Readers . . . Writing to prove that you understandevery word that you readEnglish/Reading WorkshopProfessor T. Castro
2Workshop Objectives To improve your reading comprehension skills. To offer you a reading strategy.To improve your critical thinking skills and contextual reading (reasoning).To help you understand the importance of defining key terms when you read.
3The General Purpose of this workshop is to help improve your reading comprehension skills. You must study (devote your attention to learning and the learning process) in order to comprehend concepts, especially at the college level.There are expectations that you as a college student can and will think at a higher level than the average grade-school student.
4So . . . What is “Comprehension”? Comprehension isa major reading objective.Webster's Dictionary defines comprehension as “the capacity for understanding fully; the act or action of grasping with the intellect.’"Actually, it’s OKAY not to grasp everything !WAIT . . .Please continue to next slide . . .
5Do you have to define every word to prove you understand? No. Understanding every word you read does not require that you define every word.If you tried to define every word, you would get bogged down in far too many details and never completely read anything. You might give up in frustration.Understanding what you read requires you to think as a wise reader.A wise reader is someone who can make sensible, balanced judgments and appropriately manage information as a resource (without wasting or under utilizing information).Example of information wasting/ overuse:-- Citing long quotes instead of paraphrasing.-- Presenting logical fallacies as if they are proven evidence.A wise reader is a critical reader – one able to apply critical thinking abilities: (1) analysis (compartmentalize), (2) synthesis (innovate), and (2) evaluation (judge or assess)
6Defining key terms is critical to building comprehension. Key terms for thispresentation are:Close ReadingCollege ReaderKey TermsContextual ReadingCritical Thinking
7Close Reading (Key Term 1) Close Reading is formal reading that requires more than just identifying words correctly. The reader must also be able to respond critically to the text.Close reading is concerned with what the language denotes (expresses outright) and also what it connotes (implies based on how the writer uses or presents information to readers).So, when close reading, ask yourself these questions:Is there dialogue or description presented? Is the tone humorous or serious? Is the style unique or have you seen other writers use that style? Is the language vague or straight to the point?Close reading does not require the reader to consider historical background or an author’s writing motivations before reading.
8Close Reading (cont.)Close reading thus involves paying attention to . . .Patterns – occurrences that repeat or follow a sequencePolarities – conditions or situations that create opposition / differencesProblems – difficult situations, matters or people; need for resolution.Puzzles – difficulties or mysteries that require work or effort to solve or energy to make less complicated or manageable.Paradigms – changing courses of action or shifts in thought* Perception – application of senses (using the mind to process information) * Thinking, Feeling, acknowledging, gaining awareness *
9Remember: Close reading involves perception. Perception is using one’s mind as a processor with these multiple capabilities :(1) create, (2) retrieve, (3) modify, and (4) store data that may be publishable material.You may publish your perceptions in various forms, such as printed text, visual rhetoric / graphic art, or as oral speech.
10What is a “College Reader?” (Key Term 2) Quite possibly, you are a college reader, if you acollege student meeting one or more of these criteria (guidelines):You are a college student who enjoys reading.You are a subscriber: someone who contracts to receive and pay for a service or a certain number of issues of a publicationYou are a person who can read; a literate personYou are a reviewer: someone who reads manuscripts and judges their suitability for publicationYou are a proofreader: someone who reads in order to find errors and mark corrections for revision.You lector: someone who reads the lessons in a church service; someone ordained in a minor order of the ChurchYou lecture: a public lecturer at certain universitiesYou are one who writes, edits or publishes perceptions for others to read.Source:
11What are key terms? (Key Term 3) Key Terms are words that hint or indicate the focus of a speaker or writer.Key terms may also be referred to as a cue.A cue word should alert the mind to think in a particular direction.Cues have a predictive function in that they help the mind or heart anticipate an outcome or expectation, as well as an approaching conflict or possible resolution.The ability to spot cues makes you a powerful reader and writer.It proves you are vigilant (observant, discerning, astute).
12What is Contextual Reading? (Key Term 4) Contextual Reading is reading in such a way that proves you have good sensory discernment skills and the ability to read between the lines, as well as separate facts from opinions.A contextual reader searches for a balanced truth, even in works of fiction or poetry.An effective contextual reader displays detection skills, seeing flaws as well as demonstrations of excellence in writing.(Example of a notable flaw: weak character development)(Example of notable excellence: Transitional flow of the language)An effective contextual reader with good sensory skills is one who looks for what is plausible (believable or reasonable) within the text and recognizes gaps in logic.
13What is Critical Thinking? (Key Term 5) Critical Thinking requires applicationof higher order thinking or criticalthinking skills:Analysis – breaking down information into understandable parts.Evaluation – making judgments based on a set of guidelinesSynthesis – creating something new out of available resources.
14How to Improve Critical Thinking & Reading Skill 1. Learn to Identify Themes such as:Family and CommunityComing of Age (Rites of Passage)Politics and SocietyClass and SocietyRace and SocietyGender and SocietyCulture and MythsLove and LossEthics and Value SystemsLife and Death
15How to Improve Critical Thinking & Reading Skill 2. Learn to Identify Common Rhetorical Strategies that Writers Use, such as:Narration (Storytelling; biography; autobiography)Description (Observation and detailed expository writing)Cause and EffectDefinition (Expounding, Exemplifying)Persuasion (Argument or Rhetoric)Process AnalysisComparison/ContrastSource:Cain, K., Neulib, J., Ruffus, S., and Sharton, M. The Mercury Reader. Needhaam Heights, MA: Pearson, 2000.
16How to Improve Critical Thinking & Reading Skill 3. Study reading theories and perspectives such as:Michael Foucault * Deconstruction -- Foucault believed that whether we are aware of it or not, literature is a reflection of the writers feelings and or even “hidden assumptions” about the world during the time in which the literature is written.Feminist *Focuses on writing to evoke change in the perception of and way of life of women. (Feminist theorist Helene Cixous)Karl Marx *– Marx believed that day-to-day occurrences in life impacted writers and publications. People, therefore, write about what concerns them.New Historicism is the belief that there is not much difference between literature and history. It thus focuses on the ideologies expressed in the text, such as, for example the expression of Marxist ideals in the text.Source:Cain, K., Neulib, J., Ruffus, S., and Sharton, M. The Mercury Reader. Needhaam Heights, MA: Pearson, 2000.
17A Reading Strategy can help. The SQ3R Reading Strategy requires readers to . . .SurveyQuestionReadReciteReview. . . the text
18SQ3R Reading StrategySurvey (Scan) – Familiarize yourself with your textbook organization before beginning to read the entire text.Look at the following:Titles and other headingsVisual Elements (Graphics / fonts that stand out)List of ObjectivesSelf-check questionsSummary, if appropriateSoruce: pennfoster.edu /learn
19SQ3R Reading Strategy Question - Turn the headings into questions. Why?This helps direct your reading and thought process.Look for answers to your questions.The better your questions are, the better will be your understanding of the material.Source: pennfoster.edu /learn
20SQ3R Reading Strategy Read Begin to read the material slowly and carefully, one section at a time.Use a highlighter or a ballpoint pen to mark important points.Highlight (or underline) only important words/ phrases; avoid marking entire sentences.Soruce: pennfoster.edu /learn
21SQ3R Reading Strategy Recite Before going to a new section, stop and repeat, either silently or aloud, the main points of what you’ve just read.Explaining concepts in your own words helps you remember what you read.Soruce: pennfoster.edu /learn
22SQ3R Reading Strategy Review what you have read as soon as possible. Resurvey what you’ve read.Go over the notes you’ve written.Reread complicated or underlined/ highlighted passages.Soruce: pennfoster.edu /learn
23Writing supports or proves Reading Comprehension. Explicate: Present detailed comments that reflect your understanding of what you have read. Discuss the organization, language presentation, and other elements of the writing. This proves you have thought about and understand what you have read.Journalize: Read and respond in writing to what you have read. Write about how what you read makes you feel. Write subjectively. This may prove you understand or can apply what you have read.Critical Review: assesses the value of what you have read and may prove that you understand what you read.
24Use A Dictionary. Why? To help you understand what you read; It is a valuable study tool.Use a dictionary correctly.Survey it. Become familiar with what it has to offer you.Most dictionaries include the following information for each word:PronunciationPart of speechThe etymology (Word’s history)Origin date (date when the word first appeared in English)DefinitionSynonymsExamples (sentences)
25Use Which Dictionary? Recommended dictionaries for college students Unabridged (exhaustive / not abbreviated versions)Webster's Third New International DictionaryRandom House DictionaryAbridged (abbreviated or condensed versinos)Random House College editionWebster's Collegiate DictionaryAmerican Heritage Dictionary
26True False PRACTICE QUIZ False When reading, you must look up every word to make sure you are interpreting the text correctly.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.FalseNo. Understanding every word you read does not require that you define every word. You may get bogged down in details trying to define every word.
27True False PRACTICE QUIZ False 2. Close reading requires the reader to consider historical background and the author’s background before or while reading.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.FalseNo, a survey of history is not necessary. Close reading requires reader to think critically and use perception skills while reading.
28True False PRACTICE QUIZ True 3. Perception involves using one’s mind as a processor with multiple capabilities.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.TrueAs a processor, the mind may (1) create, (2) retrieve, (3) modify, or (4) store data that may be publishable.
29True False PRACTICE QUIZ True 4. You may be a college reader if you are one who writes, edits or publishes perceptions for others to read.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.True
30True False PRACTICE QUIZ True 5. Key terms can help readers predict outcomes or expectations.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.TrueKey terms or cue words can help readers anticipate conflicts and resolutions.
316. A vigilant reader pays attention to cues. PRACTICE QUIZ6. A vigilant reader pays attention to cues.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.TrueA vigilant reader is observant, astute and discerning enough to pick up cues when reading.
32Quiz within a Quiz Answer: To Add or include PRACTICE QUIZ7. Context reading requires readers to (1) look for a balanced truth, (2) read between the lines when necessary, and (3) find ways to add their own ideas into what others have written.FalseTrueClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.FalseNo. Context reading has as its goal seeking the balanced truth, not trying to infuse one’s own ideas into other authors’ writings.Quiz within a Quiz Question: What do you think the word “infuse” means, based on context clues in the sentence? Click for the answer.Quiz within a Quiz Answer: To Add or include
33True False PRACTICE QUIZ True 8. Narration is a common rhetorical strategy that writers use to draw readers’ attention.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.TrueWriters use various rhetorical strategies to attract readers. Learning these strategies helps with reading comprehension.
34True False PRACTICE QUIZ False 9. An abridged dictionary provides readers with an uncondensed, exhaustive amount of information on every word in the English language.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.FalseAn abridged dictionary is shortened or condensed and may have selected information on selected words.
35True False PRACTICE QUIZ True 10. Writing can support or reflect reading comprehension.TrueFalseClick mouse or arrow for correct answer.TrueWriting journal entries, explications and reviews of literature can improve or prove reading comprehension. Conversely, what you write can also indicate that you do not understand what you have read.
36Bonus Question Read the following passage: Writing journal entries, explications and reviews of literature can often improve or support a college reader’s reading comprehension skills. Conversely, what a college reader writes and publishes may indicate that the reader does not truly understand what he or she has written. Therefore, a confused college reader may need to use a reading strategy such as the SQ3R method, or a reader may simply need to read the text again, underline key terms, and use a dictionary to locate definitions to underlined terms. Once the reader understands the meanings of key terms, he or she may choose to write and publish new journal entries, explications and reviews that prove that the college reader comprehends the text and wants to share his or her comprehension with other readers.(1) Based on your contextual reading of the above statements, what key terms would you choose to underline in the passage?(2) Also, define the word conversely based on your contextual reading of the passage.