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Close Reading... College Readers... Writing to prove that you understand every word that you read English/Reading Workshop Professor T. Castro.

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Presentation on theme: "Close Reading... College Readers... Writing to prove that you understand every word that you read English/Reading Workshop Professor T. Castro."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Close Reading... College Readers... Writing to prove that you understand every word that you read English/Reading Workshop Professor T. Castro

3 Workshop Objectives To improve your reading comprehension skills. To offer you a reading strategy. To improve your critical thinking skills and contextual reading (reasoning). To help you understand the importance of defining key terms when you read.

4 The General Purpose of this workshop is to help improve your reading comprehension skills. You must study (devote your attention to learning and the learning process) in order to comprehend concepts, especially at the college level. There are expectations that you as a college student can and will think at a higher level than the average grade- school student.

5 So... What is Comprehension? Comprehension is a major reading objective. Webster's Dictionary defines comprehension as the capacity for understanding fully; the act or action of grasping with the intellect." Actually, its OKAY not to grasp everything ! WAIT... Please continue to next slide...

6 Do you have to define every word to prove you understand? No. Understanding every word you read does not require that you define every word. If you tried to define every word, you would get bogged down in far too many details and never completely read anything. You might give up in frustration. Understanding what you read requires you to think as a wise reader. A wise reader is someone who can make sensible, balanced judgments and appropriately manage information as a resource (without wasting or under utilizing information). Example of information wasting/ overuse: -- Citing long quotes instead of paraphrasing. -- Presenting logical fallacies as if they are proven evidence. A wise reader is a critical reader – one able to apply critical thinking abilities: (1) analysis (compartmentalize), (2) synthesis (innovate), and (2) evaluation (judge or assess)

7 Defining key terms is critical to building comprehension. Key terms for this presentation are: 1. Close Reading 2. College Reader 3. Key Terms 4. Contextual Reading 5. Critical Thinking

8 Close Reading (Key Term 1) Close Reading is formal reading that requires more than just identifying words correctly. The reader must also be able to respond critically to the text. Close reading is concerned with what the language denotes (expresses outright) and also what it connotes (implies based on how the writer uses or presents information to readers). So, when close reading, ask yourself these questions: Is there dialogue or description presented? Is the tone humorous or serious? Is the style unique or have you seen other writers use that style? Is the language vague or straight to the point? Close reading does not require the reader to consider historical background or an authors writing motivations before reading.

9 Close Reading (cont.) Close reading thus involves paying attention to... Patterns – occurrences that repeat or follow a sequence Polarities – conditions or situations that create opposition / differences Problems – difficult situations, matters or people; need for resolution. Puzzles – difficulties or mysteries that require work or effort to solve or energy to make less complicated or manageable. Paradigms – changing courses of action or shifts in thought * Perception – application of senses (using the mind to process information) * Thinking, Feeling, acknowledging, gaining awareness *

10 Remember: Close reading involves perception. Perception is using ones mind as a processor with these multiple capabilities : (1) create, (2) retrieve, (3) modify, and (4) store data that may be publishable material. You may publish your perceptions in various forms, such as printed text, visual rhetoric / graphic art, or as oral speech.

11 What is a College Reader? (Key Term 2) Quite possibly, you are a college reader, if you a college student meeting one or more of these criteria (guidelines): You are a college student who enjoys reading. You are a subscriber: someone who contracts to receive and pay for a service or a certain number of issues of a publication You are a person who can read; a literate person You are a reviewer: someone who reads manuscripts and judges their suitability for publication You are a proofreader: someone who reads in order to find errors and mark corrections for revision. You lector: someone who reads the lessons in a church service; someone ordained in a minor order of the Church You lecture: a public lecturer at certain universities You are one who writes, edits or publishes perceptions for others to read. Source:

12 What are key terms? (Key Term 3) Key Terms are words that hint or indicate the focus of a speaker or writer. Key terms may also be referred to as a cue. A cue word should alert the mind to think in a particular direction. Cues have a predictive function in that they help the mind or heart anticipate an outcome or expectation, as well as an approaching conflict or possible resolution. The ability to spot cues makes you a powerful reader and writer. It proves you are vigilant (observant, discerning, astute).

13 What is Contextual Reading? (Key Term 4) Contextual Reading is reading in such a way that proves you have good sensory discernment skills and the ability to read between the lines, as well as separate facts from opinions. A contextual reader searches for a balanced truth, even in works of fiction or poetry. An effective contextual reader displays detection skills, seeing flaws as well as demonstrations of excellence in writing. (Example of a notable flaw: weak character development) (Example of notable excellence: Transitional flow of the language) An effective contextual reader with good sensory skills is one who looks for what is plausible (believable or reasonable) within the text and recognizes gaps in logic.

14 What is Critical Thinking? (Key Term 5) Critical Thinking requires application of higher order thinking or critical thinking skills: Analysis – breaking down information into understandable parts. Evaluation – making judgments based on a set of guidelines Synthesis – creating something new out of available resources.

15 How to Improve Critical Thinking & Reading Skill 1. Learn to Identify Themes such as: Family and Community Coming of Age (Rites of Passage) Politics and Society Class and Society Race and Society Gender and Society Culture and Myths Love and Loss Ethics and Value Systems Life and Death

16 How to Improve Critical Thinking & Reading Skill 2. Learn to Identify Common Rhetorical Strategies that Writers Use, such as: Narration (Storytelling; biography; autobiography) Description (Observation and detailed expository writing) Cause and Effect Definition (Expounding, Exemplifying) Persuasion (Argument or Rhetoric) Process Analysis Comparison/Contrast Source: Cain, K., Neulib, J., Ruffus, S., and Sharton, M. The Mercury Reader. Needhaam Heights, MA: Pearson, 2000.

17 How to Improve Critical Thinking & Reading Skill 3. Study reading theories and perspectives such as: Michael Foucault * Deconstruction -- Foucault believed that whether we are aware of it or not, literature is a reflection of the writers feelings and or even hidden assumptions about the world during the time in which the literature is written. Feminist *Focuses on writing to evoke change in the perception of and way of life of women. (Feminist theorist Helene Cixous) Karl Marx *– Marx believed that day-to-day occurrences in life impacted writers and publications. People, therefore, write about what concerns them. New Historicism is the belief that there is not much difference between literature and history. It thus focuses on the ideologies expressed in the text, such as, for example the expression of Marxist ideals in the text. Source: Cain, K., Neulib, J., Ruffus, S., and Sharton, M. The Mercury Reader. Needhaam Heights, MA: Pearson, 2000.

18 A Reading Strategy can help. The SQ3R Reading Strategy requires readers to... Survey Question Read Recite Review... the text

19 SQ3R Reading Strategy Survey (Scan) – Familiarize yourself with your textbook organization before beginning to read the entire text. Look at the following: 1. Titles and other headings 2. Visual Elements (Graphics / fonts that stand out) 3. List of Objectives 4. Self-check questions 5. Summary, if appropriate Soruce: pennfoster.edu /learn

20 SQ3R Reading Strategy Question - Turn the headings into questions. Why? This helps direct your reading and thought process. Look for answers to your questions. The better your questions are, the better will be your understanding of the material. Source: pennfoster.edu /learn

21 SQ3R Reading Strategy Read Begin to read the material slowly and carefully, one section at a time. Use a highlighter or a ballpoint pen to mark important points. Highlight (or underline) only important words/ phrases; avoid marking entire sentences. Soruce: pennfoster.edu /learn

22 SQ3R Reading Strategy Recite Before going to a new section, stop and repeat, either silently or aloud, the main points of what youve just read. Explaining concepts in your own words helps you remember what you read. Soruce: pennfoster.edu /learn

23 SQ3R Reading Strategy Review what you have read as soon as possible. Resurvey what youve read. Go over the notes youve written. Reread complicated or underlined/ highlighted passages. Soruce: pennfoster.edu /learn

24 Writing supports or proves Reading Comprehension. Explicate: Present detailed comments that reflect your understanding of what you have read. Discuss the organization, language presentation, and other elements of the writing. This proves you have thought about and understand what you have read. Journalize: Read and respond in writing to what you have read. Write about how what you read makes you feel. Write subjectively. This may prove you understand or can apply what you have read. Critical Review: assesses the value of what you have read and may prove that you understand what you read.

25 Use A Dictionary. Why? To help you understand what you read; It is a valuable study tool. Use a dictionary correctly. Survey it. Become familiar with what it has to offer you. Most dictionaries include the following information for each word: 1. Pronunciation 2. Part of speech 3. The etymology (Words history) 4. Origin date (date when the word first appeared in English) 5. Definition 6. Synonyms 7. Examples (sentences)

26 Use Which Dictionary? Recommended dictionaries for college students Unabridged (exhaustive / not abbreviated versions) Webster's Third New International Dictionary Random House Dictionary Abridged (abbreviated or condensed versinos) Random House College edition Webster's Collegiate Dictionary American Heritage Dictionary

27 PRACTICE QUIZ 1. When reading, you must look up every word to make sure you are interpreting the text correctly. True False False No. Understanding every word you read does not require that you define every word. You may get bogged down in details trying to define every word. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

28 PRACTICE QUIZ 2. Close reading requires the reader to consider historical background and the authors background before or while reading. True False False No, a survey of history is not necessary. Close reading requires reader to think critically and use perception skills while reading. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

29 PRACTICE QUIZ 3. Perception involves using ones mind as a processor with multiple capabilities. True False True As a processor, the mind may (1) create, (2) retrieve, (3) modify, or (4) store data that may be publishable. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

30 PRACTICE QUIZ 4. You may be a college reader if you are one who writes, edits or publishes perceptions for others to read. True False True Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

31 PRACTICE QUIZ 5. Key terms can help readers predict outcomes or expectations. True False True Key terms or cue words can help readers anticipate conflicts and resolutions. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

32 PRACTICE QUIZ 6. A vigilant reader pays attention to cues. True False True A vigilant reader is observant, astute and discerning enough to pick up cues when reading. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

33 PRACTICE QUIZ 7. Context reading requires readers to (1) look for a balanced truth, (2) read between the lines when necessary, and (3) find ways to add their own ideas into what others have written. True False False No. Context reading has as its goal seeking the balanced truth, not trying to infuse ones own ideas into other authors writings. Quiz within a Quiz Question: What do you think the word infuse means, based on context clues in the sentence? Click for the answer. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer. Quiz within a Quiz Answer: To Add or include

34 PRACTICE QUIZ 8. Narration is a common rhetorical strategy that writers use to draw readers attention. True False True Writers use various rhetorical strategies to attract readers. Learning these strategies helps with reading comprehension. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

35 PRACTICE QUIZ 9. An abridged dictionary provides readers with an uncondensed, exhaustive amount of information on every word in the English language. True False False An abridged dictionary is shortened or condensed and may have selected information on selected words. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

36 PRACTICE QUIZ 10. Writing can support or reflect reading comprehension. True False True Writing journal entries, explications and reviews of literature can improve or prove reading comprehension. Conversely, what you write can also indicate that you do not understand what you have read. Click mouse or arrow for correct answer.

37 Bonus Question Read the following passage: Writing journal entries, explications and reviews of literature can often improve or support a college readers reading comprehension skills. Conversely, what a college reader writes and publishes may indicate that the reader does not truly understand what he or she has written. Therefore, a confused college reader may need to use a reading strategy such as the SQ3R method, or a reader may simply need to read the text again, underline key terms, and use a dictionary to locate definitions to underlined terms. Once the reader understands the meanings of key terms, he or she may choose to write and publish new journal entries, explications and reviews that prove that the college reader comprehends the text and wants to share his or her comprehension with other readers. (1) Based on your contextual reading of the above statements, what key terms would you choose to underline in the passage? (2)Also, define the word conversely based on your contextual reading of the passage.

38 The END


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