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Modeling Academic Literacy for Teacher Candidates-a Three Level Process Jim Nichols, Ph.D. & Stuart Knapp, Ph.D. Nyack College School of Education April.

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Presentation on theme: "Modeling Academic Literacy for Teacher Candidates-a Three Level Process Jim Nichols, Ph.D. & Stuart Knapp, Ph.D. Nyack College School of Education April."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modeling Academic Literacy for Teacher Candidates-a Three Level Process Jim Nichols, Ph.D. & Stuart Knapp, Ph.D. Nyack College School of Education April 20, 2009

2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Much appreciation and credit to Dr. Harry Stein longtime friend, mentor, and colleague for his inspiration and professional insights into the field of Academic Literacy for over three decades.

3 Essential question: Do you teach or do you profess? Essential question: Which approach is a more effective way for our teacher candidates to attain knowledge, skills, and dispositions for teaching success?

4 Do you assign and assess? Do your non-education colleagues assign and assess? Is this teaching or testing? Is it possible to alter our colleagues teaching practices?

5 There are essentially only two reasons why our teacher candidates dont read and write in our classes Do you know what they are?

6 They cant In which case we need to facilitate and guide those teacher candidates to learn the material.

7 Or they wont In that case we need to motivate them to do our assignments Question: Do you as a mature adult professor avoid or do things that you dislike? Often if teacher candidates cant do the assignment they wont try because of negative experiences and emotional overlay.

8 Modeling Academic Literacy for Teacher Candidates-a Three level Process Abstract This presentation grows out of a massive body of research on literacy over the past 40 years, little of which unfortunately addresses its applicability to teacher education. This paucity of literature exists despite research, which indicates that professors often feel under prepared to provide the academic literacy needed for their students to achieve the knowledge, skills and dispositions for effective teaching.

9 The premises, of this presentation are the following: All ed faculty and teacher candidates are users of academic literacy. A teaching model, based on academic literacy principles, is the most effective way to present and retain educational knowledge, skills and dispositions. Ed faculty can functionally integrate academic literacy strategies which enhance the attainment of classroom goals. Ed faculty can achieve superior learning from their teacher candidates, without increasing their preparation time to do so. Teacher candidates achieve best when their professors address their dominant learning styles and intelligences in their instruction and assignments within a viable academic literacy model.

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11 Gardiner (1998) and others address the research in an extensive student survey regarding United States college instructional practices. The research is startling: 70-90% of professors use traditional lecture strategy over 90% of the time. Research indicates that lecture is only 5-10% effective in achieving long-term learning and knowledge retention. Only 14% of college students say that they had ever been taught to study in college or high school (almost all of that in high school). Critical thinking, a major goal in post-secondary syllabi, composes much less than 10% of the actual college curriculum. How College Students Learn vs. How Professors Teach

12 Do you have a teaching paradigm that you model to your teacher candidates? Are your knowledge, skills, and dispositions consistent with this model in your teacher preparation classes and supervision of student teachers? Are your rubrics and evaluative instruments consistent with your teaching model? Modeling Academic Literacy-a Practical Paradigm Some key questions to answer:

13 Do teacher candidates reflect application of this model in teacher preparation classes and in student teaching lessons and units? Is this model shared with and accepted by non-education faculty? Modeling Academic Literacy-a Practical Paradigm

14 Academic Literacy Integration Model Nichols Academic Literacy Teaching Model Planning Informal Diagnosis Preteaching Directed Teaching NonText Instruction Writing & Projects Review & Reinforcement Assessment GoalsProcess MasteryContent Mastery NCATE Standards

15 LITERACY INSTRUCTION CONTENT K 16 CONTRAST BETWEEN DIRECT LITERACY INSTRUCTION AND CONTENT DIFFICULTY The amount of literacy instruction decreases as the need for these skills increases.

16 LECTURE 5% AUDIO-VISUAL 20% DEMONSTRATION 30% PRACTICE BY DOING 75% TEACHING OTHERS 90% Place your estimates of the % of retained knowledge next to each method. READING 10 % DISCUSSION GROUP 50%

17 TWO TEMPLATES FOR TRADITIONAL RESEARCH ASSIGNMENTS FOLLOWING THE ACADEMIC LITERACY MODEL Please note: Clarity of assignment Enabling suggestions Specificity of grading

18 Assignment with Enabling Suggestions and Holistic Criteria for Evaluating Written Responses Assignment: Student Instructions: Select a poem that you feel spoke to the problems of British society and influenced that society in a positive manner. In an introductory paragraph, summarize the poem. In a second paragraph, explain the societal problems addressed in the poem. In a third paragraph, explain how the poem affected society. Use specific quotes from the poem and specific details from the authors life and time period as stated in your textbook. You may also use additional reference books from my bookshelf. Criteria: RatingDescription 6A 6 paper will be outstanding in all aspects. The selected poem will be summarized briefly, yet fully. The writer will clearly show, by concrete example (i.e. specific quotes), how the poem spoke to society. The four-paragraph structure will be strictly maintained as required by the assignment. The paper will show excellent style and be accurately written with regard to spelling, punctuation, usage, and sentence structure. 5A 5 paper will be strong in all aspects. The selected poem will be summarized briefly, yet fairly completely. The writer will tend to show by concrete example (i.e. specific quotes), how the poem spoke to society. The four-paragraph structure will be reasonably maintained as required by the assignment. The paper will show a sense of style and be, for the most part, accurately written with regard to spelling, punctuation, usage, and sentence structure. 4A 4 paper will be adequate in all aspects. The selected poem will be summarized briefly, but the writer may forget one or two significant details. The writer will occasionally show, by concrete example (i.e. specific quotes), how the poem spoke to society. The four-paragraph structure will occasionally be disregarded. A sense of style may be absent. The paper will show occasional error in spelling, punctuation, usage, and sentence structure. 3A 3 paper will be flawed in one or two aspects. The selected poem will be summarized in unneeded length or the writer may forget many important details. The writer will tend to avoid concrete examples (i.e. specific quotes), although he or she may include one or two. The essay will either be in one complete paragraph or in many small paragraphs. No attempt at style will be made. The paper has frequent errors in spelling, punctuation, usage, and sentence structure. 2A 2 paper will be seriously flawed. The selected poem will be badly and inaccurately summarized. There will be no concrete examples. The paragraph structure will be random and chaotic, totally disorganized. The paper has so many errors that it is virtually unreadable. 1A 1 paper fails to respond to the assignment.

19 Writing Assignment with Analytical Rating Scale: Using at least 3 sources (2 books and 1 website), write a research paper on the literary work you have selected. Your textbook should be referenced, but does not count as one of your primary sources. The research paper must be 5-7 pages typewritten (excluding the cover page and bibliography) in MLA format. Arial and Times New Roman 12 point will be the only fonts accepted. The paper must include a paragraph of introduction that includes a thesis statement expressing the purpose (s) of your paper. There should be a minimum of four clearly definable sections to your paper. Section 1 should include a summary of the literary work you have selected. Summaries should be brief but thorough. Section 2 will include the problems in society that the author sought to address with his/her work. Section 3 should include specific passages from the work and how they addressed the problems of society. Section 4 should include your conclusions of whether the work achieved the effect desired by the author. Were any reforms or changes made in society as a result of this piece? Is this work relevant to our society today? Rating Scale Organization/ Content:45 points Introduction/Strong thesis statement10 points Section 1 – Summary 5 points Section 2 – Problems addressed by this work10 points Section 3 – Specific citations from work in reference to problems10 points Section 4 – Conclusion: Effect of work/Relevance to our society10 points Documentation: 25 points Use of 3 source5 points Synthesis of information10 points Bibliography10 points Style: 30 points Correctness of Language and Convention10 points Sentence Variety: Length and Structure10 points Appropriate Use of Vocabulary5 points Manuscript Appearance (MLA format used properly)5 points Plagiarism will result in the research paper being rejected.

20 HISTORY PIECES A PREWRITING FOR COMPOSING ACTIVITY PRE-TEST After completing a unit on The American Revolution, I asked teacher candidates to compose an essay on its causes for their final exam. I then had them complete the following History Pieces chart for their post- essay. The results follow. TIMEPLACESIMPORTANT EVENTPEOPLEADJECTIVESACTION VERBS North AmericaFrench and Indian WarFought 1763West of Appalachian Mountains Proclamation of 1763Angered After the French and Indian War American Colonies TaxesRaised 1765 Colonies AmericanStamp ActBoycotted 1770BostonBoston MassacreKilled 1773BostonBoston Tea PartyDumped 1775Lexington and Concord American RevolutionBegan

21 PRE-ESSAY: TRADITIONAL TEACHING (Causes of American Revolution) The causes of the American Revolution were simply causes by the British and the rules that they wanted Americans to follow. They tried to put high taxes on American imports and exports. Basically, the British were trying to use Americans not only to gain money, but to spread their power. They also forced Americans to house British military men in their houses and to feed them. This was a huge task for an American house to take on, because food and other supplies were scarce during this time. The Americans knew that they had to do something, because they were getting taken advantage of. The Americans had to go to war, and this was the beginning of the revolutionary war. POST ESSAY: FOLLOWING HISTORY PIECES The American Revolution started off as some minor disagreements between the colonists and the British. Soon these minor disagreements turned into major problems that caused a revolutionary war that spread not only across America, but also too many European nations. The first major cause of the revolution was the imposing of taxes on the colonists. The Sugar Act which actually decreased the taxes on molasses, but then increased and added other taxes on imports coming from Britain. This new act enforced taxes even more and added taxes on silks, wine, and potash. The British then angered the colonists even more by enforcing The Quartering Act. This act ordered all colonists to house and feed the British forces when they needed a safe place to stay. The colonists were angry because their homes were being forced open by strangers. The biggest cause, I believe would be the Boston Tea Party. The British had just enforced a new tea tax, this tax was to help pay for the damage done during the French and Indian Wars. The Colonists were so sick of being taken advantage of that they dressed up as Indians, went on a British ship filled with 90, 000 pounds of tea. These men dressed up as Indians to mock the British, and they took all 90,000 pounds of tea and threw it overboard into the ocean. The British were incredibly angry and this pushed the colonists and the British into a revolution. The colonists could not put up with getting treated so poorly anymore. There had to be a revolution, because the British were too stubborn in their ways.

22 TWO EXAMPLES AND TEMPLATES FOR WRITING ASSIGNMENTS PRE(TRADITIONAL) VS POST (ACADEMIC LITERACY PROCEDURES ) Please note that the following are provided Clarity of assignment Enabling suggestions Information organizers Paragraph structure

23 PRE/WITHOUT ESSAY PIECES JW. There are many differences that exist in Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles. Multiple Intelligences has to do with the way one cognitively handles situations in a particular environment or the way their personalities are affected. For example, having a personality of extravert and introvert are in relation to that of multiple intelligences. Learning styles are the way one chooses to learn. Whether it is verbal or visual, these are both examples of different learning styles. Learning Styles aid in understanding material and bringing it to a level in which the information can be processed. In the future, I will be able to use these two theories to meet the diverse needs of my teacher candidates. When it comes to the learning styles theory, my lessons will be centered on an array of learning styles. The classroom activities or work will not be focused on one particular area, but there will be a combination. For example, a Christmas activity could include a field trip (Kinesthetic tactile), the making of a collage (special), and the viewing of a movie or documenting (Visual). In the classroom, the idea of multiple intelligences will be used to also meet the diverse needs of my student. Again, my lessons will not bias towards one individuals style of learning or how well information is processed.

24 TheoristTheoryDescription of Theory Pages in text) Important DetailsApplication to My Teaching Binet and Stern General IntelligenceIQ Testing 117Single intelligence GardnerMultiple IntelligencesEight Types 123Teaching to dominant intelligence DunnLearning StylesStimuli/Elements of Learning( Model) Modifying conditions for learning SternbergTriarchic Intelligences.Analytical, creative, practical Matching expert teacher and student by type KaganImpulsive/Reflective Styles Conceptual Tempo 133 Reflective learners tend to do better Marton et alDeep/surface StylesActive/passive approaches to learning 133 Deep/active learning is superior Salovey- Mayer Emotional IntelligenceFour aspects MCESIT 122 Perceiving, understanding, facilitating, managing Feist et alPersonalityBig five factors OCEAN 135 Adaptation Chess & Thomas TemperamentBehavioral style and response 136 Easy, difficult, slow to warm up child.

25 POST-ESSAY AFTER ESSAY PIECES Describe the individual differences which exist in Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles. Explain how you will use these theories to meet the diverse needs of your teacher candidates. There are many differences that exist between Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles. Learning styles has to do with the environment or condition in which one finds more comfortable to learn. These conditions are stimuli, whereas, the specific types of each condition are known as elements. Multiple Intelligences has to do with the way information is cognitively perceived or understood. There are various types of intelligences that can suit ones personality. There are five types of stimuli when it comes to learning styles. According to Dr. Rita and Kenneth Dunn, they are: environmental, emotional, sociological, physical, and psychological. One, who chooses to learn under environmental stimuli, can learn in sound, light, temperature, and/or design. The emotional condition requires an individual to work with motivation, persistence, responsibility, and/or structure. Next there are those who prefer to learn in a sociological environment. This means that that an individual can work by themselves, in pairs, with there peers, team, with adults, and/or a variation. Many individuals choose to learn in a physical environment where they are perceptual, have to have a food intake, work better under allotted time, or the prefer to work when they are mobile. Finally, learning in psychological manner is also acceptable. These individuals are global, analytical, hemispheric, impulsive, and or reflective learners. In addition, there are also various types of multiple intelligences. According to the theorist, Gardner, there are eight types of intelligences that teach or focus on the dominant intelligence. Along side Gardner, there was a theorist by the name of Sternberg. Sternberg believed that there are three kinds of learners and teachers; analytic, creative, and practical. He called these types of intelligences the Triarchic Intelligences. In this theory, the expert teacher and the student were both matched by type. Lastly, there is emotional intelligence. This theory has four main aspects that elaborate on the importance of how emotion affects one cognitive function. Emotional Intelligence is the way one perceives, understands, facilitates, and manages there inner feelings. I would definitely use these theories to meet the diverse needs of my teacher candidates in the classroom. When it comes to learning styles, I would make it my business to try and figure out each childs preferred condition of learning. For example, if one student has difficulty working by themselves, I would pair them up with someone else or have the class work in groups for that particular activity. I would also make an effort to motivate and encourage the class a whole even if some teacher candidates may not need it. When it comes to multiple intelligences, I would pay particular attention to each student and they manner in which they receive information. By doing this, I will be able to see the pace of learning for each student or even the class as a whole. According to a variety of theorists, there have been numerous differences between multiple intelligences and learning styles. These differences include the way individuals receive and register the information given to them. They also include the conditions or environments in which one desires to learn.

26 EDU332 World War 1 Essay Pretest (Without Paragraph Frame): World War 1 developed from a lot of tension that had existed in Europe for many years. Nationalism, militarism, and secret treaties are just a few of the reasons why Europe began fighting. The final event that made Europe go to war was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungry in There were a lot of technological advances made during WWI and a lot of new weapons were made. The Germans made machine guns, poison gas, and U-boats. WWI was also the first time airplanes were used for military purposes. The most popular type of fighting during WWI was trench warfare. Trenches are long, narrow cuts in the ground in which the soldier lived and fought from. The United States joined the war in 1917 on the Allies side, after Germany attacked three for their ships. In 1918 Germany finally agreed to a cease fire and the war ended.

27 Sample 2 (Essay type: Time Order/Sequence-Reverse Order) Assignment: Write a reverse time order essay summarizing the major events of World War One. Use the transition words and question prompts to write your essay. Do not attempt to fill in the blanks. This is an essay, not a Cloze exercise. At the end of What event?, what happened was that What happened? Previous to this What happened? Before this What happened? The entire chain of events had begun for a number of reasons including What reasons? Some prominent incidents, which helped to trigger the conflict, were What incidents?

28 Post-test (With Paragraph Frame) : At the end of World War 1 in 1918, what happened was that the Treaty of Versailles was signed and Germany had to pay money for the damages they had caused. They also set up a League of Nations to help fix any problems with the treaty. Previous to this the United States joined the war in 1917 after Germany attacked three of their merchant ships. The United States joined on the Allies side to protect neutral shipping, and make the world safe for democracy. Before this the United States had remained neutral and provided supplies to both the Allies and the Central Powers. Both sides used trench warfare and developed new technologies and weapons to fight the war, such as machine guns, poison gas, U- boats, and airplanes for military purposes. The entire chain of events had begun for a number of reasons including a lot of tension in Europe, nationalism, militarism, and secret treaties. Nationalism caused smaller countries to desire independence, militarism resulted from many countries building up their armies, and secret treaties between different countries caused tension. Some prominent incidents, which helped to trigger the conflict, were the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungry in Austria-Hungry accused Serbia and declared war of them. Many countries began taking sides and the Great War began. Rubric: Pre-Test Post-Test # of events (ideas) 9 16 Sequence of eventsbeginning-endend-beginning Importance of eventsgeneral specific Accuracy of eventsaccurateaccurate with more details

29 EDU332 WWI Paragraph Frame-Sample for use on Overhead Slide Content Area: American HistoryTopic: World War One Assignment: Essay (Summary: Reverse Time order Pattern) At the end of World War 1 what happened was that the various peace treaties, such as the Treaty of Versailles, radically changed the face of Europe and Began many social, political and economic changes. Previous to this German resources had been exhausted and German morale had collapsed. This had resulted in Germany surrendering and the war ending without a single truly decisive battle having been fought. Before this the Great War had raged from chiefly in Europe among most of the great Western powers. The entire chain of events had begun for a number of reasons including imperialistic, territorial and economic rivalries which had been growing since the late nineteenth century. Some prominent incidents, which helped trigger the conflict, were the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary in 1914 and the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915.

30 CATEGORY4 - Above Standards3 - Meets Standards 2- Approaches Standards1 - Below Standards0-Unacceptable Focus or Thesis Statement The thesis statement names the topic of the essay and outlines the main points to be discussed. The thesis statement names the topic of the essay. The thesis statement outlines some or all of the main points to be discussed but does not name the topic. The thesis statement does not name the topic and does not preview what will be discussed. The thesis statement is misssing SequencingArguments and support are provided in a logical order that makes it easy and interesting to follow the author's train of thought. Arguments and support are provided in a fairly logical order that makes it reasonably easy to follow the author's train of thought. A few of the support details or arguments are not in an expected or logical order, distracting the reader and making the essay seem a little confusing. Many of the support details or arguments are not in an expected or logical order, distracting the reader and making the essay seem very confusing. Events are listed in random order Evidence and Examples All of the evidence and examples are specific, relevant and explanations are given that show how each piece of evidence supports the author's position. Most of the evidence and examples are specific, relevant and explanations are given that show how each piece of evidence supports the author's position. At least one of the pieces of evidence and examples is relevant and has an explanation that shows how that piece of evidence supports the author's position. Most evidence and examples are irrelevant AND/OR are not explained well. No relevant evidence or examples are provided AccuracyAll supportive facts and statistics are reported accurately. Almost all supportive facts and statistics are reported accurately. Most supportive facts and statistics are reported accurately. Most supportive facts and statistics were inaccurately reported. No supportive facts and statistics were accurately reported Major Ideas/EventsAll of the major ideas and events in the model essay are addressed. Most of the major ideas and events in the model essay are addressed Some of the major ideas and events in the model essay are addressed Few of the major ideas and events in the model essay are addressed None of the major ideas and events in the model essay are addressed Paragraph PatternThe essay completely meets the paragraph pattern of the assignment,i.e. Reverse Sequence Pattern. The essay mostly meets the paragraph pattern of the assignment,i.e. Reverse Sequence Pattern. The essay partly meets the paragraph pattern of the assignment,i.e. Reverse Sequence Pattern. The essay minimally meets the paragraph pattern of the assignment,i.e. Reverse Sequence Pattern. The essay does not meet the paragraph pattern of the assignment. WWI REVERSE SEQUENCE ESSAY

31 SCENARIO /PERSONAL VOICE WRITING EDG511 DR J NICHOLS SPRING 2009 REQUIRED COMPONENTS OF A GOOD CONTENT AREA WRITING ASSIGNMENT VOICE/PERSPECTIVE: WHO ARE YOU (THE WRITER)? AUDIENCE: TO WHOM ARE YOU WRITING? GENRE: WHAT TYPE OF DOCUMENT ARE YOU WRITING? (LETTER TO THE EDITOR, POSTCARD, TELEGRAM, ETC.) THE FORMAT, TONALITY ETC MUST BE APPROPRIATE FOR THE GENRE. SUBJECT MATTER: WHAT CONTENT ARE YOU TO INCLUDE IN THE DOCUMENT? HOW LONG MUST IT BE? IT MUST BE CONSISTENT WITH THE CONTEXT OF THE MATERIAL BEING STUDIED PUBLICATION/PRESENTATION: HOW WILL THEY PRESENT THEIR PRODUCT? SMALL GROUP? ENTIRE CLASS? ACTUALLY SENT TO A PERSON? NEWSPAPER? CONTEST? PERSONALIZATION: ALLOW CHOICES OF WRITING ACTIVITIES TO MEET THE MULTIPLE LEARNING STYLES, INTERESTS AND NEEDS OF teacher candidates PRACTICE SCENARIO WRITING: YOU ARE AN OBSERVER OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION IN PHILADELPHIA.HOW WOULD YOUR LETTER DIFFER IF YOU WROTE TO: YOUR MOTHER YOUR GIRLFRIEND THE EDITOR OF YOUR LOCAL NEWSPAPER YOUR BROTHER

32 Good topic/thesis sentences and closing/echo/summary sentences; A minimum of five relevant subtopics and supporting details (please number each subtopic to facilitate grading of essay); Each essay should take up approximately one typed page Exceptions to aforementioned will be accepted for appropriate use of comparison charts, illustrations, graphic organizers, etc. Essays should include practical application to your teaching, unit plan and other instructional experience. All essays must emphasize the interrelationship among content, pedagogy and NCTM/NCTE/NCSS standards 1.Using Chapter 9 of the Olson text as a primary resource, describe how research papers will be utilized in your future classroom/current unit plan. In your first section explain the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional research paper; 1.2 In your second section describe the two alternatives presented by Olson 1.3 In your final section explain which alternative or modification you chose to incorporate into your unit plan and why. Briefly state the purposes of your research paper in whole or in part. Be sure you include all of Olsons steps/stages. 2.Using Chapter 5 as a reference: Begin by contrasting learning to read and write with reading and writing to learn and think. Secondly explain the Only Two Reasons why teacher candidates may not read and write in your future classroom; finally describe the methods you will use to overcome those impediments. 3.Explain how authentic diagnosis and assessment contrasts with the traditional model. Define the different types of diagnostic and assessment techniques learned and how they fit into your philosophy of teaching. How will your class prepare teacher candidates for the NYS assessments without sacrificing the integrity of your curriculum? Integrate Chapter 12 into your answer. 4.Using Chapter 2 for reference, explain how you would scaffold or construct a literacy based unit. Use both the Nichols and Olson models and explain how you used them to develop your topical or thematic unit plan Discuss whether you agree with all the components or if how you would modify or change them to fit your teaching style. 5.Your professor has repeatedly emphasized that preteaching is the single most important aspect of effective instruction in any subject. List and define the favorite preteaching techniques you have learned for both reading and writing activities. Explain how they fit into your teaching philosophy/style. Describe how they were used in your unit plan. Incorporate relevant portions of Chapter 1 into this response. Traditional Assessment: Final Exam EDU332 5 Essays 10 points each-in order to receive full credit you must provide:

33 MOST ACADEMIC LITERACY IDEAS WILL WORK REGARDLESS OF YOUR TEACHING STYLE OR MODE OF PRESENTATION

34 SOME OTHER PROVEN AND EASY TO APPLY SUGGESTIONS INCLUDE INTERACTIVE NOTEBOOKS GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS CBRT(CURRICULUM-BASED READERS THEATER) NUMEROUS PRE-TEACHING IDEAS ALTERNATIVE RESEARCH ASSIGNMENTS :

35 Q & A A FINAL STUDENT SELF-ASSESSMENT METHOD MS WORD READABILITY FORMULA IN SPELLING AND GRAMMAR TOOL Well be glad to PowerPoint to you in attendance. Please us at nyack.edu


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