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Welcome to our show, “Grains Are for Brains

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1 Welcome to our show, “Grains Are for Brains
Welcome to our show, “Grains Are for Brains.” This show, by Food and Health Communications, Inc., will help you appreciate the importance of whole grains in your diet and help you find easy ways to increase your whole grain consumption.

2 What Is a Grain? A grain is a seed or a fruit of a cereal grass
Grains are classified as complex carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates are chains of glucose, a simple sugar, linked together in long chains When you eat a complex carbohydrate, enzymes in your intestine break it down into glucose Pictured here is blue corn meal. The important thing about this slide is to show that grains break down into glucose, the body’s fuel.

3 Glucose Fuels the Brain
The brain prefers to use glucose for energy When levels of glucose in the blood fall, it can become difficult to concentrate You may feel weak You may feel nauseated You may feel confused You can probably think of times when you felt as if your blood sugar were low and you were running out of energy.

4 Glucose Fuels the Brain
In rats, the more cognitive power required for a task, the more brain glucose is depleted Elderly people who drank a glucose drink recalled almost twice as much from a narrative prose passage as those who drank one with saccharin The key ingredient for better brain function is glucose, which boosts people’s cognitive performance, according to psychologists Paul Gold, PhD, and Donna Korol, PhD, of Binghamton University, and Carol Manning, PhD, of the University of Virginia. In research described in a 1998 article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (vol. 67, pp. 764S­771S), they found that it particularly improves people’s adeptness at tasks involving memory and attention.

5 Fuel Your Brain Any carbohydrate can supply the needed glucose for the brain, but foods high in fiber are the best choice because fiber has so many health benefits Low-fat carbohydrates are the best foods for cognitive function Fat can stall the energizing effects of glucose Whole grains are a great source of low-fat carbohydrates that are also high in fiber The health benefits of fiber will be discussed later.

6 Today You Will Learn… The parts of a whole grain
What are refined grains? Health benefits of whole grains The truth to this statement: “I am trying to lose weight, so I want to watch my carbs.” Examples of whole grains Here is what we will cover today in our show. Take notes – there might be a quiz at the end!

7 Parts of a Whole Grain Here you will learn the parts of a whole grain.
Pictured here are rolled oats – good old-fashioned oatmeal!

8 What Are the Parts of a Whole Grain?
Bran Germ Endosperm This diagram shows you the three parts of a wheat kernel.

9 Bran Outer layers of grain kernel Contains: Fiber B Vitamins Protein
Trace Minerals Bran is 14% of the kernel weight. It is included in whole-wheat flour and is also available separately. Of the nutrients in whole wheat, the bran contains a small amount of protein, larger quantities of the B-complex vitamins listed above, trace minerals and indigestible cellulose material, also called dietary fiber.

10 Endosperm Starchy portion of grain kernel Contains: Protein
Complex Carbohydrate Iron Some B Vitamins The endosperm is about 83% of the kernel weight for wheat. It is the source of white flour. The endosperm contains the greatest share of the protein in the whole kernel.

11 Germ Embryo of kernel Contains: Vitamin E B Vitamins and Folate Fiber
Iron, Magnesium, Chromium, Potassium, Manganese, Copper, Selenium Phytochemical: Phytosterols The germ is 2.5% of the kernel weight. The germ is the embryo, or sprouting section, of the seed. It is usually separated because of the fat that limits the keeping quality of flour. Of the nutrients in whole wheat, the germ contains minimal quantities of protein, but a greater share of B-complex vitamins and trace minerals. Wheat germ can be purchased separately and is included in whole-wheat flour.

12 What are refined grains?
This section will help define the difference between refined grains and whole grains. Pictured here is barley.

13 What Are Refined Grains?
Refined grains are made from the endosperm They have the germ and bran removed Examples: White flour White rice Unfortunately, these are very readily available, and most people have grown to like their palatability.

14 What Is a Refined Grain? Removing the germ and bran also removes fiber, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals This is done by manufacturers to increase palatability and storage life Manufacturers remove the germ and fiber to make their products have a longer shelf life and be more appealing for taste and consumption. Unfortunately, they shortchange the nutritional aspects of the foods they are making.

15 This slide compares white flour to whole-wheat flour per cup
This slide compares white flour to whole-wheat flour per cup. Notice how the whole-wheat flour has 227% more vitamins and minerals, more fiber and fewer calories.

16 Take a look at this slide
Take a look at this slide. See the difference in nutrients between white flour (white bars) and whole-grain flour (grain bars).

17 Did you know? Refined white flour has almost the same calorie density as granulated sugar? Speaker – you might want to take a minute to explain the concept of calorie density. This is a way of comparing foods according to how many calories they contain by weight. French fries are 1,395 calories per pound, while a baked potato contains just 421 calories per pound – it has a higher moisture and fiber content, while the French fries have a higher fat content. Surprisingly, sugar and white flour are not that far apart when it comes to calorie density – this is because they have a low moisture content and contain little, if any, fiber. This is why individuals should choose cooked whole grains more often – they have a high fiber and high moisture content – just like fruits and vegetables! = 1,666 calories per pound 1,755 calories per pound

18 Health Benefits of Whole Grains
You will learn the health benefits of whole grains in this section. Pictured here is brown rice.

19 Whole Grains Have a Health Claim!
“Diets rich in whole grain foods and other plant foods and low in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease and some cancers.” – Food and Drug Administration-allowed health claim Contains all portions of the grain kernel Contains 51% whole-grain ingredient(s) or more by weight per reference amount customarily consumed Meets the general requirements for a healthful food – low in fat, etc. This health claim specifies whole-grain foods help in the fight against chronic diseases. More than 50 studies support the link between a diet rich in whole grains and reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancers. (FDA – July 1999)

20 Whole Grains: The Base of a Healthy Diet
Provide: Carbohydrates – body’s main source of energy Fiber Vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals Naturally low in fat and sodium Whole grains are an important part of a healthy diet. Without this base you will be missing fiber and important nutrients for your health that are not found in other foods. It is important to have a variety of the right foods and a variety of whole grains! Whole grains should be the base of a healthy diet. Studies have shown that diets with plenty of plant-based foods, such as whole grains, legumes, fruits and vegetables, can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, certain cancers, osteoporosis, obesity, hypertension and diabetes.

21 Whole Grains Benefit Your Health
Fiber – Decreases risk for: Heart Disease Diabetes Cancer Helps with: Weight Control Digestive Health Health authorities around the world all recommend eating more whole grains because the scientific evidence shows their benefits when it comes to health. By switching to whole grains, you will greatly increase your fiber intake. “Whole-grain cereals, fruits and vegetables are the preferred sources of dietary fiber.” – Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases, World Health Organization Report, Geneva 2003

22 More Health Benefits of Whole Grains
Lower Calorie Density: Makes you feel full Decreases hunger Reduces calories Aids weight loss Cooked whole grains are lower in calorie density than refined grains – they can really jump-start your weight loss plan!! “Energy-dense and micronutrient-poor foods tend to be processed foods that are high in fat and/or sugars. Low energy-dense foods, such as fruit, legumes, vegetables and whole grain cereals, are high in dietary fiber and water.” – WHO Report

23 How Many Whole Grains per Day?
Dietary Guidelines for Americans call for at least half of your grain servings to come from whole grains Consuming at least half the recommended grain servings as whole grains is important, for all ages, at each calorie level, to meet the fiber recommendation. Consuming at least 3 ounce-equivalents of whole grains per day can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, may help with weight maintenance, and may lower risk for other chronic diseases. Thus, at lower calorie levels, adults should consume more than half (specifically, at least 3 ounce equivalents) of whole grains per day. “Consuming at least 3 ounce-equivalents of whole grains per day can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, may help with weight maintenance, and may lower risk for other chronic diseases. .” – 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

24 “Only 8 percent met the recommendation to eat at least three servings of whole grains per day.”
You can see that most people are eating enough grains, but they are not eating enough whole grains – definitely enough room for improvement here. Source: Linda E. Cleveland et al., “Dietary Intake of Whole Grains,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 3, 331S-338S (2000) The authors conclude, “This data is from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals survey by the USDA. Thirty-six percent averaged less than one whole grain serving per day based on two days of intake data. Only 8 percent met the recommendation to eat at least three servings per day. Yeast breads and breakfast cereals each provided almost one-third of the whole grain servings; grain-based snacks provided about one-fifth and less than one-tenth came from quick breads, pasta, rice, cakes, cookies, pies, pastries and miscellaneous grains. Whole-grain consumers had significantly better nutrient profiles than non-consumers, including higher intakes of vitamins and minerals and lower intakes of total fat, saturated fat and added sugars.” Source: Linda E. Cleveland et al,, “Dietary Intake of Whole Grains,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 19, no. 3, 331S-338S (2000)

25 “I am trying to lose weight, so I want to watch my carbs.”
Energy balance – meaning the balance between calories consumed, versus calories expended in daily living, sleeping and exercising – is what counts. No matter if you eat protein or carbohydrates, if you consume too many calories, your body will store the excess fat calories as BODY FAT!! Pictured here is Wheatena – a whole-grain version of cream of wheat. “Whether your body weight goes up or down depends on energy balance and not the ratio of fat to carbohydrate to protein in the diet. If you eat excess calories, your body will store some of the fat you eat as body fat.” – May 2004 Communicating Food for Health Newsletter

26 Is This True? Many popular diet books claim that carbohydrates are fattening. Many people ask, “How many carbs do I have to eat to lose weight.” Are they right? Is there any merit to the claims of popular fad diet authors.

27 But…Success from the National Weight Control Registry Says…
Thousands who maintain a weight loss of 30 pounds or more for at least a year Eat a diet that is low in fat and high in carbohydrate AND they have high levels of physical activity1 Researchers interviewed thousands of people who lost more than 30 pounds and kept it off for a full year – the bottom line of success is to eat a diet low in fat and high in carbohydrate and get plenty of exercise!! Here is the Web page for the National Weight Control Registry: Recruitment for the registry is ongoing. If you are at least 18 years of age and have maintained at least a 30-pound weight loss for at least one year, you can register. 1 Klem ML, Wing RR, McGuire MT, Seagle HM, Hill JO. “A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weight loss.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:

28 Low Carbs Do Not Work Long Term
Less than 1% of the participants in the NWCR have used a low-carb diet.1 With Dr. Atkins’ book, Dr. Atkins’ New Diet Revolution (1992, 1999) selling more than 10 million copies worldwide, you would think this number would be much higher.2 Dr. Atkins’ book has been out since The sad fact is that we are seeing more overweight people, not fewer, since that time. So many people are trying low-carb fad diets. The truth is that these diets are not successful over the long-term and they are hazardous to your health! 1 Klem ML, Wing RR, McGuire MT, Seagle HM, Hill JO. “A descriptive study of individuals successful at long-term maintenance of substantial weigh loss.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66: 2

29 Low Carbs Equal Higher Body Fat
An examination of popular diets found: The Body Mass Indexes (BMI) were significantly lower for men and women on a high-carbohydrate diet The highest BMIs were noted for those on a low-carbohydrate diet.1 So many people are trying low-carb fad diets. The truth is that these diets are not successful over the long term, and they are hazardous to your health! 1 Kennedy ET, Bowman SA, Spence JT, et al. ”Popular diets: correlation to health, nutrition, and obesity.” J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101:411-20

30 Let’s Eat! This section will help you learn how to put more whole grains into your diet. Pictured here is whole-wheat spaghetti.

31 How to Find Whole Grains
Look at the ingredient list Ingredients are listed by weight Foods with whole grains listed first are a good source of whole grains The first ingredient list is from Food for Life Ezekiel breads – these are a whole-grain bread found in whole foods type markets. The second label is for whole-grain Wonder Bread. Note how they both contain whole grains as their first ingredient.

32 How to Find Whole Grains
Look for the FDA-allowed health claim Foods with this claim must meet certain criteria Here is an example of an FDA-allowed health claim for a whole-grain product.

33 Look and see that even lasagna noodles come in a whole-wheat version!
grams The best and easiest way to use more whole grains is to use them in place of refined grains you are already eating. Here are a few ideas. Look and see that even lasagna noodles come in a whole-wheat version!

34 Examples of Whole Grains
Amaranth Barley Brown rice Buckwheat Bulgur Corn Kamut Millet Oatmeal Quinoa Spelt Teff Triticale Whole-grain pasta Whole wheat Whole-wheat couscous Wild rice Look at all the neat new foods you get to try!! Don’t limit your grain consumption to white bread and crackers!! “Look at all the new foods you get to try!”

35 Easy Ways to Enjoy Whole Grains
Let us show you ways to liven up your kitchen with whole grains. Pictured here are a variety of whole-grain breads purchased in a whole foods store: whole-wheat pita, whole-grain raisin bread, whole-wheat lavash, whole-wheat wrap.

36 Barley Quick-cooking barley, pictured on top, is easy to use in soups
Cook barley in a rice cooker and serve it like rice pilaf Purchase vegetable barley soup From top (clockwise): quick-cooking barley, groats, pearled barley Pearled barley is the most common but is not really a whole grain, although it is still high in fiber at about 5 grams per 1/2-cup serving. Barley is still considered an excellent source of soluble fiber. With a higher beta-glucan content than oats, barley can be effective in lowering serum cholesterol levels. Only 20 percent of the barley grown in the United States is processed for cooking. The other 80 percent is used in the industries of brewing and animal feed, respectively. FMI:

37 Brown Rice Buy brown rice instead of white rice – it comes in some tasty varieties Use a rice cooker so you don’t have to worry about cooking time The basmati and jasmine rice smell like toasted nuts and have a nice flavor Many varieties (from left to right): Brown rice Wild rice Brown basmati rice Brown jasmine rice Brown rice still has the hull intact, unlike white rice that is polished and refined. Here is the definition from Lundberg, a company that sells a variety of delicious brown rice: “Milling is the primary difference between brown and white rice. The varieties may be identical, but it is in the milling process where brown rice becomes white rice. Milling, often called ‘whitening,’ removes the outer bran layer of the rice grain.” FMI see

38 Bulgur Very easy to cook – add boiling water and allow to stand for 30 minutes Used to make tabouleh salad – the recipe is on the back of the package Found in most grocery stores Use the recipe handout for this. You can also purchase tabouleh in most health food stores – already made – it is great as a side salad for lunch or dinner. FMI

39 Buckwheat Use buckwheat flour to make pancakes or muffins
Substitute up to 25% (1/4 cup per 1 cup) Buckwheat flour makes delicious pancakes and baked goods. Unlike wheat flour, it doesn’t contain gluten, so it must be mixed with wheat flour in conventional baked goods. You can usually substitute 1/4 cup of all-purpose flour for buckwheat flour in a recipe – in other words, use 1/4 cup buckwheat flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour in place of 1 cup of all-purpose flour. Pictured here are low-fat pancakes made with buckwheat flour. FMI see

40 Corn Corn is a whole grain Look for these common products: on the cob
from the can frozen popcorn Whole-grain cornmeal (yellow or blue) You can purchase whole cornmeal (yellow and blue) in most whole food stores. Indians in central Mexico developed corn from a wild grass more than 7,000 years ago. Pictured above is whole cornmeal – look at how the grain sizes are large and it has a deep, rich yellow color. Below are muffins made from blue cornmeal. They have a rich, moist flavor and texture, not to mention an interesting color! FMI see

41 Couscous Whole-wheat couscous is very mild in flavor, easy to cook and fun to eat Follow package directions Cooks quickly – use like rice It is a granular-shaped pasta originating from northern Africa. Whole-wheat couscous is made from whole-grain durum flour and retains the bran and germ. It cooks in the same time as regular couscous. Use and serve just like rice. Follow directions on the package and then sauté with a selection of vegetables and some broth – pictured here, we made a Latin-style couscous with chopped peppers, green onions and cilantro. The sky is the limit – be creative!! FMI see

42 “Most people use millet as bird food.”
Use millet in baking – it can top muffins and breads for a nice crunch Purchase breads made with ground millet seed Millet is an ancient staple used as often as wheat. It is used most often as birdseed today. Use millet flour in baking, or purchase breads made with ground millet seed. Millet makes a great cereal and can be used to top baked goods to give them a crunchy texture. It has a mild nutlike flavor. Millet is nutrient dense and easy to digest. It contains almost 15% protein; is an excellent source of fiber and contains B-complex vitamins – including niacin, thiamin and riboflavin; the essential amino acid methionine; lecithin and some vitamin E. It is particularly high in the minerals iron, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium. You can purchase millet in most whole food stores. FMI see “Most people use millet as bird food.”

43 Oats Eat oatmeal for breakfast with fresh fruit, nuts, raisins and spices. Grind and add to pancake mixes, muffin mixes and most baking mixes for up to 25% of the all purpose flour. Rolled oats, or oatmeal, are very easy to find and use. They can be eaten as a breakfast cereal or used in baked goods recipes. Groats are minimally processed oats. They require long soaking and cooking times but have a chewy texture and rich flavor. Rolled and instant oats are whole grains and have a similar nutrient content. Instant oats may have flavoring, sugar and sodium added – read the label to be sure. FMI see

44 Quinoa Use as a side dish like rice pilaf Find in most stores
Follow package directions or cook in rice cooker just like rice – 2 parts water to 1 part quinoa Quinoa was an ancient seed and a staple of the Incas. It cooks quickly and has mild flavor. Rinse it before cooking. Use it as a side dish like rice pilaf. Quinoa must be processed – which it is – to remove its bitter coating, but you should rinse quinoa before cooking to make sure. It is more flavorful if you toast it in a skillet before cooking. It is cooked like brown rice – 2 parts water to 1 part quinoa – and it can be easily cooked in a rice cooker. FMI see

45 Teff Purchase teff flour for a neat addition to your baking pantry
Substitute part of the flour (up to 20%) with teff Great for muffins and pancakes Teff contains 11% protein, 80% complex carbohydrate and 3% fat. It is an excellent source of lysine, the essential amino acid that is most often deficient in grain foods. Teff is also an excellent source of fiber and iron, and has calcium, potassium and other essential minerals. Pictured above is teff flour and below that are apple teff muffins – we substituted 10% of the flour with teff flour. The muffins were very moist and had a nutty flavor and sandy texture. They disappeared very quickly. Teff is more expensive than most grains – you will find it in health food and specialty stores. Ethiopians use teff to make injera – a type of sourdough bread that is a flat bread. There is a fun science project and more info on that here: FMI see

46 Whole-Wheat Pasta Becoming more popular in grocery stores
Comes in different shapes and grains Use it like regular pasta in main dishes, side dishes, salads and soups Most grocery stores offer whole-grain blend pastas – these are a good start to get used to eating whole-grain pasta.

47 Whole-Wheat Pastry Flour
For light, delicate baked goods such as tart shells and pastries Use as you would all-purpose flour Whole-wheat pastry flour can be used in any fashion as all-purpose flour. It is a more delicate than regular whole-wheat flour.

48 White Whole-Wheat Flour
Mild flavor Easy to use Find in health food stores or online at or Can replace 100% of the all-purpose flour with this product Look what we made on the next slide! FMI see or

49 Here are delicious products made from white whole-wheat flour:
Clockwise from top: Chocolate Chip Cookies Chocolate Chip Pancakes Whole-Wheat Pizza Baked Whole-Wheat Lavash – this is flat bread that is easy to use as pizza crust or bake into crackers

50 Quiz What are refined grains?
List the parts of a whole grain. (Hint: There are three.) Name one health benefit of whole grains. True or false? Most members of the National Weight Control Registry were successful with long-term weight loss because they followed a low-carb diet. BONUS: List 2 ways you can substitute whole grains for the refined grains in your diet. Speaker – now is the time to review the parts of the show. Here are the answers: Refined grains are made from the endosperm of a grain kernel. They have the germ and bran removed. The three parts of a whole grain are the endosperm, the germ and the bran. One health benefit of whole grains is added fiber, which helps blood sugar control, weight control, digestion, the prevention of certain cancers and cholesterol control. False. Only 1% of members from the NWCR used a low-carb diet. Keep in mind that members of the NWCR lost 30 or more pounds and kept it off for more than one year. Most followed a low-fat diet and stuck to an exercise program. Brown rice in place of white rice, whole-grain bread in place of white bread, whole-grain pasta in place of white pasta, whole-grain cereal in place of refined cereal or other breakfast foods.

51 “Human beings, by changing the inner attitudes of their minds, can change the outer aspects of their lives.” – William James ( ) Thank everyone for coming to our show. Here is a good quotation on attitude for the day.

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