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Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension.

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Presentation on theme: "Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

2 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

3 Start the DASH Recommended Servings From the Various Food Groups for DASH Lower Your Sodium Increase Your Potassium Increase Your Magnesium Increase Your Calcium

4 Start the DASH (cont.) Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Consume More Legumes Increase Your Fiber Intake Reduce Your Fat Intake

5 Recommended Servings From the Various Food Groups for DASH* Food Group:Daily Servings: Whole grains, (ounce)6 Vegetables, (half cup)3-4 Fruits, (half cup)4 Lowfat/nonfat milk, (cup)2-3 Lean meats, fish, poultry, (ounce)3-6 Nuts, seeds, dry beans3 per week Oils (tsp)2 Sweets, added sugars0 *For 1,600 calories

6 Recommended Servings From the Various Food Groups for DASH* Food GroupDaily Servings Grains6-8 Vegetables4-5 Fruits4-5 Lowfat/nonfat dairy2-3 Meats, fish, poultry6 oz or less Nuts, seeds, dry beans4-5 per week Fats and oils2-3 Sweets5 or less per week *For 2000 calories

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8 Lower Sodium The DASH-Sodium trial found that reducing sodium from 3,300 to 1,500 mg on the American diet lowered blood pressure more than adopting the DASH diet without sodium reduction

9 Lower Sodium Limit processed foods: canned, boxed, frozen meals; canned soups; boxed cereals; bread; deli meat; cheese Limit fast food meals Limit salt in cooking and at the table –use more herbs and spices in cooking –limit use of condiments Check labels for sodium content

10 Lower Your Sodium Intake Tomato juice 820 Cheese600 Ham1020 Bread175 Potato chips155 Cereal300 Pizza1200 Fresh vegetables50 Skim milk120 Roasted chicken30 Brown rice10 Baked potato15 Oatmeal10 Spaghetti*390 *with low-sodium sauce

11 Compare Labels!

12 Increase Your Potassium High intakes of potassium have been shown to lower blood pressure The DASH diet contains about 4,700 mg potassium The average American diet contains about 3,000 mg

13 Food Sources of Potassium Fruits, especially bananas, oranges and prunes Vegetables, especially potatoes, broccoli, peas and spinach Dried beans Nuts Whole grains

14 Increase Your Magnesium High intakes of magnesium have been shown to lower blood pressure The DASH diet contains about 500 mg magnesium The average American diet contains about mg

15 Food Sources of Magnesium Nuts Seeds Seafood Legumes (beans and peas) Dark green leafy vegetables Whole grain breads and cereals Chocolate

16 Calcium and Blood Pressure Diets low in calcium have been associated with high blood pressure The DASH diet contains about 1,240 mg calcium The average American eats about mg of calcium per day

17 Calcium and Blood Pressure Read food labels to determine how much calcium you are getting The label pictured here shows 40% daily value or 400 mg of calcium

18 Increase Your Calcium Make it a goal to eat a lowfat, high-calcium dairy food two to three times a day –If dairy does not agree with you try lactase tablets, or buy lactose- free products –There are several calcium-fortified soyfoods including: soymilk, tofu and soy cheese

19 Food Sources of Calcium Skim milk Nonfat yogurt Fat-free ricotta Salmon and sardines with bones Broccoli Kale Bok choy Dried beans Lowfat pudding Turnip greens Calcium fortified foods such as orange juice, cereal, soymilk Almonds Tofu with calcium

20 Increase Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Plan a minimum of three meals per day –At each meal have 1 fruit serving –Have 2 vegetables at lunch and 2-3 at dinner Plan 1-2 fruit servings for snacks –Try dried fruits mixed with nuts and seeds

21 Consume More Legumes Try bean, pea or lentil soup for lunch Replace meat in casseroles, pasta dishes and stir-fry dishes with beans Add beans to your salad; eat baked beans Use nuts for snacks; add them to salads and casseroles Sprinkle seeds on bread, cereal and salad

22 Fiber and Blood Pressure High fiber diets have been shown to lower blood pressure A high-fiber diet will help you control your weight The DASH diet contains on average, grams of fiber per day The average American eats grams of fiber per day

23 DASH Daily Fiber Report Food groupServingsFiber(g) Grains Vegetables Fruits Nuts, beans, seeds4-5 per week 3-8 Total23-59

24 Increase Your Fiber Use whole grains rather than foods made with white flour –Look for the word whole in the ingredient list –Compare the fiber content on grains and cereals –Enriched wheat flour is the same as white flour –Try whole wheat pastas –Try brown rice instead of white

25 Bran Endosperm Germ

26 Reduce Your Fat Intake The DASH diet contained 27% of calories as fat –in foods (meats, dairy and grains and mixed dish recipes) –added to foods (approximately 2.5 servings per day of added fats, oils, and salad dressing) To maintain fat intake at roughly the same level as the DASH diet, we recommend not exceeding 2-3 servings daily of added fat such as margarine or mayonnaise

27 Reduce Your Fat Intake Reduce the amount of butter, margarine and salad dressing you use Try lowfat or fat-free versions of high fat items such as margarine, dairy or meat products Limit fast food eating and snacking Check food labels for fat content Bake, broil, poach, grill or roast rather than fry

28 Eat Less Saturated Fat Buy less meat and choose leaner cuts or white poultry without the skin Choose fish a couple times a week Limit any animal protein to the size of a deck of cards (3-4 ounces) Include two or more vegetarian meals each week

29 Eat Less Saturated Fat Use lowfat or nonfat dairy products When adding fat choose olive or canola oils; liquid or soft margarines Limit rich desserts and chocolate Read labels

30 Eat Less Trans Fat Read labels – limit or avoid foods that are made with partially hydrogenated oils: –Crackers –Cookies –Shortening –Candy –Fried foods Avoid full fat dairy products and fatty meats

31 Limit Consumption of Sweets The DASH diet contained, on average, less than one serving per day of sweets or about 5 servings per week Most of the sweets were low in fat: –Maple syrup, sugar –Jello® –Jam, jelly, marmalade –Jelly beans, hard candies –Sorbet, sherbet, popsicle, frozen yogurt

32 Appendix Other Risk Factors for Hypertension The Role of Caffeine The Role of Stress The Effects of Stress on the Body Drugs That Can Raise Blood Pressure

33 Other Risk Factors for Hypertension Smoking Drinking Sedentary lifestyle Being overweight –especially if you carry your weight around the middle

34 The Role of Caffeine Heavy coffee consumption may trigger a rise in blood pressure –The effect is more pronounced in younger people –Each cup of coffee consumed per day increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 0.8 and 0.4 mm Hg, respectively Hypertension 1999; 33: ,

35 The Role of Stress There is no definitive proof that ongoing stress is a cause of hypertension Feeling tense or angry causes a transient rise in blood pressure J. Psychosom Res 1998; 45:

36 The Effects of Stress on the Body Increased oxygen demand equals increased heart rate and blood pressure Increased stickiness of platelets Increased mobilization of triglycerides and LDL Lowered threshold for disturbances in cardiac rhythm Activation of macrophage cells from the immune system

37 Drugs That Can Raise Blood Pressure Oral contraceptives Steroids NSAIDS Nasal decongestants Appetite suppressants Cyclosporine Some antidepressants

38 Putting It In Action Take Small Steps –Breakfast –Lunch –Dinner –Dessert/Snacks Achieving and Maintaining Behavior Change

39 Take Small Steps This diet is higher in fruits and vegetables than the typical American diet It is much higher in fiber Add high-fiber foods gradually Drink lots of water Small changes are more likely to become permanent

40 Breakfast Choose oatmeal or whole grain cereal Read labels to find low- sodium cereal – many packaged cereals are high in sodium Include fruit Include high-calcium dairy product like yogurt or skim milk

41 Lunch Large salad –Use oil & vinegar to reduce sodium –Lots of veggies –Nuts and seeds, too Soup or stir fry dish with veggies Limit deli sandwiches – bread, cheese, condiments and deli meats are high in sodium Consider low-sodium tuna, fresh roasted/baked chicken, lean meat or baked/grilled fish

42 Dinner Include vegetables Large salad –Use oil and vinegar to reduce sodium –Lots of veggies –Nuts and seeds too Vegetarian entrée: pasta, stir fry, soup, chili Consider low-sodium tuna, fresh roasted/baked chicken, lean meat or fish

43 Snack or Dessert Fruit or vegetables 100% whole grain bread Nut butter Nonfat yogurt Use skim milk for smoothie Light use of nuts

44 Achieving and Maintaining Behavior Change Break the process into small steps Write things down If you slip, ask yourself why you got off track –See if you tried to do too much too fast –Dont worry about a slip

45 Flaming enthusiasm, backed by horse sense and persistence, is the quality that most frequently makes for success. – Dale Carnegie

46 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

47 Questions and Answers Start the DASH Appendix Putting It In Action


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