Presentation on theme: "Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC1 Process Consultation A Brief Synopsis of John J. Sherwoods Action-Research Model."— Presentation transcript:
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC1 Process Consultation A Brief Synopsis of John J. Sherwoods Action-Research Model.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 2 Process Consultation For the confidential use of students of Dr. Gail Johnson. – Permission to quote, distribute, or reproduce in any form any of these materials is expressly denied. Information herein is provided by personal communications.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 3 Process Consultation A distinction between Content & Process In all interactions between people, there are two major ingredients: content and process. The content is the subjective matter people are discussing or the task on which they are working. The focus of attention of all persons is on the content of what is being discussed. The second ingredient is the process by which the discussion is taking place or the task being pursued. Process is a term used to refer to the ways in which people are working together.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 4 Process Consultation Process Consultation is: – A set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon process events which occur in the clients environment. (E.H. Schein, Process consultation: Its role in organization development. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1969, p.9). See Process Consultation Handout.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 5 A Brief History of the Action Research (AR) Model Dewey (1933) – Paradigm for Problematic Inquiry Lewin (1948) – Founder of the National Training Laboratory Collier (1945) – Indian Affairs Commissioner / Collaboration
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 6 A Brief History of the Action Research (AR) Model Schein (1969) – Process vs. Content Consultation French & Bell (1978) – Experimental vs. Participant Action Sherwood (1973) – Action Research Model
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 7 Sherwoods (1973) AR Model Limited Research – Focus on problem vs. data gathering – Client involved from inception to final feedback loops Nine stages/phases Attempts to teach client problem solving techniques (…be own AR consultant)
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 8 Sherwoods (1973) AR Model Nine stages/phases for the discouraged system – Problem felt – Study conceived – Study introduced – Data gathered – Data collected / collated – Data Feedback – Action Planning – Action Taken – Follow up (Feedback Loop)
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 9 Stage 1- Problem Felt Initial phone call. Initial assessment. – Can I Help? Clearly define who/what you are. Clearly define consulting relationship. Explain role as consultant. – Identify Client vs. Sponsor.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 10 Stage 2 – Study Conceived Use declarative statements. – Basic Attending Skills. – This is my understanding…tell me yours. Clarify Goals. – what will it look like when it is improved? Sharpen Goals. – Be more specific and task oriented. Identify who is involved. – Because consultant only coaches.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 11 Stage 2 – Study Conceived Clarify that No = better service. – Rather than to follow dogmatically. – Paradoxing the client. Inform sponsor you will disagree with him/her during initial meeting and the purpose for this. – Promotes lucid boundaries for participants. – Alleviates anxieties concerning role of consultant. Send sponsor AR model. Set up meeting with ALL involved.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 12 Stage 3 – Study Introduced Sponsor convenes the meeting. – Sponsor in control of meeting. Introduce AR model to client (ct). Disagree with sponsor. – Demonstrate to the ct they are indeed the ct. Define roles as per AR model.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 13 Stage 3 – Study Introduced Looking for… – Are all pertinent people involved? – Are you getting their input? – open ended exploratory questioning. – What are the sequence of events for the group interaction? Were looking to improve the situation.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 14 Stage 3 – Study Introduced Set up interview times with ct. – All clients to be interviewed. – Interview sponsor in the middle. – 1 ½ hours per interview. Close meeting with… – Review of AR model. – Explanation of whats next. Allow 2 weeks for interviews.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 15 Stage 4 – Data Gathering Introduce self & take notes. Review AR model. – Teaching ct to be own AR consultant. Open with easy question. – So whats it like to be a _____ at the Zoo? Have list of questions. – Ask same questions to all. – Its recommended to add questions as you learn. – Task oriented, open ended exploratory questions.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 16 Stage 4 – Data Gathering Have them talk about what is operating well. Ask fewer questions that elicit personal stuff. – Complaints should be turned into tasks for organization. Have them talk about specifics. – To find patterns.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 17 Stage 4 – Data Gathering Felicitous Questions… – What needs to be done differently? – What needs to change? – What are the strengths? – What are the areas for improvement? – What can you contribute to…? – Anything else I need to know? – What should I have asked that I have not?
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 18 Stage 4 – Data Gathering Review AR model. – Repetition… Teaching ct to be own consultant. Teaching future problem solving skills. Teaching group process skills. Teaching basic attending skills. Dissuades recidivism.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 19 Stage 5 – Collate Data Randomly list out responses and edit to exhibit patterns and themes next to each other. Use qualitative (naturalistic) inquiry and research design to organize interviews and data collected into categories and themes. – See Lincoln & Guba (1985). – Remember to charge!
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 20 Stage 6 – Data Feedback Day of meeting… – Meet with sponsor first 10a to 12p. – Coach sponsor to… Listen carefully Seek clarity Seek pertinent information Expect defensiveness Do not allow new, interlarding information –Just make gathered information Public
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 21 Stage 6 – Data Feedback Here is the data. Do you understand? Look for patterns and themes. Goal is to understand not defend or complain. Prioritize data with consultant (as coach) to pick helpful, easier goals first (i.e., Breakthrough Project Model of Consultation) More challenging goals come second.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 22 Stage 6 – Data Feedback – Meeting with ct 1p – 4p. – No defending, just hear data collected. – Sponsor is to listen and facilitate meeting. Thats It! – Expand on information, DO NOT attempt to solve.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 23 Stage 6 – Data Feedback – Expect denial and rejection. Do not allow witch hunts, blaming. – Remain calm and absorb the BS. – Prioritize items. – Make agenda for next meeting. – Action planning meeting in 2 weeks.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 24 Stage 7 – Action Planning Consultant coaches while ct prioritizes, chooses, and determines who will do what. Write goals and who is responsible on large room size poster and hang on a wall in a community, communal room so that all participants know the expectations and who does what.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 25 Stage 8 – Action Taken Time line determined by stage 7 and goals. Consultant leaves and allows system to interact. Consultant will return at pre-determined time to follow-up on action taken.
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 26 Stage 9 – Follow Up Did we conceptualize the problem well? If better… – Collective move on to more challenging goals via same process. If not better… – Feedback Loop
Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC 27 Feedback Loop Nine stages/phases for the discouraged system – Problem felt (Feedback Loop) – Study conceived – Study introduced – Data gathered – Data collected / collated – Data Feedback – Action Planning – Action Taken – Follow up (Feedback Loop)