Presentation on theme: "A Brief Synopsis of John J. Sherwood’s Action-Research Model."— Presentation transcript:
1A Brief Synopsis of John J. Sherwood’s Action-Research Model. Process ConsultationA Brief Synopsis of John J. Sherwood’s Action-Research Model.Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCC
2For the confidential use of students of Dr. Gail Johnson. Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCProcess ConsultationFor the confidential use of students of Dr. Gail Johnson.Permission to quote, distribute, or reproduce in any form any of these materials is expressly denied. Information herein is provided by personal communications.
3Process Consultation A distinction between Content & Process Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCProcess ConsultationA distinction between Content & ProcessIn all interactions between people, there are two major ingredients: content and process. The content is the subjective matter people are discussing or the task on which they are working. The focus of attention of all persons is on the content of what is being discussed. The second ingredient is the process by which the discussion is taking place or the task being pursued. Process is a term used to refer to the ways in which people are working together.
4Process Consultation Process Consultation is: Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCProcess ConsultationProcess Consultation is:“A set of activities on the part of the consultant which help the client to perceive, understand, and act upon process events which occur in the client’s environment.” (E.H. Schein, Process consultation: Its role in organization development. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1969, p.9).See “Process Consultation” Handout.
5A Brief History of the Action Research (AR) Model Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCA Brief History of the Action Research (AR) ModelDewey (1933)Paradigm for Problematic InquiryLewin (1948)Founder of the National Training LaboratoryCollier (1945)Indian Affairs Commissioner / Collaboration
6A Brief History of the Action Research (AR) Model Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCA Brief History of the Action Research (AR) ModelSchein (1969)Process vs. Content ConsultationFrench & Bell (1978)Experimental vs. Participant ActionSherwood (1973)Action Research Model
7Sherwood’s (1973) AR Model Limited Research Nine stages/phases Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCSherwood’s (1973) AR ModelLimited ResearchFocus on problem vs. data gatheringClient involved from inception to final feedback loopsNine stages/phasesAttempts to teach client problem solving techniques (…be own AR consultant)
8Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCSherwood’s (1973) AR ModelNine stages/phases for the discouraged systemProblem feltStudy conceivedStudy introducedData gatheredData collected / collatedData FeedbackAction PlanningAction TakenFollow up (Feedback Loop)
9Stage 1- Problem Felt Initial phone call. Initial assessment. Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 1- Problem FeltInitial phone call.Initial assessment.Can I Help?Clearly define who/what you are.Clearly define consulting relationship.Explain role as consultant.Identify Client vs. Sponsor.
10Stage 2 – Study Conceived Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 2 – Study ConceivedUse declarative statements.Basic Attending Skills.“This is my understanding…tell me yours.”Clarify Goals.“what will it look like when it is improved?”Sharpen Goals.Be more specific and task oriented.Identify who is involved.Because consultant only “coaches.”
11Stage 2 – Study Conceived Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 2 – Study ConceivedClarify that “No” = better service.Rather than to follow dogmatically.Paradoxing the client.Inform sponsor you will disagree with him/her during initial meeting and the purpose for this.Promotes lucid boundaries for participants.Alleviates anxieties concerning role of consultant.Send sponsor AR model.Set up meeting with ALL involved.
12Stage 3 – Study Introduced Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 3 – Study IntroducedSponsor convenes the meeting.Sponsor in control of meeting.Introduce AR model to client (ct).Disagree with sponsor.Demonstrate to the ct they are indeed the ct.Define roles as per AR model.
13Stage 3 – Study Introduced Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 3 – Study IntroducedLooking for…Are all pertinent people involved?Are you getting their input? – open ended exploratory questioning.What are the sequence of events for the group interaction?“We’re looking to improve the situation.”
14Stage 3 – Study Introduced Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 3 – Study IntroducedSet up interview times with ct.All clients to be interviewed.Interview sponsor in the middle.1 ½ hours per interview.Close meeting with…Review of AR model.Explanation of what’s next.Allow 2 weeks for interviews.
15Stage 4 – Data Gathering Introduce self & take notes. Review AR model. Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 4 – Data GatheringIntroduce self & take notes.Review AR model.Teaching ct to be own AR consultant.Open with easy question.“So what’s it like to be a _____ at the Zoo?”Have list of questions.Ask same questions to all.Its recommended to add questions as you learn.Task oriented, open ended exploratory questions.
16Stage 4 – Data Gathering Have them talk about what is operating well. Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 4 – Data GatheringHave them talk about what is operating well.Ask fewer questions that elicit “personal stuff.”Complaints should be turned into tasks for organization.Have them talk about specifics.To find patterns.
17Stage 4 – Data Gathering Felicitous Questions… Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 4 – Data GatheringFelicitous Questions…What needs to be done differently?What needs to change?What are the strengths?What are the areas for improvement?What can you contribute to…?Anything else I need to know?What should I have asked that I have not?
18Stage 4 – Data Gathering Review AR model. Repetition… Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 4 – Data GatheringReview AR model.Repetition…Teaching ct to be own consultant.Teaching future problem solving skills.Teaching group process skills.Teaching basic attending skills.Dissuades recidivism.
19Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 5 – Collate DataRandomly list out responses and edit to exhibit patterns and themes next to each other.Use qualitative (naturalistic) inquiry and research design to organize interviews and data collected into categories and themes.See Lincoln & Guba (1985).Remember to charge!
20Stage 6 – Data Feedback Day of meeting… Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 6 – Data FeedbackDay of meeting…Meet with sponsor first 10a to 12p.Coach sponsor to…Listen carefullySeek claritySeek pertinent informationExpect defensivenessDo not allow new, interlarding informationJust make gathered information Public
21Stage 6 – Data Feedback “Here is the data. Do you understand?” Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 6 – Data Feedback“Here is the data. Do you understand?”Look for patterns and themes.Goal is to understand not defend or complain.Prioritize data with consultant (as coach) to pick helpful, easier goals first (i.e., Breakthrough Project Model of Consultation)More challenging goals come second.
22Stage 6 – Data Feedback Meeting with ct 1p – 4p. Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 6 – Data FeedbackMeeting with ct 1p – 4p.No defending, just hear data collected.Sponsor is to listen and facilitate meeting.That’s It!Expand on information, DO NOT attempt to solve.
23Stage 6 – Data Feedback Expect denial and rejection. Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 6 – Data FeedbackExpect denial and rejection.Do not allow witch hunts, blaming.Remain calm and absorb the BS.Prioritize items.Make agenda for next meeting.Action planning meeting in 2 weeks.
24Stage 7 – Action Planning Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 7 – Action PlanningConsultant coaches while ct prioritizes, chooses, and determines who will do what.Write goals and who is responsible on large room size poster and hang on a wall in a community, communal room so that all participants know the expectations and who does what.
25Stage 8 – Action Taken Time line determined by stage 7 and goals. Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 8 – Action TakenTime line determined by stage 7 and goals.Consultant leaves and allows system to interact.Consultant will return at pre-determined time to follow-up on action taken.
26Stage 9 – Follow Up “Did we conceptualize the problem well?” Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCStage 9 – Follow Up“Did we conceptualize the problem well?”If better…Collective move on to more challenging goals via same process.If not better…Feedback Loop
27Feedback Loop Nine stages/phases for the discouraged system Timothy D. Kruse, M.S., NCCFeedback LoopNine stages/phases for the discouraged systemProblem felt (Feedback Loop)Study conceivedStudy introducedData gatheredData collected / collatedData FeedbackAction PlanningAction TakenFollow up (Feedback Loop)