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Before Presentation Please preview these videos before Mondays power point presentation. Dung Beetles

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Presentation on theme: "Before Presentation Please preview these videos before Mondays power point presentation. Dung Beetles"— Presentation transcript:

1 Before Presentation Please preview these videos before Mondays power point presentation. Dung Beetles dded&v=UcQbrvnoVCU dded&v=UcQbrvnoVCU Tsetse Flies re=player_embedded re=player_embedded Nile Crocodile (click video and sound) urefeature/nile-crocodile/ urefeature/nile-crocodile/

2 Nile Crocodiles Adults can weigh over 1,000 pounds and measure 18 feet in length. Life expectancy: 45years in wild. 80 years in captivity. Parents protect nest site. Young make high pitched sound before hatching. This alerts parents. Parents dig up nest and assist young with hatching Mother scoops young from nest and transports young to water Mother protects young for two years Young feed on fish and insects. Adults eat up to half of body weight in one feeding. Use the link below to view a short clip of a mother croc and her young. On the page, click Video & Sound. crocodile/ Nile Crocodile attacking Wildebeest, Mara River, Masai Mara, Kenya Photo Credit: Paul McKenzie:

3 Rock Agama Over 100 Species in Tanzania Common in Serengeti but not usually seen More than 30 varieties Found on rocky outcroppings Males are territorial and colorful Females bland coloring Main food is insects Chameleon

4 Tortoises o Leopard Tortoises: often seen in Serengeti – Herbivores, obtain calcium from bones or hyena feces – Watch for them on roads – Fire and vehicles are the most common cause of injury o Pancake Tortoises: live on rock ledges and kopjes. Herbivores Forage morning, late afternoon/evening Stay in shade of rocks during heat of day Over collection by pet trade is impacting population

5 Insects The Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater ecosystems are home to a great variety of insect species. Anthony Sinclair has studied the Serengeti ecosystem for over 40 years. In his book, Serengeti Story: A scientist in paradise, he states that, although the insects in the Serengeti have not been thoroughly studied yet, the following have been identified: 180 species of butterfly 100 species of dung beetles 70 species of grasshoppers The following are just some of the ways that insects affect the populations of other species within the ecosystem : Acting as a food source for other species Acting as vectors for disease Preying on other species Pollinating flowering plants Decomposing dead organic matter

6 Dung Beetles At least 100 different species in Serengeti. Locate dung by smell. Specialized dung beetles use feces of only one species. Other dung beetles are not species feces specific. Many species create balls of dung and soil. Roll ball with back legs while walking on front legs. Male and female work together to dig hole. Female takes dung into tunnel while male guards entrance and tries to prevent other males from entering. Female lays egg on ball, fills in tunnel. Larva will eat its way out of tunnel. Current research: Scientists believe dung beetles use light from the Milky Way to navigate at night. Current research: Scientists think dung beetles stand on top of the dung balls during the hottest time of the day to help cool themselves. 75% of dung in Serengeti is moved by these beetles. Benefits: Fertilizes soil, aerates soil, prepares land for grass to grow, controls flies, disease, parasites. Illustration by Janet Baxter

7 Tsetse Flies 23 different species Most are slightly larger than houseflies Wings fold over body Live in wooded areas Males and females feed on blood of vertebrates Bite during day Painful bite Attracted to dark clothing Vector for Human African trypanosomiasis (AKA sleeping sickness) and animal trypanosomiasis ( AKA Nagana in cattle) Tsetse flies have limited development in certain areas of Africa, preserving the lands natural ecosystem Many control methods tried with varying degrees of success: Slaughter of wild animal hosts, clearing of land, pesticides, trapping, sterilization of male tsetse ngeti-day-2.html Treated with insecticide, this hanging black & blue cloth is meant to trap tsetse flies

8 Siafu AKA: Safari Ants or Driver Ants Travel in groups of 20,000,000 or more. Bite is painful and it is hard to remove biting ant since the head often breaks off when the body is pulled. Some tribes use the biting ants as sutures for wounds. Eat scorpions, mice, insects, frogs, and other small animals Attracted by carbon dioxide of prey. Can swarm houses – not always seen as a bad thing since they kill all the pests in the home. 08/siafu_2.jpg Genera/Dorylus/ _H5dKmb/3#!i= &k=8PdQ7bH&lb=1&s=A

9 Termites Kings/queens, workers, soldiers Three genera of mound building termites in Serengeti. Decompose plant material and cycle nutrients. Create mounds by piling up soil from deeper underground. Soil in mound is more alkaline than surrounding surface soil which allows different varieties of plants to grow near mound than in surrounding ecosystem. Many animals use mounds for lookouts. Tunnels become home to a variety of animals besides termites (mice, snakes, mongoose). Termites are favored food of aardwolves and whispering ants. Mostly dead termite mounds visible from the air, Northern Serengeti Sep Lion on Termite Mound, Serengeti

10 Simba of the Sand Antlion Lacewing. Larval stage buries in sand. Makes conical pit in sand (about an inch across). Catches insects that fall into pit. Adult insect resembles dragonfly.


12 Tsetse Flies finall.html finall.html ya.htm ya.htm and-give-birth-to-live-larvae/ and-give-birth-to-live-larvae/

13 Dung Beetles CU CU Antlion Nile Crocodile ile-crocodile/ ile-crocodile/

14 Rock Agama spider.html spider.html Siafu Termites Tortoises and-captive-husbandry-of-the-pancake-tortoise/ and-captive-husbandry-of-the-pancake-tortoise/ General

15 Books Estes, R. D. (1993) The Safari Companion. White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing Company Mercer, G., & Jafferji, J. (2007) Serengeti National Park. Zanzibar: Gallery Publications Norton, B. (2011) Serengeti: The Eternal Beginning. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing Scott, J., & Scott, A. (2000) Mara-Serengeti: A Photographers Paradise. Faringdon, Oxfordshire: Fountain Press Shah, A., & Shah M. (2007) African Odyssey: 365 Days. New York, New York: Abrams Shah, A. (2012) Serengeti Spy: Views from a Hidden Camera on the Plains of East Africa. New York, New York: Abrams

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