2What is Wine?Alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruitYeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to alcohol and carbon dioxideDate back to 6000BCPlayed an important role in religion and medicine throughout historyDifferent varieties of grapes and strains of yeast produce different varieties of wine……………….. Wine has a rich history dating back to 6000 BC………..
3Historical Role of Wine in Medicine Ancient Egypt2200BCOldest documented man made medicineRecipe for wine based medicines found on ancient Egyptians tablets and papyriWine has a long history of use in the world of medicine and health and was used as an early form of medicine. It is the oldest documented man made medicine.
4Historical Role of Wine in Medicine Ancient GreeksHippocrates - the father of modern medicine recommendations for wineWine as a part of a healthy dietUse as a disinfectant for woundsMedium to mix with other drugs for easier consumptionCure for diarrhea and lethargyTreatment for pain during childbirthAncient Greeks introduced a systematized approach to medicine where wine had a predominate role
5Historical Role of Wine in Medicine Ancient RomeDocumented list of Greek and Roman wines used for medicinal purposesUsed to treat the gladiators in Asian Minor as a disinfectant for woundsRomans used wine in a similar way. Roman Enyclopedist documented a list of Greek and roman wines and their uses for medicinal purposed.Wine was also used by the Romans to treat the wounds of the Gladiators.So closely tied was the role of wine and medicine that the first printed book on wine was written in the 14th century by a physician touting its use for many medical ailments including dementia and sinus problems
6Historical Role of Wine in Medicine Role of ReligionTalmud - “wine is the foremost of all medicines: wherever wine is lacking, medicines become necessary”New Testament - Paul the Apostle recommended drinking wine now and again for the benefit of the stomach and digestionIslam - Persian doctors in the 11th century AD noted wines use as a digestive aid and as a disinfectant while dressing woundsUsed in Catholic Monasteries during the middle ages for various medical treatmentsReligion played a significant role in promoting wines use for health benefits. Talmud spoke of wineEven though Islam prohibited the consumption of wine,
7Historical Role of Wine in Medicine Disease PreventionUsed throughout the ages to sterilize waterAlternative to drinking waterControl the spread of diseaseThe lack of safe drinking water for much of history is a significant reason for wine’s popularity in medicine…… Still being used up until 1892 during the cholera epidemic to control the spread of disease. Louis Pasteur noted Wine is the most healthful and hygienic of beverages
8Historical Role of Wine in Medicine Changing views on alcohol in the late 19th and early 20th centuryTemperance movement touting the ills of alcoholismProhibitionFocus switched to risk of alcohol consumptionFetal alcohol syndrome – warning labels on alcohol containing productsPublic opinion turned against alcohol in all forms which affected the role of wine in health and society…Risks of alcohol consumption were thought to outweigh the benefits and the role that wine played in medicine to cure a variety of ailments were dismissed ultimately leading to warning labels on alcohol containing products
9Historical Role of Wine in Medicine 1990 and early 21st centuryRenewed interest in the health benefits of wineFrench ParadoxResearch by Serge RenaudHigh fat/dairy dietLow occurrence ofCardiovascular diseaseModerate consumption red wineas risk reducing factorThose thought persisted until research by the Serge Renaud renewed interest in the health benefits of wine, He noted the Paradoxical relationship between the high fat and high dairy diets of the French people and the low occurrence of cardiovascular disease compared to the high fat/high dairy diet of the brits and Americans and high incidences of heat disease. This was called the French Paradox He attributed difference to moderate wine consumption. His thoughts were embraced. In minutes aired a broadcast featuring Serge Renauds work and wine sales jumped by 44% in the next yearRed
10Historical Role of Wine in Medicine USDA Dietary Guidelines1990“Wine has no net health benefit”1995Moderate consumption with meals providing the individual has had no other alcohol-related health risk1 5 oz glass for women2 5 oz glasses for menThe changing view of wine can be seen in the language used in the dietary guideline.Nearly all research makes a distention between moderate, heavy and binge drinking as dinking alcohol in excess can out weight its benefits.
11Clearly this little guy knew that he was right all along
12He is clearly taking his doctors recommendations of 2 glasses of red wine per day seriously
13Health Benefits of Wine Chemical Compounds found in winePolyphenols naturally occurring compounds found in fruit, vegetables, cereal and beveragesPhenols and PolyphenolsPhenolic acid StilbenesFlavonoids LigansRed wine has >200 phenolic compoundsCan’t talk about the health benefits of wine without talking about the chemical compounds found in wine Phenols and polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidant in our diets/…. Over 8000 of these naturally occurring compounds have been identified………… These compounds have the ability to sequester free radicals and protect the body and its tissue from oxidative stress and have been shown to be protective against disease There are over 200 polyphenolic compounds identified in red wine.
14Differentiated by their chemical composition Flavonoids (high content in berries) as a group have been studied extensively and also stilbenes resveratrol found in grapes
15Health Benefits of Wine ResveratrolPhenolic compoundFound in grapes skin, and leavesAmount varies by type of grape and wineProcessing of the wine, can also affect the amount of resveratrolMeasured in Micromoles per literMarketing resveratrol content on labelsAverage in red wine 10 micromoles per literThere are many chemical compounds in wine which may have health benefits. The chemical compound which has been studied the most is Resveratrol….. More resveratrol in red than white as red wines are produced by maceration soaking of the grape skins in the mashSome varietals have a much higher concentration
16Health Benefits of Wine Other Compounds in WineCatechinQuercetinCinnanimatesAlcoholIncrease HDLAnti-clotting propertiesCinnanimates – also found in cinnamon, quercetin abundant in onions catechins in green teaIt is not one compound that is preventive against disease but more so the synergistic effect as they work togetherWhen compound are isolated and taken as supplements the same affects and benefits can not be reproducedResearchers are also looking at the bioavailability of some of these compounds and the health beneits are associated with how easily they are absorbedAlcohol alone can be protective against disease as Prevents platelets in the blood from sticking together, reducing clot formation and help to prevent heart attack and strokes
17Epidemiological studies suggest inverse association between risk of chronic disease and a diet rich in polyphenols including red wine
19Health Benefits of Wine Bone Density Heavy alcohol consumption associated with increase risk of fractures and interferes with the cellular process which creates boneBone Mineral density in post menopausal women was increased with moderate alcohol consumptionMcLeron et al 2012 article published in the journal of clinical nutrition noted
20Health Benefits of Wine Cancer Alcohol is toxin and heavy consumption has been linked to breast, colon and esophageal cancerAntioxidant compounds in wine may reduce the risk of lung, ovarian and prostate cancerResveratrol, decrease estrogen metabolites which promote development of breast cancerReduce risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagusPreliminary research linking antioxidant compounds found in wine to reduced risk for lung ovarian and esophageal cancer and 3 independent studies in 2009 published in Gastroenterology suggested moderate consumption of wine reduced risk of esophageal, adenocarcinoma and precancerous Barretts esophagus research from Yale school of public health questions women diagnosed with non Hodgkin's lymphoma regarding their wine consumption and found that women who consumed a moderate amount of wine for years prior to diagnosis were 33% less likely to die over the 5 year period that they were studied and were 26% less likely to experience relapse or secondary cancer .
21Health Benefits of Wine Heart Disease Lowers mortality rate and risk of heart diseaseImprove LDL/HDL ratioReduce risk of gallstone secondary to lower cholesterol levelsAnticoagulant properties of wine limit blood clotting and inhibit plaque formationExcessive alcohol consumption greater risk for heart disease, fatal cardiac arrhythmias, high blood pressure, weakened heart muscle and elevated cholesterolModerate consumption
22Health Benefits of Wine Other Moderate alcohol consumption lower risk of developing Alzheimer's and dementia2005 researchers linked moderate alcohol consumption to lower risk of developing Type 2 DMThe antibacterial nature of alcohol my reduce risk of H- pylori bacteriumAnti-oxidant properties of wine my have positive benefit in slowing macular degenerationSome of us my have experienced the short term impaired mental function of alcohol consumption toImproves whole body glucose homeostasis
23Health Benefits of Wine Weight Loss Alcohol can stimulate the appetiteDrinking wine with meals can help slow stomach emptying time and potentially decrease the amount of food consumed with mealsArthur Agatston co –creator of the south beach diet statedAlthough wine has calories in it as well and moderate consumption of alcohol is stressed
24Is it the Wine Alone? Digging Deeper into the French Paradox Is it wine alone that contributed to the 40% reduction in heart attacks and other health benefits of wineJust talked about all of the health benefits of wine but researchers are now looking a little closer at the French Paradox and if it the power antioxidents in wine alone.
25Is it the Wine Alone? Lifestyle habits Better diets Regular exercise Non smokersLower BMI*May be factorsto support positivehealth benefitsWine drinkers tend to share similar lifestyle habits and have achieved a higher socio economic status which make researchers wonder if it the wine aloneMediterranean diet which are rich in polyphenols
26Take Away Eat a Healthful diet Get regular exercise Try to achieve a good weight for your heightLower your BMIStop SmokingAnd have a glass of wine a day just in case it’s good for you!Adopt some of the lifestyle habits attributed to wine drinkers
28“Good Wine is a necessity of life for me” Thomas Jefferson
29ReferencesG.Harding”A Wine Miscellany, Clarkson Potter Publishing, New York 2005J.Robinson”The Oxford Companion to Wine” Third Edition Oxford University Press 2006Hugh,Johnson,Vintage:”The Story of Wine, Simon and Schuster 1989P.Masson”The Father of the French Paradox” Wine Spectator, March 15, 1994P.Masson”Eat Well, Drink Wisely, Live Longer” Wine Spectator, Nov. 29, 2001.Novel Antioxidant Reaction s of Cinnamates in Wine. Nick Emil Gislason, Bruce Lamonte Currie and Andrew Leo Waterhouse,J.Agric. Food Chem., 2011Walter Bone . (2012) Recognizing and Treating Secondary Osteoporosis. Nat Rev Pheumatol 8(8):Alcohol Drinking.Lyon: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer 1988.S.Boyles”Research Shows Moderate Wine Drinkers May Have Less Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus”, WebMDC. Laino”Study Shows Wine Drinkers with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Les Likely to Die or Have Relapse” WebMDK.Zelman “Wine How Much Is Good for You” Web MDOxid Med Cell Longev Nov-Dec; 2(5): 270–278Tracy C. Shuman, MD”Alcohol and Heart Disease” Web MDJ Agric Food Chem 2011 Jun 8;59(11): doi: /jf200115y. Epub 2011 May 11.