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Health Benefits of Wine

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Presentation on theme: "Health Benefits of Wine"— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Benefits of Wine
Lynda Hesse RD

2 What is Wine? Alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruit Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to alcohol and carbon dioxide Date back to 6000BC Played an important role in religion and medicine throughout history Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeast produce different varieties of wine……………….. Wine has a rich history dating back to 6000 BC………..

3 Historical Role of Wine in Medicine
Ancient Egypt 2200BC Oldest documented man made medicine Recipe for wine based medicines found on ancient Egyptians tablets and papyri Wine has a long history of use in the world of medicine and health and was used as an early form of medicine. It is the oldest documented man made medicine.

4 Historical Role of Wine in Medicine
Ancient Greeks Hippocrates - the father of modern medicine recommendations for wine Wine as a part of a healthy diet Use as a disinfectant for wounds Medium to mix with other drugs for easier consumption Cure for diarrhea and lethargy Treatment for pain during childbirth Ancient Greeks introduced a systematized approach to medicine where wine had a predominate role

5 Historical Role of Wine in Medicine
Ancient Rome Documented list of Greek and Roman wines used for medicinal purposes Used to treat the gladiators in Asian Minor as a disinfectant for wounds Romans used wine in a similar way. Roman Enyclopedist documented a list of Greek and roman wines and their uses for medicinal purposed. Wine was also used by the Romans to treat the wounds of the Gladiators. So closely tied was the role of wine and medicine that the first printed book on wine was written in the 14th century by a physician touting its use for many medical ailments including dementia and sinus problems

6 Historical Role of Wine in Medicine
Role of Religion Talmud - “wine is the foremost of all medicines: wherever wine is lacking, medicines become necessary” New Testament - Paul the Apostle recommended drinking wine now and again for the benefit of the stomach and digestion Islam - Persian doctors in the 11th century AD noted wines use as a digestive aid and as a disinfectant while dressing wounds Used in Catholic Monasteries during the middle ages for various medical treatments Religion played a significant role in promoting wines use for health benefits. Talmud spoke of wine Even though Islam prohibited the consumption of wine,

7 Historical Role of Wine in Medicine
Disease Prevention Used throughout the ages to sterilize water Alternative to drinking water Control the spread of disease The lack of safe drinking water for much of history is a significant reason for wine’s popularity in medicine…… Still being used up until 1892 during the cholera epidemic to control the spread of disease. Louis Pasteur noted Wine is the most healthful and hygienic of beverages

8 Historical Role of Wine in Medicine
Changing views on alcohol in the late 19th and early 20th century Temperance movement touting the ills of alcoholism Prohibition Focus switched to risk of alcohol consumption Fetal alcohol syndrome – warning labels on alcohol containing products Public opinion turned against alcohol in all forms which affected the role of wine in health and society…Risks of alcohol consumption were thought to outweigh the benefits and the role that wine played in medicine to cure a variety of ailments were dismissed ultimately leading to warning labels on alcohol containing products

9 Historical Role of Wine in Medicine
1990 and early 21st century Renewed interest in the health benefits of wine French Paradox Research by Serge Renaud High fat/dairy diet Low occurrence of Cardiovascular disease Moderate consumption red wine as risk reducing factor Those thought persisted until research by the Serge Renaud renewed interest in the health benefits of wine, He noted the Paradoxical relationship between the high fat and high dairy diets of the French people and the low occurrence of cardiovascular disease compared to the high fat/high dairy diet of the brits and Americans and high incidences of heat disease. This was called the French Paradox He attributed difference to moderate wine consumption. His thoughts were embraced. In minutes aired a broadcast featuring Serge Renauds work and wine sales jumped by 44% in the next year Red

10 Historical Role of Wine in Medicine
USDA Dietary Guidelines 1990 “Wine has no net health benefit” 1995 Moderate consumption with meals providing the individual has had no other alcohol-related health risk 1 5 oz glass for women 2 5 oz glasses for men The changing view of wine can be seen in the language used in the dietary guideline. Nearly all research makes a distention between moderate, heavy and binge drinking as dinking alcohol in excess can out weight its benefits.

11 Clearly this little guy knew that he was right all along

12 He is clearly taking his doctors recommendations of 2 glasses of red wine per day seriously

13 Health Benefits of Wine
Chemical Compounds found in wine Polyphenols naturally occurring compounds found in fruit, vegetables, cereal and beverages Phenols and Polyphenols Phenolic acid Stilbenes Flavonoids Ligans Red wine has >200 phenolic compounds Can’t talk about the health benefits of wine without talking about the chemical compounds found in wine Phenols and polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidant in our diets/…. Over 8000 of these naturally occurring compounds have been identified………… These compounds have the ability to sequester free radicals and protect the body and its tissue from oxidative stress and have been shown to be protective against disease There are over 200 polyphenolic compounds identified in red wine.

14 Differentiated by their chemical composition
Flavonoids (high content in berries) as a group have been studied extensively and also stilbenes resveratrol found in grapes

15 Health Benefits of Wine
Resveratrol Phenolic compound Found in grapes skin, and leaves Amount varies by type of grape and wine Processing of the wine, can also affect the amount of resveratrol Measured in Micromoles per liter Marketing resveratrol content on labels Average in red wine 10 micromoles per liter There are many chemical compounds in wine which may have health benefits. The chemical compound which has been studied the most is Resveratrol….. More resveratrol in red than white as red wines are produced by maceration soaking of the grape skins in the mash Some varietals have a much higher concentration

16 Health Benefits of Wine
Other Compounds in Wine Catechin Quercetin Cinnanimates Alcohol Increase HDL Anti-clotting properties Cinnanimates – also found in cinnamon, quercetin abundant in onions catechins in green tea It is not one compound that is preventive against disease but more so the synergistic effect as they work together When compound are isolated and taken as supplements the same affects and benefits can not be reproduced Researchers are also looking at the bioavailability of some of these compounds and the health beneits are associated with how easily they are absorbed Alcohol alone can be protective against disease as Prevents platelets in the blood from sticking together, reducing clot formation and help to prevent heart attack and strokes

17 Epidemiological studies suggest inverse association between risk of chronic disease and a diet rich in polyphenols including red wine

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19 Health Benefits of Wine Bone Density
Heavy alcohol consumption associated with increase risk of fractures and interferes with the cellular process which creates bone Bone Mineral density in post menopausal women was increased with moderate alcohol consumption McLeron et al 2012 article published in the journal of clinical nutrition noted

20 Health Benefits of Wine Cancer
Alcohol is toxin and heavy consumption has been linked to breast, colon and esophageal cancer Antioxidant compounds in wine may reduce the risk of lung, ovarian and prostate cancer Resveratrol, decrease estrogen metabolites which promote development of breast cancer Reduce risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus Preliminary research linking antioxidant compounds found in wine to reduced risk for lung ovarian and esophageal cancer and 3 independent studies in 2009 published in Gastroenterology suggested moderate consumption of wine reduced risk of esophageal, adenocarcinoma and precancerous Barretts esophagus research from Yale school of public health questions women diagnosed with non Hodgkin's lymphoma regarding their wine consumption and found that women who consumed a moderate amount of wine for years prior to diagnosis were 33% less likely to die over the 5 year period that they were studied and were 26% less likely to experience relapse or secondary cancer .

21 Health Benefits of Wine Heart Disease
Lowers mortality rate and risk of heart disease Improve LDL/HDL ratio Reduce risk of gallstone secondary to lower cholesterol levels Anticoagulant properties of wine limit blood clotting and inhibit plaque formation Excessive alcohol consumption greater risk for heart disease, fatal cardiac arrhythmias, high blood pressure, weakened heart muscle and elevated cholesterol Moderate consumption

22 Health Benefits of Wine Other
Moderate alcohol consumption lower risk of developing Alzheimer's and dementia 2005 researchers linked moderate alcohol consumption to lower risk of developing Type 2 DM The antibacterial nature of alcohol my reduce risk of H- pylori bacterium Anti-oxidant properties of wine my have positive benefit in slowing macular degeneration Some of us my have experienced the short term impaired mental function of alcohol consumption to Improves whole body glucose homeostasis

23 Health Benefits of Wine Weight Loss
Alcohol can stimulate the appetite Drinking wine with meals can help slow stomach emptying time and potentially decrease the amount of food consumed with meals Arthur Agatston co –creator of the south beach diet stated Although wine has calories in it as well and moderate consumption of alcohol is stressed

24 Is it the Wine Alone? Digging Deeper into the French Paradox
Is it wine alone that contributed to the 40% reduction in heart attacks and other health benefits of wine Just talked about all of the health benefits of wine but researchers are now looking a little closer at the French Paradox and if it the power antioxidents in wine alone.

25 Is it the Wine Alone? Lifestyle habits Better diets Regular exercise
Non smokers Lower BMI *May be factors to support positive health benefits Wine drinkers tend to share similar lifestyle habits and have achieved a higher socio economic status which make researchers wonder if it the wine alone Mediterranean diet which are rich in polyphenols

26 Take Away Eat a Healthful diet Get regular exercise
Try to achieve a good weight for your height Lower your BMI Stop Smoking And have a glass of wine a day just in case it’s good for you! Adopt some of the lifestyle habits attributed to wine drinkers

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28 “Good Wine is a necessity of life for me”
Thomas Jefferson

29 References G.Harding”A Wine Miscellany, Clarkson Potter Publishing, New York 2005 J.Robinson”The Oxford Companion to Wine” Third Edition Oxford University Press 2006 Hugh,Johnson,Vintage:”The Story of Wine, Simon and Schuster 1989 P.Masson”The Father of the French Paradox” Wine Spectator, March 15, 1994 P.Masson”Eat Well, Drink Wisely, Live Longer” Wine Spectator, Nov. 29, 2001. Novel Antioxidant Reaction s of Cinnamates in Wine. Nick Emil Gislason, Bruce Lamonte Currie and Andrew Leo Waterhouse,J.Agric. Food Chem., 2011 Walter Bone . (2012) Recognizing and Treating Secondary Osteoporosis. Nat Rev Pheumatol 8(8): Alcohol Drinking.Lyon: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer 1988. S.Boyles”Research Shows Moderate Wine Drinkers May Have Less Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus”, WebMD C. Laino”Study Shows Wine Drinkers with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Les Likely to Die or Have Relapse” WebMD K.Zelman “Wine How Much Is Good for You” Web MD Oxid Med Cell Longev Nov-Dec; 2(5): 270–278 Tracy C. Shuman, MD”Alcohol and Heart Disease” Web MD J Agric Food Chem 2011 Jun 8;59(11): doi: /jf200115y. Epub 2011 May 11.

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