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Calculating and Interpreting Slope: Implications for School Psychologists Caitlin S. Flinn, Ed.S. & Andrew E. McCrea, M.S., NCSP ASPP/PSU Conference October.

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Presentation on theme: "Calculating and Interpreting Slope: Implications for School Psychologists Caitlin S. Flinn, Ed.S. & Andrew E. McCrea, M.S., NCSP ASPP/PSU Conference October."— Presentation transcript:

1 Calculating and Interpreting Slope: Implications for School Psychologists Caitlin S. Flinn, Ed.S. & Andrew E. McCrea, M.S., NCSP ASPP/PSU Conference October 8, 2009

2 Translations… ROI = Rate of Improvement, Slope ROI = Rate of Improvement, Slope RTI = Response to Intervention RTI = Response to Intervention SLD = Specific Learning Disability SLD = Specific Learning Disability DD = Dually Discrepant DD = Dually Discrepant

3 Overview Conceptualization Conceptualization Importance Importance Definitions Definitions Functions Functions Graphing in Excel Graphing in Excel Individual Graphs Individual Graphs Calculating ROI Calculating ROI Decision Making Decision Making Grounding the Data Grounding the Data Interpreting Growth Interpreting Growth Individual Student Student Groups Considerations Considerations

4 What is Rate of Improvement? Slope ProgressDevelopmentGrowthImprovementGraphsLines

5 Graphs in Education Core instruction efficacy Core instruction efficacy Batsche, et al., 2005 Batsche, et al., 2005 Data-driven instruction Data-driven instruction NCLB, 2001; IDEA, 2004 NCLB, 2001; IDEA, 2004 Incremental skill growth Incremental skill growth Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Young-Yon, 1997 Colvin, Sugai, Good, & Young-Yon, 1997 Intervention effectiveness Intervention effectiveness Batsche, Castillo, Dixon, & Forde, 2008 Batsche, Castillo, Dixon, & Forde, 2008 Setting goals Setting goals Shapiro, 2008 Shapiro, 2008 Progress monitoring Progress monitoring Wright, 2008; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1997 Wright, 2008; Fuchs & Fuchs, 1997

6 Graphs in Education Assessing level and rate Assessing level and rate Batsche, Castillo, Dixon, & Forde, 2008 Batsche, Castillo, Dixon, & Forde, 2008 Self monitoring Self monitoring Fuchs et al., 2006 Fuchs et al., 2006 IEP goals IEP goals Shinn, 2008 Shinn, 2008 Professional accountability Professional accountability Sulzer-Asaroff & Mayer, 1991 Sulzer-Asaroff & Mayer, 1991 Treatment integrity Treatment integrity Mortenson & Witt, 1998 Mortenson & Witt, 1998 Teacher performance feedback Teacher performance feedback Noell et al., 2005 Noell et al., 2005

7 Why do we like graphs so much? Seeing is believing! Seeing is believing! A picture is worth a thousand words! A picture is worth a thousand words! People remember People remember Speeches that included visuals, especially in color, improved immediate recall by 8.5% and delayed recall (3 days) by 10.1% (Vogel, Dickson, & Lehman, 1990) Speeches that included visuals, especially in color, improved immediate recall by 8.5% and delayed recall (3 days) by 10.1% (Vogel, Dickson, & Lehman, 1990) Visual aids are more effective for communicating large amounts of information quickly Visual aids are more effective for communicating large amounts of information quickly Transcend language barriers (Karwowski, 2006) Transcend language barriers (Karwowski, 2006)

8 Is seeing enough? If there are only two data points, basic slope calculation is accurate. If there are only two data points, basic slope calculation is accurate.

9 Why do I need to know ROI? This is also how to calculate an aimline. This is also how to calculate an aimline.

10 Why Bother with all the Data? If there are multiple data points, should you calculate the slope between the first and last data points only? If there are multiple data points, should you calculate the slope between the first and last data points only?

11 ROI in Educational Decisions Data (slope) (slope)Interpretation (progress?) (progress?)Decision Instructional Need

12 Quick Stretch of the Mind Data Data Benchmark: 77 Diego: 41 Interpretation Interpretation NOT GOOD! Decision Decision ??? Will Diego catch up? Will Diego catch up? Do you have enough info? Do you have enough info?

13 Quick Stretch of the Mind Data Data Benchmark: 77, 92 Diego: 41, 62, 63 Interpretation Interpretation Slightly better Decision Decision ??? Will Diego catch up? Will Diego catch up? Do you have enough info? Do you have enough info?

14 Quick Stretch of the Mind Data Data Benchmark: 77, 92 Diego: 41 … 104 Interpretation Interpretation Good work Decision Decision Cured!!! Will Diego maintain that progress? Will Diego maintain that progress?

15 Quick Stretch of the Mind Data Data Benchmark: 77, 92 Diego: 41 … 74 Interpretation Interpretation Ummm Decision Decision Uh oh… What EXACTLY IS Diegos Progress?? What EXACTLY IS Diegos Progress??

16 Quick Stretch of the Mind Now can you make a decision? Now can you make a decision?

17 Rationale for Importance of ROI Shift from discrepancy to RtI for SLD eligibility determination Shift from discrepancy to RtI for SLD eligibility determination Use of ROI to determine lack of RtI Use of ROI to determine lack of RtI Questions to be Empirically Answered Questions to be Empirically Answered What parameters of ROI indicate lack of RtI? What parameters of ROI indicate lack of RtI? How does ROI present between SLD and non-SLD? How does ROI present between SLD and non-SLD? What are reasonable goals using ROI? What are reasonable goals using ROI?

18 Rationale for Importance of ROI School psychological practices including more CBM as a result of IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2001 School psychological practices including more CBM as a result of IDEA 2004 and NCLB 2001 CBM is great because: CBM is great because: Comparisons Comparisons Dual discrepancy Dual discrepancy Efficient Efficient Federal regulations Federal regulations Graph Graph GOM GOM Goal setting Goal setting Instructional planning Instructional planning Multi-tiered assessment Multi-tiered assessment Match instructional level Match instructional level Norms available Norms available Parents Parents Progress monitoring Progress monitoring Survey level assessments Survey level assessments Sensitive to change Sensitive to change Screening Screening Systems-level Systems-level Technically adequate Technically adequate

19 Rate of Improvement Algebraic terms: Algebraic terms: slope is the change in the output because of the input, over time slope is the change in the output because of the input, over time a way of looking at growth a way of looking at growth Aimline: expected performance Aimline: expected performance Trendline: actual performance Trendline: actual performance Definitions: Definitions: Fuchs and Fuchs (1998) Fuchs and Fuchs (1998) Batsche, Castillo, Dixon, and Forde (2008) Batsche, Castillo, Dixon, and Forde (2008)

20 Rate of Improvement Shapiro (2008) Shapiro (2008) Criteria for setting reasonable, achievable, and ambitious goals Criteria for setting reasonable, achievable, and ambitious goals Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, Walz, and Germann (1993) Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, Walz, and Germann (1993) weekly rates of growth in curriculum-based measurements weekly rates of growth in curriculum-based measurements slopes between 1.5 and 2.0 times that of their peers were most likely to remediate skill deficits with current instruction slopes between 1.5 and 2.0 times that of their peers were most likely to remediate skill deficits with current instruction

21 Functions of ROI Comparisons Comparisons peers/class peers/class local norms/district local norms/district national norms national norms

22 Functions of ROI A decision tool A decision tool Shinns estimate for decision-making in RTI trainings in Pennsylvania (Kovaleski, 2008) Shinns estimate for decision-making in RTI trainings in Pennsylvania (Kovaleski, 2008) Slope of 2.0x or greater (than expected slope, to close the gap) Slope of 2.0x or greater (than expected slope, to close the gap)

23 Rate of Improvement and RTI Fuchs and Fuchs (1998) Fuchs and Fuchs (1998) hallmark components of RTI hallmark components of RTI ongoing formative assessment ongoing formative assessment identifying non-responsive students identifying non-responsive students treatment fidelity of core / supplemental instruction treatment fidelity of core / supplemental instruction dual discrepancy dual discrepancy a student performing at or greater than one standard deviation from typically performing peers in a student performing at or greater than one standard deviation from typically performing peers in (a) level (i.e., grade) and (a) level (i.e., grade) and (b) rate (slope) (b) rate (slope)

24 Eligibility and ROI School psychologists School psychologists Adopt use of additional information (CBM!) Adopt use of additional information (CBM!) Snapshot data Snapshot data Good day, bad day data Good day, bad day data Versus Versus Data continuously collected over time Data continuously collected over time Data that accounts for good days and bad days! Data that accounts for good days and bad days! Eyeball the graph vs. decision guidelines Eyeball the graph vs. decision guidelines

25 Determining SLD in an RTI Model Gresham, 2001 Gresham, 2001 RTI is viable alternative for identifying learning disabilities RTI is viable alternative for identifying learning disabilities Stuebing, Fletcher, LeDoux, Lyon, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 2002 Stuebing, Fletcher, LeDoux, Lyon, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 2002 Poor reliability and validity of discrepancy model Poor reliability and validity of discrepancy model

26 Determining SLD in an RTI Model Gresham, 2001 Gresham, models of RTI 3 models of RTI predictor-criterion predictor-criterion dual discrepancy dual discrepancy applied behavior analytic applied behavior analytic

27 Determining SLD in an RTI Model Gresham, 2001 Gresham, 2001 All three models involved: All three models involved: multiple tiers of intervention multiple tiers of intervention progress monitoring progress monitoring effective instructional strategies effective instructional strategies support for applying the RTI model to identifying students for learning disabilities support for applying the RTI model to identifying students for learning disabilities

28 Eligibility and ROI Deno, Fuchs, Marston, and Shin, 2001 Deno, Fuchs, Marston, and Shin, 2001 slopes of children identified as frequently non- responsive to robust interventions approximated the slopes of children already identified as having a specific learning disability slopes of children identified as frequently non- responsive to robust interventions approximated the slopes of children already identified as having a specific learning disability supportive evidence for dual-discrepancy model supportive evidence for dual-discrepancy model

29 Summary of ROI Research Through an RTI model, students receive instruction based on data. Rate of improvement, or slope, has surfaced in the literature as an indicator for making instructional decisions. Although research is expanding in terms of reliability and validity for both RTI and ROI, extant studies allude to strong utility for educational planning.

30 Skills Typically Graphed Reading Reading Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Word Use Fluency (WUF) Word Use Fluency (WUF) Reading Comprehension Reading Comprehension MAZE MAZE Retell Fluency Retell Fluency Early Literacy Skills Early Literacy Skills Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Spelling Spelling Written Expression Written Expression Behavior Behavior Math Math Math Computation Math Facts Early Numeracy Oral Counting Missing Number Number Identification Quantity Discrimination

31 Get out your laptops! Open Microsoft Excel I love ROI

32 Setting Up Your Spreadsheet Open Microsoft Excel Open Microsoft Excel In cell B2, type School Week to represent the weeks of school In cell B2, type School Week to represent the weeks of school In cell C2, type Benchmark to represent the benchmarks or goals of the skill you are graphing In cell C2, type Benchmark to represent the benchmarks or goals of the skill you are graphing In cell D2, type WPM to represent Words Per Minute (or an abbreviation the basic skill you are graphing)

33 Labeling School Weeks In cell B3, type 1 to represent the first week of school In cell B3, type 1 to represent the first week of school Continue numbering to 36 in column 2 Continue numbering to 36 in column 2 Why 36? Theres typically 36 school weeks per school year. Why 36? Theres typically 36 school weeks per school year. Finish at cell B38 Finish at cell B38

34 Entering Benchmarks/Goals In cell C3, type the number that represents the fall benchmark (months 1-3) of the skill you are graphing (e.g., 77). This score should be next to school week 1. In cell C3, type the number that represents the fall benchmark (months 1-3) of the skill you are graphing (e.g., 77). This score should be next to school week 1. In cell C20, type the number that represents the winter benchmark (months 4-6) of the skill you are graphing (e.g., 92). This score should be next to school week 18. In cell C20, type the number that represents the winter benchmark (months 4-6) of the skill you are graphing (e.g., 92). This score should be next to school week 18. In cell C38, type the number that represents the spring benchmark (months 7-10) of the skill you are graphing (e.g., 110). This score should be next to school week 36. In cell C38, type the number that represents the spring benchmark (months 7-10) of the skill you are graphing (e.g., 110). This score should be next to school week 36.

35 Entering Student Scores In cells D3 through D38 type the number that represents the score the student achieved during that week of the school year. In cells D3 through D38 type the number that represents the score the student achieved during that week of the school year. If a student was not assessed during a certain week of the school year, leave that cell blank*. If a student was not assessed during a certain week of the school year, leave that cell blank*.

36 Entering Student Scores *Do NOT enter zero (0) or a score of zero will be calculated into the trend line and interpreted as the student having read zero words correct per minute that week. *Do NOT enter zero (0) or a score of zero will be calculated into the trend line and interpreted as the student having read zero words correct per minute that week.

37 Creating a Graph Highlight the data in columns C and D. Highlight the data in columns C and D. Left click with mouse in cell C2. Left click with mouse in cell C2. While holding down mouse, highlight columns C and D from row 2 through row 38. While holding down mouse, highlight columns C and D from row 2 through row 38. These will be your data points contributing to your graph. These will be your data points contributing to your graph. The selection should include the blank cells in column C. The selection should include the blank cells in column C.

38 Creating a Graph Left click Insert in the tool bar (typically in the top row) while columns C and D are still highlighted. Left click Insert in the tool bar (typically in the top row) while columns C and D are still highlighted. Left click Chart in the drop-down menu. A Chart Wizard window will appear. Left click Chart in the drop-down menu. A Chart Wizard window will appear.

39 Creating a Graph In the Chart Wizard are two tabs. Make sure you are in the left tab, Standard Types. In the Chart Wizard are two tabs. Make sure you are in the left tab, Standard Types. Next, you want to left click on the Line graph on the left side of your Chart Wizard. Next, you want to left click on the Line graph on the left side of your Chart Wizard.

40 Creating a Graph On the right side is Chart sub-type. Choose the graph with the description Line with markers displayed at each data value. This option is typically the first graph icon in the second row. On the right side is Chart sub-type. Choose the graph with the description Line with markers displayed at each data value. This option is typically the first graph icon in the second row. Left click Next at the bottom of your Chart Wizard. Left click Next at the bottom of your Chart Wizard.

41 Creating a Graph The upper left tab says Data Range. The bottom half of that tab has your data range and series type. You want to select Columns. The upper left tab says Data Range. The bottom half of that tab has your data range and series type. You want to select Columns.

42 Creating a Graph The top right tab is labeled Series. Left click on Series The top right tab is labeled Series. Left click on Series The top half of the Series tab has an icon of your graph. The bottom half shows you the label your data for the legend. The top half of the Series tab has an icon of your graph. The bottom half shows you the label your data for the legend. Left click Next at the bottom of your Chart Wizard. Left click Next at the bottom of your Chart Wizard.

43 Creating a Graph The next options include tabs for Titles, Axes, Gridlines, etc. The next options include tabs for Titles, Axes, Gridlines, etc. If you would like to title your chart, left click on the Titles tab. Enter a title (i.e., Diegos Rate of Improvement) in the first box. If you would like to title your chart, left click on the Titles tab. Enter a title (i.e., Diegos Rate of Improvement) in the first box. Enter a description in the Category (X) Axis, which is your number of school weeks. Suggestion: School Week Enter a description in the Category (X) Axis, which is your number of school weeks. Suggestion: School Week Enter a description in your Value (Y) Axis, which is the number of the skill you are graphing. Suggestion: Words Per Minute. Enter a description in your Value (Y) Axis, which is the number of the skill you are graphing. Suggestion: Words Per Minute. Left click Next at the bottom of your Chart Wizard. Left click Next at the bottom of your Chart Wizard.

44 Numerical Label to Data Points Click on Data Labels Click on Data Labels Click to put a check mark next to Value Click to put a check mark next to Value Click on the Next Button Click on the Next Button Note: This can clutter your graph but provide useful info. Note: This can clutter your graph but provide useful info.

45 Creating a Graph Left click the bottom circle to choose As object in: … This will put the graph in the worksheet you have open. Left click the bottom circle to choose As object in: … This will put the graph in the worksheet you have open. Left click Finish in your Chart Wizard. This will place your graph in your Excel Document. Left click Finish in your Chart Wizard. This will place your graph in your Excel Document.

46 - OR -

47 Creating a Graph You can choose to have the graph created in a new worksheet within your Excel document. You can choose to have the graph created in a new worksheet within your Excel document. Click next to As new sheet… Click next to As new sheet… Label the worksheet by clicking on the tab at the bottom of the sheet and typing a name (i.e., Diegos Graph) Label the worksheet by clicking on the tab at the bottom of the sheet and typing a name (i.e., Diegos Graph) Left click Finish in your Chart Wizard. This will place your graph in a new sheet in your Excel Document. Left click Finish in your Chart Wizard. This will place your graph in a new sheet in your Excel Document.

48 Creating a Graph

49 Resizing the Graph You may resize the graph by clicking in any white space within your graph which will bring up squares at the corners of your graph. You may resize the graph by clicking in any white space within your graph which will bring up squares at the corners of your graph. You can put your mouse over these squares and drag the graph to a size you prefer. You can put your mouse over these squares and drag the graph to a size you prefer. Keep in mind that a large graph may not print easily. Keep in mind that a large graph may not print easily.

50 Coloring the Graph Right click in the gray area and a drop down menu appears Right click in the gray area and a drop down menu appears Click on Format Plot Area Click on Format Plot Area

51 Coloring the Graph The Format Plot Area menu appears. The Format Plot Area menu appears. To eliminate a color border, click next to None To eliminate a color border, click next to None To eliminate a color plot area, click next to None or choose a color. To eliminate a color plot area, click next to None or choose a color. Click OK Click OK

52 Coloring Data Points Right click on the data points for which you would like to change the color Right click on the data points for which you would like to change the color Click on Format Data Series Click on Format Data Series Choose the foreground, background, and line color Choose the foreground, background, and line color

53 Adding Trendlines RIGHT click on any of the students scores/data points within your graph. RIGHT click on any of the students scores/data points within your graph. Left click Add Trendline from the menu that appears. Left click Add Trendline from the menu that appears.

54 Adding Trendlines Under the Type tab, click on Linear. Under the Type tab, click on Linear. Under the Options tab, click next to Custom and type Diegos ROI Under the Options tab, click next to Custom and type Diegos ROI Click by Display Equation… Click by Display Equation… Click OK Click OK

55 Adding Trendlines Left clicking on the equation will highlight a box around it, and clicking on that box will allow you to move the equation above the chart legend to see it better. Left clicking on the equation will highlight a box around it, and clicking on that box will allow you to move the equation above the chart legend to see it better.

56 Adding Trendlines Repeat this process for the other set of data – your benchmarks. Begin by right clicking on any of your three goal data points. Repeat this process for the other set of data – your benchmarks. Begin by right clicking on any of your three goal data points. For your benchmark data, label the trendline title Expected Slope For your benchmark data, label the trendline title Expected Slope Click next to Display equation on chart Click next to Display equation on chart Click OK Click OK

57 Adding Trendlines Move your equation under the first one Move your equation under the first one

58 Lines, Lines, Lines

59 Cautions in Interpreting Slope (my disclaimer!) The graph depicts the actual scores as data points on the graph. The graph depicts the actual scores as data points on the graph. You can change the size of the font for the numeric values by right clicking on any of them and choosing a smaller font size. This may reduce some of the clutter on your graph. You can change the size of the font for the numeric values by right clicking on any of them and choosing a smaller font size. This may reduce some of the clutter on your graph. The rate of improvement, or trendline, is calculated using a linear regression, a simple equation of least squares. This line takes into account each score entered to portray an average rate of improvement across school weeks. The rate of improvement, or trendline, is calculated using a linear regression, a simple equation of least squares. This line takes into account each score entered to portray an average rate of improvement across school weeks. The equation indicates the slope, or rate of improvement. The number, or coefficient, before "x" is the average improvement, which in this case is the average number of words per minute per week gained by the student. The equation indicates the slope, or rate of improvement. The number, or coefficient, before "x" is the average improvement, which in this case is the average number of words per minute per week gained by the student.

60 Cautions in Interpreting Slope (my disclaimer continued!) The slope can change depending on which week (where) you put the benchmark scores on your chart. Enter benchmark scores based on when your school administers their benchmark assessments for the most accurate depiction of expected student progress. The slope can change depending on which week (where) you put the benchmark scores on your chart. Enter benchmark scores based on when your school administers their benchmark assessments for the most accurate depiction of expected student progress. To add additional progress monitoring/benchmark scores once youve already created a graph, enter additional scores in Column D in the corresponding school week. Remember to leave cells blank for the weeks that no score was obtained. The graph will incorporate that score into the set of data points and into the trendline. To add additional progress monitoring/benchmark scores once youve already created a graph, enter additional scores in Column D in the corresponding school week. Remember to leave cells blank for the weeks that no score was obtained. The graph will incorporate that score into the set of data points and into the trendline.

61 Program Excel to Calculate ROI Type ROI in cell B39 (below your last week of school) Type ROI in cell B39 (below your last week of school)

62 Program Excel to Calculate ROI To calculate the expected slope as per the benchmarks: To calculate the expected slope as per the benchmarks: Click on cell C39 Click on cell C39 Put your cursor at the top next to the fx Put your cursor at the top next to the fx Type: Type:=SLOPE(C3:C38,B3:B38) Hit Enter/Return Hit Enter/Return

63 Program Excel to Calculate ROI To calculate the students slope: To calculate the students slope: Click on cell D39 Click on cell D39 Put your cursor at the top next to the fx Put your cursor at the top next to the fx Type: Type:=SLOPE(D3:D38,B3:B38) Hit Enter/Return Hit Enter/Return

64 ROI as a Decision Tool within a Problem-Solving Model

65 Steps 1. Gather the data 2. Ground the data 3. Interpret the data 4. Figure out how to fit Best Practice into Public Education

66 Step 1: Gather Data Universal Screening Progress Monitoring

67 Common Screenings in PA DIBELS DIBELS AIMSweb AIMSweb MBSP MBSP 4Sight 4Sight PSSA PSSA

68 Validated Progress Monitoring Tools DIBELS DIBELS AIMSweb AIMSweb MBSP MBSP

69 Step 2: Ground the Data To what will we compare our student growth data?

70 Multiple Ways to Look at Growth Needed Growth Needed Growth Expected Growth & Percent of Expected Growth Expected Growth & Percent of Expected Growth Fuchs et. al. (1993) Table of Realistic and Ambitious Growth Fuchs et. al. (1993) Table of Realistic and Ambitious Growth Growth Toward Individual Goal* Growth Toward Individual Goal* *Best Practices in Setting Progress Monitoring Goals for Academic Skill Improvement (Shapiro, 2008)

71 Tigard-Tualatin School District (www.ttsd.k12.or.us) Looking at Percent of Expected Growth Tier I Tier II Tier III Greater than 150% Between 110% & 150% Possible LD Between 95% & 110% Likely LD Between 80% & 95% May Need More Likely LD Below 80% Needs More Likely LD

72 Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, Walz, & Germann (1993) Oral Reading Fluency Adequate Response Table Realistic Growth Ambitious Growth 1 st nd rd th th

73 Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, Walz, & Germann (1993) Digit Fluency Adequate Response Table Realistic Growth Ambitious Growth 1 st nd rd th th

74

75 Step 3: Interpreting Growth

76 What do we do when we do not get the growth we want? When to make a change in instruction and intervention? When to make a change in instruction and intervention? When to considered SLD? When to considered SLD?

77 When to make a change in instruction and intervention? Enough data points (6 to 10)? Enough data points (6 to 10)? Less than 100% of expected growth. Less than 100% of expected growth. Not on track to make benchmark (needed growth). Not on track to make benchmark (needed growth). Not on track to reach individual goal. Not on track to reach individual goal.

78 When to consider SLD? Continued inadequate response despite: Fidelity with Tier I instruction and Tier II intervention. Fidelity with Tier I instruction and Tier II intervention. Multiple attempts at intervention. Multiple attempts at intervention. Individualized Problem-Solving approach. Individualized Problem-Solving approach.

79 Whole Class Example

80 3 rd Grade Math Whole Class Whos responding? Whos responding? Effective math instruction? Effective math instruction? Who needs more? Who needs more? N=19 N=19 4 > 100% growth 4 > 100% growth 15 < 100% growth 15 < 100% growth 9 w/ negative growth 9 w/ negative growth

81 Small Group Example

82 Intervention Group Intervention working for how many? Intervention working for how many? Can we assume fidelity of intervention based on results? Can we assume fidelity of intervention based on results? Who needs more? Who needs more?

83 Individual Kid Example

84 Individual Kid Making growth? Making growth? How much (65% of expected growth). How much (65% of expected growth). Atypical growth across the year (last 3 data points). Atypical growth across the year (last 3 data points). Continue? Make a change? Need more data? Continue? Make a change? Need more data?

85 Step 4: Figure out how to fit Best Practice into Public Education

86 Things to Consider Who cares about Rate of Improvement? Who cares about Rate of Improvement? Who is At-Risk and needs progress monitoring? Who is At-Risk and needs progress monitoring? Who will collect, score, enter the data? Who will collect, score, enter the data? Who will monitor student growth, when, and how often? Who will monitor student growth, when, and how often? What changes should be made to instruction & intervention? What changes should be made to instruction & intervention?

87 Who cares about Rate of Improvement? Explaining the concept of RoI. Explaining the concept of RoI. Creating buy-in with ORF, M-CBM, etc. Creating buy-in with ORF, M-CBM, etc. Defending frequent data collection (the we spend too much time testing and not enough time teaching argument). Defending frequent data collection (the we spend too much time testing and not enough time teaching argument).

88 Who is At-Risk and needs progress monitoring? Below level on universal screening Below level on universal screening Entering 4 th Grade Example DORF (110) ISIP TRWM (55) 4Sight (1235) PSSA (1235) Student A Student B Student C

89 Who will collect, score, and enter the data? Using MBSP for math, teachers can administer probes to whole class. Using MBSP for math, teachers can administer probes to whole class. DORF probes must be administered one- on-one, and creativity pays off (train and use art, music, library, etc. specialists). DORF probes must be administered one- on-one, and creativity pays off (train and use art, music, library, etc. specialists). Schedule for progress monitoring math and reading every-other week. Schedule for progress monitoring math and reading every-other week.

90 Week 1 Week 2 ReadingMathReadingMath 1 st XX 2 nd XX 3 rd XX 4 th XX 5 th XX

91 Who will monitor student growth, when, and how often? Best Practices in Data-Analysis Teaming (Kovaleski & Pedersen, 2008) Best Practices in Data-Analysis Teaming (Kovaleski & Pedersen, 2008) Chambersburg Area School District Elementary Response to Intervention Manual (McCrea et. al., 2008) Chambersburg Area School District Elementary Response to Intervention Manual (McCrea et. al., 2008) Derry Township School District Response to Intervention Model (http://www.hershey.k12.pa.us/ /lib/ /_files/Microsoft _Word_-_Response_to_Intervention_Overview_of_Hershey_Elementary_Model.pdf) Derry Township School District Response to Intervention Model (http://www.hershey.k12.pa.us/ /lib/ /_files/Microsoft _Word_-_Response_to_Intervention_Overview_of_Hershey_Elementary_Model.pdf)

92 What changes should be made to instruction & intervention? Ensure treatment fidelity!!!!!!!! Ensure treatment fidelity!!!!!!!! Increase instructional time (active and engaged) Increase instructional time (active and engaged) Decrease group size Decrease group size Gather additional, diagnostic, information Gather additional, diagnostic, information Change the intervention Change the intervention

93 RoI and Behavior?

94

95 Check These Out

96 Check These Out Florida Center for Reading Research What Works Clearinghouse Rate of Improvement National Center on RtI

97 References Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon, D. N., & Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in linking assessment to intervention. In A. Thomas and J. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V. (pp ). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Batsche, G. M., Elliot, J., Graden, J. L., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation. Alexandria, VA: National Association of School Psychologists. Colvin, G., Sugai, G., Good, R. H., III, & Young-Yon, L. (1997). Using active supervision and precorrection to improve transition behaviors in an elementary school. School Psychology Quarterly, 12, Deno, S. L. (1985). Curriculum-based measurement: The emerging alternative. Exceptional Children, 52, Deno, S. L., & Fuchs, L. S. (1987). Developing curriculum-based measurement systems for databased special education problem solving. Focus on Exceptional Children, 19(8), Deno, S. L., Fuchs, L.S., Marston, D., & Shin, J. (2001). Using curriculum- based measurement to establish growth standards for students with learning disabilities. School Psychology Review, 30,

98 References Flinn, C. S. (2008). Graphing rate of improvement for individual students. InSight, 28(3), Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Walz, L., & Germann, G. (1993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth can we expect? School Psychology Review, 22, Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1998). Treatment validity: A unifying concept for reconceptualizing the identification of learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 13, Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (1997) Use of curriculum-based measurement in identifying students with learning disabilities. Focus on Exceptional Children, 30, 1–16. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C. L., Hope, S. K., Hollenback, K. N. Capizzi, A. M., Craddock, C. F., & Brothers, R. L. (2006). Extending responsiveness- to-intervention to math problem-solving at third grade. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38, Gresham, F. (2001, August). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. In R. Bradley, L. Danielson, & D. P. Hallahan (Eds.). Identification of learning disabilities: Research in practice (pp. 467–519). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004, Pub. L. No. 108,446.

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