Demkina Polina, Rizhova Nastya 3-rd year, 1 english
The history of Grammar can be roughly divided into: The first period (the end of the 16-th century – 1900) – prescientific grammar; The second period (20-th century)
Until the 17th century the term "grammar" in English was applied only to the study of Latin. William Lilly ( ) – the author of the most popular Latin grammars written in English.
Morphology: declinable and indeclinable parts of speech (W. Bullokar) words with number and words without number (Ben Jonson) words with number and case and words without number and case (Ch. Butler)
Beginning of the 18-th century - J. Brightland's grammar: Four parts of speech: names (i. e. nouns), qualities (i. e. adjectives), affirmations (i. e. verbs) particles, which included the four so called indeclinable parts of speech.
Syntax: the introduction of the notion "sentence Ben Jonson – English Grammar (1640)
Dates back to the second half of the 18th century; The most influential grammar – R.Lowth's Short Introduction to English Grammar (1762); The aim – to reduce the English language to rules and to set up a standard of correct usage
Can ne subdivided into: The first period (from the beginning of the 20lh century till the 1940's) – the prescriptive and the classical scientific grammar; The second period (from the 1940's) – plus structural and transformational grammar
J. C. Nesfield s grammar: The sentence has four distinct parts: (1 ) the Subject; (2) Adjuncts to the Subject (Attributive Adjuncts); (3) the Predicate; (4) Adjuncts of the Predicate (Adverbial Adjuncts)
C. T. Onions Advanced English Syntax (discuss the problems of the structure of English, there is a striking anticipation of the sentence patterns of descriptive linguistics)
Otto Jespersen – author of scientific grammars of the classical type His morphological system includes 5 parts of speech: substantives, adjectives, verbs, pronouns (include pronominal adverbs, and articles) "particles" (in which he groups adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections)
Ch.Fries: He classifies words into 4 "form classes", designated by numbers, and 15 groups of "function words", designated by letters.
It is organized in 3 basic parts: 1. its syntactic component; 2. the semantic component; 3. the phonological component.
Blokh M.Y.. A Course in Theoretical English Grammar. M., 2005