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EEE Electrical Properties of Materials Lecture 3

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The Drude Model zThe Drude model of electrical conduction was proposed in 1900 by Paul Drude to explain the transport properties of electrons in materials. zThe model assumes that the microscopic behavior of electrons in a solid may be treated classically and looks much like a pinball machine, with a sea of constantly jittering electrons bouncing and re-bouncing off heavier, relatively immobile positive ions. 6-Jan-142 Drude Model electrons (shown here in blue) constantly bounce between heavier, stationary crystal ions (shown in red).

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The Drude Model: Assumptions zThe Drude model considers the metal to be formed of a mass of positively-charged ions from which a number of "free electrons" were detached. These may be thought to have become delocalized when the valence levels of the atom came in contact with the potential of the other atoms. zThe Drude model neglects any long-range interaction between the electron and the ions or between the electrons. The only possible interaction of a free electron with its environment is via instantaneous collisions. The average time between subsequent collisions of such an electron is, and the nature of the collision partner of the electron does not matter for the calculations and conclusions of the Drude model. 6-Jan-143

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The Drude Model zThe two most significant results of the Drude model are an electronic equation of motion zAnd a linear relationship between current density, J and electric field, E zWhere t is the time and p, q, n, m, and are respectively an electron's momentum, charge, number density, mass, and mean free time between ionic collisions. 6-Jan-144

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5 Drude Conductivity Ohms Law: V = IR The Resistance R is a property of the conductor (e.g. a wire) which depends on its dimensions, V is a voltage drop & I is a current. In microscopic physics, it is more common to express Ohms Law in terms of a dimension-independent conductivity (or resistivity) which is intrinsic to the material the wire is made from. In this notation, Ohms Law is written E = j or j = E (1) Here, E = the electric field, j = the current density, the resistivity & the conductivity of the material. Consider n electrons per unit volume, all moving in the direction of the current with velocity v. The number of electrons crossing area A in time dt is nAvdt A

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6 The charge crossing A in dt is -nevAdt, so j = -nev. (2) In the real material, we expect the electrons to be moving randomly even in zero electric field due to thermal energy. However, they will have an average, or drift velocity along the field direction. Combining (2) & (3) gives j = (ne 2 m)E. Comparison of this with (1) gives the Drude conductivity: v drift = -eE m This comes from integrating Newtons 2 nd Law over time. This is the velocity that must be related to j. (3)

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Electron Scattering zElectron scattering is the process whereby an electron is deflected from its original trajectory. zElectrons can be scattered by other charged particles through the electrostatic Coulomb forces. zFurthermore, if a magnetic field is present, a traveling electron will be deflected by the Lorentz force. 6-Jan-147

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What causes scattering? zPhonon Scattering zIonized Impurity Scattering zNeutral Atom/Defect Scattering zCarrier-Carrier Scattering zPiezoelectric Scattering

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Mobility zThe electron mobility characterizes how quickly an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor, when pulled by an electric field. zIn semiconductors, there is an analogous quantity for holes, called hole mobility. zThe term carrier mobility refers in general to both electron and hole mobility in semiconductors. 6-Jan-149

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Mobility zElectrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is pulling them. zWhen an electric field is applied across a piece of material, the electrons respond by moving with an average velocity called the drift velocity. Then the electron mobility μ is defined as where: E is the magnitude of the electric field applied to a material, v d is the magnitude of the electron drift velocity (in other words, the electron drift speed) caused by the electric field, and µ is the electron mobility. zSI unit of mobility is (m/s)/(V/m) = m2/(V·s). 6-Jan-1410

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Drift Velocity in an Electric Field zWithout any applied electric field, in a solid, electrons (or, in the case of semiconductors, both electrons and holes) move around randomly. Therefore, on average there will be no overall motion of charge carriers in any particular direction over time. However, when an electric field is applied, each electron is accelerated by the electric field. If the electron were in a vacuum, it would be accelerated to faster and faster velocities (called ballistic transport). However, in a solid, the electron repeatedly scatters off crystal defects, phonons, impurities, etc. Therefore, it does not accelerate faster and faster; instead it moves with a finite average velocity, called the drift velocity. This net electron motion is usually much slower than the normally occurring random motion. 6-Jan-1411

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Resistivity and Conductivity 6-Jan-1412 Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current. Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity, and measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. A conductor such as a metal has high conductivity and a low resistivity. An insulator like glass has low conductivity and a high resistivity. The conductivity of a semiconductor is generally intermediate, but varies widely under different conditions, such as exposure of the material to electric fields or specific frequencies of light, and, most important, with temperature and composition of the semiconductor material.

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Temperature Dependence of Metal Resistivity zIn general, electrical resistivity of metals increases with temperature. Mathematically the temperature dependence of the resistivity ρ of a metal is given by the Bloch–Grüneisen formula: 6-Jan-1413

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©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

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where = temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity Change of resistivity with temperature for a metal

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©2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

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Matthiessens Rule The resistivity of a metallic material is given by the addition of a base resistivity that accounts for the effect of temperature, and a temperature independent term that reflects the effect of atomic level defects, including impurities forming solid solutions.

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Matthiessen's Rule: Mobility 6-Jan-1420

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