Presentation on theme: "Dont Know Much About American Church History? Class 4: Reconstruction, WW I, Al Smith, FDR, JFK, WW II, Korean War, Catholic Culture, Vatican II."— Presentation transcript:
Dont Know Much About American Church History? Class 4: Reconstruction, WW I, Al Smith, FDR, JFK, WW II, Korean War, Catholic Culture, Vatican II
Last Week We left off with America at the end of the Civil War, 1865 Catholics distinguished by bravery Irish more integrated Problem of 3 million newly freed slaves
Church Response Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1866) Should we evangelize 3 million African Americans? At the same time- how to deal with Catholic immigrants coming into the country.
Church Response Strategic decision made to hold onto the Europeans flowing in instead of evangelizing African Americans
Church Response This does not mean that the Church totally ignored African Americans Religious groups setup schools Catholic parishes setup for African Americans National collection for the Black and Indian Mission Rome- foster African American vocations to evangelize other African Americans.
Fr. Augustine Tolton
Conclusion African American Catholicism pretty much lay led National Conference of Black Catholics National Conference of Black Catholics
Sidebar: Developments ,347 nuns and 1,109 priests ,340 nuns and 11,636 priests Catholic population 12,041,000 June 29, Pope St. Pius X issued apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio Removed from jurisdiction of Congregation de Propaganda Fide
World War I Begins War begins in Europe in August, 1914 United States stays neutral until 1917
World War I Bishops decide to meet about this new situation First time since 1890 Catholic Church in America had met. Meeting thanks to the singular vision of Fr. John Burke, CSP Editor of the Catholic World Founder of the Chaplains Aid Association
The Meeting Burke and otherscalled the meeting to be held for two days, beginning on August 11, 1917 at the Catholic University of America 115 delegates from 68 dioceses attended Establish National Catholic War Council
National Catholic War Council For the next year and a half, the council coordinated Catholic efforts to assist with the war. At the end of the war, the Bishop of Rockford, Peter Muldoon, calls for a similar organization in peace This organization, the National Catholic Welfare Council, first met in September, 1919
NCWC Meets Opposition Not all were happy about this Some bishops go to the Vatican to protest- Benedict XV draws up a decree dissolving it, but dies Pius XI signs the decree weeks later. Bishop Schrembs of Cleveland rushes to Rome and wins approval for the council changed to conference Forerunner to USCCB
Msgr. John A. Ryan Head of NCWC Social Action Department A Living Wage, 1906 Social Reconstruction: A General Review of the Problem and Survey of the Remedies, 1919 Collective Bargaining Minimum Wage Act Social Security System Unemployment and Health insurance Child labor laws Public housing National Employment Service
Resurgence of Nativism At the same time the Church was organizing nationally, a new wave of anti-Catholic propaganda began to be circulated
1928 Presidential Election These two factors come to a head in the 1928 presidential campaign First major political party nominates a Catholic Al Smith
Al Smiths Biography Born in Brooklyn in 1873 Attends St. James School until age 14 At 30- Runs for NY State Legislator At 40- Becomes Speaker of the Assembly At 45- Elected Governor Decides to run for President
Nominated Al Smith was nominated by FDR FDR runs for governor of NY Base did not like him because he wanted to end prohibition. Criticized personally greatly- unusual Alcohol Smith Newsboy Al Degree from FFM
GOP Nominee Herbert Hoover Quaker Greatly respected A chicken in every pot, a car in every garage. If Al Smith wins, Rum, Romanism, and Ruin
The October Surprise Charles C. Marshall wrote an article challenging Smith How do we know you arent going to turn the country over to the pope? Primacy of pope or constitution? Where will you come down on issues, e.g. marriage, divorce, education, censorship?
The Response Al Smith has one week to respond Meets with Jesuits to respond Governor of New York for four terms- never choose religion over constitution Favor public education I do not read encyclicals In this spirit, I join with fellow Americans of all creeds in a fervent prayer that never again in this land will any public servant be challenged because of the faith in which he has tried to walk humbly with his God.
Catholic Culture After this defeat, 20 million Catholics make a conscious decision to build their own culture and organizations, which would stay in contact with the culture, but they would not.
Examples Newspapers The Catholic Hour Life is Worth Living Catholic Digest Catholic Associations of Professionals Knights of Columbus Era of Catholic Films
Work of NCWC Takes on Hollywood Originally a Catholic town Bishop John Cantwell becomes bishop- horrified Fatty Arbuckle WC Fields May West William H. Hays Office formed- censorship Legion of Decency
FDR Realigned the country politically with his new deal coalition Key in this coalition were Catholics
American Catholics and WWII Archbishop of Detroit, Edward Mooney, wrote President Roosevelt two weeks after Pearl Harbor, assuring him of Catholic support NCWC writes a letter in Victory and Peace Saw US and Allies in a deadly conflict with nations bent on enslaving the world
Archbishop Spellman Archbishop Spellman, the Archbishop of New York was also head of the military chaplains 3,036 military chaplains Traveled to Africa after the disaster at Kasserine Pass percent of total US military Catholic
End of the War American Catholics were concerned as more people fell behind the Iron Curtain Many Catholics were in these countries Toward the end of the war- a concern about bombing cities Yet after the atomic bombings, 53.5 percent of Catholics approved of the bombings and many bishops said nothing.
Korean War We shall see the Korean War through the eyes of a chaplain who has local connections and has now been proposed for sainthood Fr. Emil J. Kapaun
Fr. Kapaun Born in Pilsen, Kansas, on Holy Thursday, April 20, 1916 Attended Kenrick Seminary and ordained for the Diocese of Wichita, Kansas on June 9, 1940 Entered US Chaplain Corps. in 1944, discharged in 1946, and reentered in 1948
To Korea July, ordered to Korea November 2, POW Over the next seven months, served his fellow prisoners without distinction heroically Got a blood clot in his leg and was soon sent to a hospital Died on May 23, 1951
John F. Kennedy, 1960 Democratic Candidate for President Again, another anti- Catholic response Kennedy responds
Second Vatican Council Pope John XXIII calls the Second Vatican Council United States part of the change countries, along with Germany, France, England, Canada, and Australia 216 bishops at Vatican II Ecumenism, hope of new unity of Christians, cooperation on social issues
American Contribution Dignitatis humanae- Declaration on Religious Freedom Often referred to as the American Document John Courtney Murphy, SJ Views on Religious Freedom got him on the outs with the Roman authorities Brought to the council by American bishops
Dignitatis humanae At the third session, Murphy began to tutor the American bishops During debates- all the American bishops began talking off the same points Approved 2,308-70