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Don’t Know Much About American Church History?

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Presentation on theme: "Don’t Know Much About American Church History?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Don’t Know Much About American Church History?
Class 4: Reconstruction, WW I, Al Smith, FDR, JFK, WW II, Korean War, Catholic Culture, Vatican II

2 Last Week We left off with America at the end of the Civil War, 1865
Catholics distinguished by bravery Irish more integrated Problem of 3 million newly freed slaves

3 Church Response Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1866)
Should we evangelize 3 million African Americans? At the same time- how to deal with Catholic immigrants coming into the country. Final session attended by President Andre Johnston Dealt with a variety of doctrinal, disciplinary, and liturgical questions Archbishop Kenrick almost causes the council to implode due to inflexibility

4 Church Response Strategic decision made to hold onto the Europeans flowing in instead of evangelizing African Americans Wanted something like the situation of the serfs of Europe- gradual emancipation False belief that African Americans would like the pomp of the Church Church really lacked small faith communities/revivals

5 Church Response This does not mean that the Church totally ignored African Americans Religious groups setup schools Catholic parishes setup for African Americans National collection for the Black and Indian Mission Rome- foster African American vocations to evangelize other African Americans. Failure- no cohesive plan put down- left to local ordinaries to decide Kenrick threatened to resign when a personal diocese was proposed Really left up to local bishops and religious communities Really wanted their own parishes

6 Born in NE Missouri around Kirksville
Born in NE Missouri around Kirksville. Parents were slaves and Catholics. Son thinks about becoming a priest- Diocese of Alton Sent to Rome to study Bishop wants him to become a missionary in Africa- he says no- becomes a parish priest- first ordained for African American community Great homilist, but priests were very jealous that he was stealing parishioners, because he was a great homilist. Goes to Chicago- finds St. Monica- the gold standard of an African American parish in America. People in Quincy move to Chicago to be in that parish. Dies at 43- thinks life to be a failure. Fr. Augustine Tolton

7 Conclusion African American Catholicism pretty much lay led
National Conference of Black Catholics

8 Sidebar: Developments 1870--1917
,347 nuns and 1,109 priests ,340 nuns and 11,636 priests Catholic population 12,041,000 June 29, Pope St. Pius X issued apostolic constitution Sapienti Consilio Removed from jurisdiction of Congregation de Propaganda Fide

9 World War I Begins War begins in Europe in August, 1914
United States stays neutral until 1917

10 World War I Bishops decide to meet about this new situation
First time since 1890 Catholic Church in America had met. Meeting thanks to the singular vision of Fr. John Burke, CSP Editor of the Catholic World Founder of the Chaplains’ Aid Association

11 The Meeting Burke and otherscalled the meeting to be held for two days, beginning on August 11, 1917 at the Catholic University of America 115 delegates from 68 dioceses attended Establish National Catholic War Council Burke appointed to lead this- executive council from other diocese Placed on the committee of six- advisory body to Newton Baker- Sec. of War (religious matters)

12 National Catholic War Council
For the next year and a half, the council coordinated Catholic efforts to assist with the war. At the end of the war, the Bishop of Rockford, Peter Muldoon, calls for a similar organization in peace This organization, the National Catholic Welfare Council, first met in September, 1919 First time in US Church History that as an institution came together and work on something like this.

13 NCWC Meets Opposition Not all were happy about this
Some bishops go to the Vatican to protest- Benedict XV draws up a decree dissolving it, but dies Pius XI signs the decree weeks later. Bishop Schrembs of Cleveland rushes to Rome and wins approval for the council 1923- changed to conference Forerunner to USCCB Signed on Feb. 25, 1922 Conference-gives less weight to and no status in Canon Law.

14 Msgr. John A. Ryan Head of NCWC Social Action Department
A Living Wage, 1906 Social Reconstruction: A General Review of the Problem and Survey of the Remedies, 1919 Collective Bargaining Minimum Wage Act Social Security System Unemployment and Health insurance Child labor laws Public housing National Employment Service

15 Resurgence of Nativism
At the same time the Church was organizing nationally, a new wave of anti-Catholic propaganda began to be circulated

16 1928 Presidential Election
2 factors- Catholics coming out and Americanism These two factors come to a head in the 1928 presidential campaign First major political party nominates a Catholic Al Smith

17 Al Smith’s Biography Born in Brooklyn in 1873
Attends St. James School until age 14 At 30- Runs for NY State Legislator At 40- Becomes Speaker of the Assembly At 45- Elected Governor Decides to run for President Great respect due to knowledge of constitution.

18 Nominated Al Smith was nominated by FDR FDR runs for governor of NY
Base did not like him because he wanted to end prohibition. Criticized personally greatly- unusual Alcohol Smith Newsboy Al Degree from FFM Base in the South Personal criticism not prevelant after Civil War- politics was seen as the work of gentlemen Newsboy as a boy- newsboy Al Fulton Fish Market vs. Hoover, who had a degree in Electrical Engineering

19 GOP Nominee Herbert Hoover Quaker Greatly respected
“A chicken in every pot, a car in every garage.” If Al Smith wins, “Rum, Romanism, and Ruin” Called the “Boy Wonder” Greatly respected due to the Belgian Food Relief of Woodrow Wilson sends him over and he literally fed the entire county.

20 The October Surprise Charles C. Marshall wrote an article challenging Smith How do we know you aren’t going to turn the country over to the pope? Primacy of pope or constitution? Where will you come down on issues, e.g. marriage, divorce, education, censorship? Atlantic Monthly

21 The Response Al Smith has one week to respond
Meets with Jesuits to respond Governor of New York for four terms- never choose religion over constitution Favor public education I do not read encyclicals “In this spirit, I join with fellow Americans of all creeds in a fervent prayer that never again in this land will any public servant be challenged because of the faith in which he has tried to walk humbly with his God.”

22 Looses the election-> Joke that sends pope a telegram to “Unpack!”
The Result

23 Catholic Culture After this defeat, 20 million Catholics make a conscious decision to build their own culture and organizations, which would stay in contact with the culture, but they would not.

24 Examples Newspapers “The Catholic Hour” Life is Worth Living
Catholic Digest Catholic Associations of Professionals Knights of Columbus Era of Catholic Films Life is Worth Living television show- Began in Broadcast on Tuesday evenings in prime-time on ABC. Audience of 30 million. 30,000 fan letters in one day. Put against him the Texaco Comedy Hour with Milton Berle- lost.Radio program “The Catholic Hour” Formula Entrance- Always begins with a joke, followed by the nights question- topic of the hour. Questions that all people are interested in. Next 10 minutes- explain the problem. He appeals to a broader audience- never appeals to the sacraments, the Church, or Catholicism. Goes 27.5 minutes Era of Catholic Films- handout

25 Work of NCWC Takes on Hollywood Originally a Catholic town
Bishop John Cantwell becomes bishop- horrified “Fatty” Arbuckle WC Fields May West William H. Hays Office formed- censorship Legion of Decency “Fatty” Arbuckle- builds a palace for himself- becomes a house of ill-repute with alcohol and sex. Generally an open secret- people looked the other way WC Fields- Pushed the envelope in terms of innuendos. May West- Infamous for her double meanings. Hays office- no teeth Legion of Decency-> Catholics watch and give their opinion on the film. Code No Nudity- Hays Office successful hereNo homosexual discussion No profiting from crime- crime doesn’t pay. No graphic violence. “Be careful”Crime. Vice, esp. adultery- has to be done in good taste, and with heartbreak. Legion- very successful- able to tell CatholicsA-1 and A-2- Ok for children (A-1) or A-2 (adults), B (Bad), and C (condemned)

26 FDR Realigned the country politically with his new deal coalition
Key in this coalition were Catholics

27 American Catholics and WWII
Archbishop of Detroit, Edward Mooney, wrote President Roosevelt two weeks after Pearl Harbor, assuring him of Catholic support NCWC writes a letter in “Victory and Peace” Saw US and Allies in a deadly conflict with nations bent on enslaving the world

28 Archbishop Spellman Archbishop Spellman, the Archbishop of New York was also head of the military chaplains 3,036 military chaplains Traveled to Africa after the disaster at Kasserine Pass 25-35 percent of total US military Catholic Friend of FDR

29 End of the War American Catholics were concerned as more people fell behind the Iron Curtain Many Catholics were in these countries Toward the end of the war- a concern about bombing cities Yet after the atomic bombings, 53.5 percent of Catholics approved of the bombings and many bishops said nothing. One of great levelers- GI Bill- Catholics go to college Bishops write a pastoral letter expressing their concern Theologians condemn bombing- no proportionate reason

30 Korean War We shall see the Korean War through the eyes of a chaplain who has local connections and has now been proposed for sainthood Fr. Emil J. Kapaun

31 Fr. Kapaun Born in Pilsen, Kansas, on Holy Thursday, April 20, 1916
Attended Kenrick Seminary and ordained for the Diocese of Wichita, Kansas on June 9, 1940 Entered US Chaplain Corps. in 1944, discharged in 1946, and reentered in 1948

32 To Korea July, 1950- ordered to Korea November 2, 1950- POW
Over the next seven months, served his fellow prisoners without distinction heroically Got a blood clot in his leg and was soon sent to a “hospital” Died on May 23, 1951

33 John F. Kennedy, 1960 Democratic Candidate for President
Again, another anti- Catholic response Kennedy responds Stop c. 4:30

34 Second Vatican Council
1959- Pope John XXIII calls the Second Vatican Council United States part of the “change” countries, along with Germany, France, England, Canada, and Australia 216 bishops at Vatican II Ecumenism, hope of new unity of Christians, cooperation on social issues

35 American Contribution
Dignitatis humanae- Declaration on Religious Freedom Often referred to as the American Document John Courtney Murphy, SJ Views on Religious Freedom got him on the outs with the Roman authorities Brought to the council by American bishops

36 Dignitatis humanae At the third session, Murphy began to tutor the American bishops During debates- all the American bishops began talking off the same points Approved 2,308-70

37 Reflection Questions Anything strike you?

38 Until Next Time...

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