Presentation on theme: "Don’t Know Much About American Church History?"— Presentation transcript:
1Don’t Know Much About American Church History? Class 4: Reconstruction, WW I, Al Smith, FDR, JFK, WW II, Korean War, Catholic Culture, Vatican II
2Last Week We left off with America at the end of the Civil War, 1865 Catholics distinguished by braveryIrish more integratedProblem of 3 million newly freed slaves
3Church Response Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1866) Should we evangelize 3 million African Americans?At the same time- how to deal with Catholic immigrants coming into the country.Final session attended by President Andre JohnstonDealt with a variety of doctrinal, disciplinary, and liturgical questionsArchbishop Kenrick almost causes the council to implode due to inflexibility
4Church ResponseStrategic decision made to hold onto the Europeans flowing in instead of evangelizing African AmericansWanted something like the situation of the serfs of Europe- gradual emancipationFalse belief that African Americans would like the pomp of the ChurchChurch really lacked small faith communities/revivals
5Church ResponseThis does not mean that the Church totally ignored African AmericansReligious groups setup schoolsCatholic parishes setup for African AmericansNational collection for the Black and Indian MissionRome- foster African American vocations to evangelize other African Americans.Failure- no cohesive plan put down- left to local ordinaries to decideKenrick threatened to resign when a personal diocese was proposedReally left up to local bishops and religious communitiesReally wanted their own parishes
6Born in NE Missouri around Kirksville Born in NE Missouri around Kirksville. Parents were slaves and Catholics. Son thinks about becoming a priest- Diocese of Alton Sent to Rome to study Bishop wants him to become a missionary in Africa- he says no- becomes a parish priest- first ordained for African American community Great homilist, but priests were very jealous that he was stealing parishioners, because he was a great homilist. Goes to Chicago- finds St. Monica- the gold standard of an African American parish in America. People in Quincy move to Chicago to be in that parish. Dies at 43- thinks life to be a failure.Fr. Augustine Tolton
7Conclusion African American Catholicism pretty much lay led National Conference of Black Catholics
8Sidebar: Developments 1870--1917 ,347 nuns and 1,109 priests,340 nuns and 11,636 priestsCatholic population 12,041,000June 29, Pope St. Pius X issued apostolic constitution Sapienti ConsilioRemoved from jurisdiction of Congregation de Propaganda Fide
9World War I Begins War begins in Europe in August, 1914 United States stays neutral until 1917
10World War I Bishops decide to meet about this new situation First time since 1890 Catholic Church in America had met.Meeting thanks to the singular vision of Fr. John Burke, CSPEditor of the Catholic WorldFounder of the Chaplains’ Aid Association
11The MeetingBurke and otherscalled the meeting to be held for two days, beginning on August 11, 1917 at the Catholic University of America115 delegates from 68 dioceses attendedEstablish National Catholic War CouncilBurke appointed to lead this- executive council from other diocesePlaced on the committee of six- advisory body to Newton Baker- Sec. of War (religious matters)
12National Catholic War Council For the next year and a half, the council coordinated Catholic efforts to assist with the war.At the end of the war, the Bishop of Rockford, Peter Muldoon, calls for a similar organization in peaceThis organization, the National Catholic Welfare Council, first met in September, 1919First time in US Church History that as an institution came together and work on something like this.
13NCWC Meets Opposition Not all were happy about this Some bishops go to the Vatican to protest- Benedict XV draws up a decree dissolving it, but diesPius XI signs the decree weeks later.Bishop Schrembs of Cleveland rushes to Rome and wins approval for the council1923- changed to conferenceForerunner to USCCBSigned on Feb. 25, 1922Conference-gives less weight to and no status in Canon Law.
14Msgr. John A. Ryan Head of NCWC Social Action Department A Living Wage, 1906Social Reconstruction: A General Review of the Problem and Survey of the Remedies, 1919Collective BargainingMinimum Wage ActSocial Security SystemUnemployment and Health insuranceChild labor lawsPublic housingNational Employment Service
15Resurgence of Nativism At the same time the Church was organizing nationally, a new wave of anti-Catholic propaganda began to be circulated
161928 Presidential Election 2 factors- Catholics coming out and AmericanismThese two factors come to a head in the 1928 presidential campaignFirst major political party nominates a CatholicAl Smith
17Al Smith’s Biography Born in Brooklyn in 1873 Attends St. James School until age 14At 30- Runs for NY State LegislatorAt 40- Becomes Speaker of the AssemblyAt 45- Elected GovernorDecides to run for PresidentGreat respect due to knowledge of constitution.
18Nominated Al Smith was nominated by FDR FDR runs for governor of NY Base did not like him because he wanted to end prohibition.Criticized personally greatly- unusualAlcohol SmithNewsboy AlDegree from FFMBase in the SouthPersonal criticism not prevelant after Civil War- politics was seen as the work of gentlemenNewsboy as a boy- newsboy AlFulton Fish Market vs. Hoover, who had a degree in Electrical Engineering
19GOP Nominee Herbert Hoover Quaker Greatly respected “A chicken in every pot, a car in every garage.”If Al Smith wins, “Rum, Romanism, and Ruin”Called the “Boy Wonder”Greatly respected due to the Belgian Food Relief of Woodrow Wilson sends him over and he literally fed the entire county.
20The October SurpriseCharles C. Marshall wrote an article challenging SmithHow do we know you aren’t going to turn the country over to the pope?Primacy of pope or constitution?Where will you come down on issues, e.g. marriage, divorce, education, censorship?Atlantic Monthly
21The Response Al Smith has one week to respond Meets with Jesuits to respondGovernor of New York for four terms- never choose religion over constitutionFavor public educationI do not read encyclicals“In this spirit, I join with fellow Americans of all creeds in a fervent prayer that never again in this land will any public servant be challenged because of the faith in which he has tried to walk humbly with his God.”
22Looses the election-> Joke that sends pope a telegram to “Unpack!” The Result
23Catholic CultureAfter this defeat, 20 million Catholics make a conscious decision to build their own culture and organizations, which would stay in contact with the culture, but they would not.
24Examples Newspapers “The Catholic Hour” Life is Worth Living Catholic DigestCatholic Associations of ProfessionalsKnights of ColumbusEra of Catholic FilmsLife is Worth Living television show- Began in Broadcast on Tuesday evenings in prime-time on ABC. Audience of 30 million. 30,000 fan letters in one day.Put against him the Texaco Comedy Hour with Milton Berle- lost.Radio program “The Catholic Hour”Formula Entrance- Always begins with a joke, followed by the nights question- topic of the hour. Questions that all people are interested in. Next 10 minutes- explain the problem. He appeals to a broader audience- never appeals to the sacraments, the Church, or Catholicism. Goes 27.5 minutesEra of Catholic Films- handout
25Work of NCWC Takes on Hollywood Originally a Catholic town Bishop John Cantwell becomes bishop- horrified“Fatty” ArbuckleWC FieldsMay WestWilliam H. Hays Office formed- censorshipLegion of Decency“Fatty” Arbuckle- builds a palace for himself- becomes a house of ill-repute with alcohol and sex.Generally an open secret- people looked the other wayWC Fields- Pushed the envelope in terms of innuendos. May West- Infamous for her double meanings.Hays office- no teethLegion of Decency-> Catholics watch and give their opinion on the film. Code No Nudity- Hays Office successful hereNo homosexual discussion No profiting from crime- crime doesn’t pay. No graphic violence. “Be careful”Crime. Vice, esp. adultery- has to be done in good taste, and with heartbreak. Legion- very successful- able to tell CatholicsA-1 and A-2- Ok for children (A-1) or A-2 (adults), B (Bad), and C (condemned)
26FDR Realigned the country politically with his new deal coalition Key in this coalition were Catholics
27American Catholics and WWII Archbishop of Detroit, Edward Mooney, wrote President Roosevelt two weeks after Pearl Harbor, assuring him of Catholic supportNCWC writes a letter in “Victory and Peace”Saw US and Allies in a deadly conflict with nations bent on enslaving the world
28Archbishop SpellmanArchbishop Spellman, the Archbishop of New York was also head of the military chaplains3,036 military chaplainsTraveled to Africa after the disaster at Kasserine Pass25-35 percent of total US military CatholicFriend of FDR
29End of the WarAmerican Catholics were concerned as more people fell behind the Iron CurtainMany Catholics were in these countriesToward the end of the war- a concern about bombing citiesYet after the atomic bombings, 53.5 percent of Catholics approved of the bombings and many bishops said nothing.One of great levelers- GI Bill- Catholics go to collegeBishops write a pastoral letter expressing their concernTheologians condemn bombing- no proportionate reason
30Korean WarWe shall see the Korean War through the eyes of a chaplain who has local connections and has now been proposed for sainthoodFr. Emil J. Kapaun
31Fr. Kapaun Born in Pilsen, Kansas, on Holy Thursday, April 20, 1916 Attended Kenrick Seminary and ordained for the Diocese of Wichita, Kansas on June 9, 1940Entered US Chaplain Corps. in 1944, discharged in 1946, and reentered in 1948
32To Korea July, 1950- ordered to Korea November 2, 1950- POW Over the next seven months, served his fellow prisoners without distinction heroicallyGot a blood clot in his leg and was soon sent to a “hospital”Died on May 23, 1951
33John F. Kennedy, 1960 Democratic Candidate for President Again, another anti- Catholic responseKennedy respondsStop c. 4:30
34Second Vatican Council 1959- Pope John XXIII calls the Second Vatican CouncilUnited States part of the “change” countries, along with Germany, France, England, Canada, and Australia216 bishops at Vatican IIEcumenism, hope of new unity of Christians, cooperation on social issues
35American Contribution Dignitatis humanae- Declaration on Religious FreedomOften referred to as the American DocumentJohn Courtney Murphy, SJViews on Religious Freedom got him on the outs with the Roman authoritiesBrought to the council by American bishops
36Dignitatis humanaeAt the third session, Murphy began to tutor the American bishopsDuring debates- all the American bishops began talking off the same pointsApproved 2,308-70