Presentation on theme: "World English Vs. World Englishes"— Presentation transcript:
1World English Vs. World Englishes Wednesday Sharing SessionDecember 2, 2009Presented by: Sonny Soentanto
2Definitions & Explanations World English:is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, Continental English or General English.Sometimes "international English" and the related terms above refer to a desired standardisation, i.e. Standard English; however, there is no consensus on the path to this goal.World Englishes:„Any language variety of English including those developed by communities in which English was not indigenous in modern history.“ ( The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics, 2007, p. 234)
3Why English Has Become a World Language Historical reasons: spread through trade and colonization, wars, and cultural dissemination.Educational reasons: English is much more developed than other languages.Political reasons: Language of super power and language of political institutionIntellectual reasons: scientific, technological, and academic info available in EnglishEconomic reasons: working language in mncsPractical reasons: international air traffic, emergency servicesEntertainment reasons: language of popular music, cultures, broadcasting
4World (New) EnglishesForms of New Englishes not uniform in characteristics, but share criteria:developed through education systemdeveloped in an area where English wasnot spoken by majority of peoplehas become „nativised“ by own languagefeatures( after J.Jenkins, World Englishes,2003,p 22/23)
5The Concepts of ENL, ESL & EFL Three distinct forms of usersincreasingly difficult to classify speakers belonging to only one groupbut important starting point to understand distinctions and spread of New & World EnglishesMay 2007May 2007
6ENL English as Native Language language of people born &raised in countries, where English is (historically) the first languagecountries like: UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand-> as „traditional, cultural & linguistic bases“around 350 million ENL speakers around the worldNot one single variety, differences in territories (e.g. UK and US)Norm providing and spoken in the Inner Circle
7ESL English as Second Language people living in territories like India, Bangladesh, Nigeria and SingaporeCountries former colonised by British->English gained importance in administrationEnglish serves official purpose within the country in law, education and governmentalso worldwide around 350 million speakersNorm developing and labeled as non-standard, illegitimate, interlanguage, bad, deviant, half baked
8EFL English as Foreign Language For speakers of EFL English serves no purpose in own countryHistorically learned for communication with ENL speakersNowadays used for communication with other non-native speakersNorm dependent and used in Expanding CircleExample for EFL: Indonesia
9Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes most influential model describing spread of World EnglishConnected to the ENL, ESL, EFL conceptsKachru divides World Englishes in three concentric circles
10Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes The Inner CircleCountries: UK, USA, Canada,Australia, New Zealand-> ENL countriesSpoken English as „norm providing“English-language standards determined by ENL speakers (Inner Circle)
11Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes The Outer CircleCountries: Bangladesh, Singapore,India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,Tanzania, Malaysia,…-> ESL countriesSpoken English regarded as „norm developing“ (developing own standards)
12Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes The Expanding CircleCountries: China, Egypt, Indonesia, Taiwan, Korea, Israel,…-> EFL countriesSpoken English regarded as “norm performing“-> standards from Inner & Outer Circles are performed / taken overBut no official status, therefore dependent on standards set by Inner Circle
13Kachru‘s three cirlce model of world Englishes CriticismModel implies uniformity of countries within one circle-> not true: even in Inner Circle differences in amount of liguistic diversitytodays Immigration left out of accountgrey area between Outer and Expanding Circle -> countries in transition from EFL to ESL status, like: Argentina, Belgium, Denmark…
14Mc Arthur‘s circle of World English Inner Circle:World Standard English-> but not existing in identifiable formOuter Circle:Band of regional varieties of Englishstandard standardising forms forms
15Mc Arthur‘s circle of World English „crowded fringe“Dividing the world into 8 seperate regionsDescribe subvarieties of the standard & standardising formsExamples: Welsh English, Quebec English,…Summary example:WSEAmerican Standard EnglishMidland
16Singapore English - Short Overview About History Singapore was originally part of the Sri Vijaya kingdom of Sumatrain 1819 the British trader Sir Stamford Raffles leased the island from the Sultan of Johoreit became the 'Straits Settlements' with Malacca and Penang in 1826 (under the East India Company)1867 British colonytaken by Japanese in 1942 (WW II) but became British again in 1945self-government in 1959part of the Federartion of Malay from 1963 to 1965then independent state
17Singapore English - General Facts four official languages in Singapore English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay and TamilEnglish is the language of the law courts, government administration and education,6 percent of students attended English-medium schools (others attended Chinese- and Tamil-medium schools)since 1987 English is the exclusive medium for primary, secondary and tertiary educationmain language of commerce and businessmain feature: wide social range of its users
18The Concept of basilect and acrolect use of English Social dialectic conceptAcrolect (standard):Used for international communicationAnd for formal & public intranational interactionBasilect (colloquial):Used for informal intranational communication
19Singapore English - General Facts on the other hand home-grown colloquial style - so called Singlishserves the young as a means of solidarity, relaxing and being oneselfvigorous, slangy and creative languageat the higher level there's a government-backed normative variety based on British Englishspoken with a near-RP accentused by Singapore Broadcasting Corporationinfluenced by American usage
20Singapore English - Particular Features Chinese influenceChinese particles la(h) and aa/ah used to express emphasis and emotionla(h) as a token of informal intimacy → Can you come tonight? Can lah/Cannot lahaa/ah in yes-no questions → You wait me, aa? instead of Will you wait for me?I come tonight, ah? instead of Should I come tonight?You think I scared of you, ah?
21Singapore English - Particular Features Chinese-style interjectionsay yaah! to express surprise or exasperationay yor! to express pain or wonder or bothay yer! indicating a reaction to something unpleasant and maybe unexptectedche! expressing irritation or regret
22Singapore English - Pronounciation vowels in words such as take, so and dare are often single vowels as in Scottish English and not diphthongs as in RPreduction of final consonant clusters to one spoken consonantjuss for 'just'tol for 'told'slep for 'slept'
23Singapore English - Grammar tendency of omittingarticles You have pen or not?plural inflection -s I got two sister and three brother.present-tense inflection -s This radio sound good.past-tense inflectinon -ed/-t ask for asked and slep for slept
24Singapore English - Grammar direct and indirect objects are often placed first → Me you don't give it to. instead of You didn't give it to me.also used more often than too, especially at the end of a sentence → But we are supposed to learn Chinese also.
25Singapore English - Grammar ways of checking if someone agrees or disagrees or can or cannot do something are pretty informalAre you coming? Yes or not?Like it or not?Are you going? Can or not?Enough or not?
26Singapore English - Vocabulary English words with re-applied meaningssend meaning 'take' → I will send you home.open meaning 'put on' → Open the light.close meaning 'put off' → Close the light.take suggesting 'eat, drink, like' → Do you take hot food?
27Singapore English - Vocabulary formal and informal style are less distinct from each other than in British and American usagethat results in a mix of highly colloquial and highly formal use → her deceased hubby rather then her dead husbandwords taken from regional languagesfor example the Malayan word makan (food) → Let's have some makan.
28The Implication for LIA No need to bother about World Englishes if you teach EC, ET, EA.Expose the students to World Englishes if you teach CV, CIB etc. to raise their awareness and tolerance and provide your students with cross-cultural communication strategies.