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World English Vs. World Englishes Wednesday Sharing Session December 2, 2009 Presented by: Sonny Soentanto.

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Presentation on theme: "World English Vs. World Englishes Wednesday Sharing Session December 2, 2009 Presented by: Sonny Soentanto."— Presentation transcript:

1 World English Vs. World Englishes Wednesday Sharing Session December 2, 2009 Presented by: Sonny Soentanto

2 2 Definitions & Explanations World English: World English: is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, Continental English or General English. is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects, and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. It is also referred to as Global English, World English, Common English, Continental English or General English.English languageEnglish language Sometimes "international English" and the related terms above refer to a desired standardisation, i.e. Standard English; however, there is no consensus on the path to this goal. Standard EnglishStandard English World Englishes: World Englishes: Any language variety of English including those developed by communities in which English was not indigenous in modern history. ( The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics, 2007, p. 234) Any language variety of English including those developed by communities in which English was not indigenous in modern history. ( The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics, 2007, p. 234)

3 Why English Has Become a World Language Historical reasons: spread through trade and colonization, wars, and cultural dissemination. Historical reasons: spread through trade and colonization, wars, and cultural dissemination. Educational reasons: English is much more developed than other languages. Educational reasons: English is much more developed than other languages. Political reasons: Language of super power and language of political institution Political reasons: Language of super power and language of political institution Intellectual reasons: scientific, technological, and academic info available in English Intellectual reasons: scientific, technological, and academic info available in English Economic reasons: working language in mncs Economic reasons: working language in mncs Practical reasons: international air traffic, emergency services Practical reasons: international air traffic, emergency services Entertainment reasons: language of popular music, cultures, broadcasting Entertainment reasons: language of popular music, cultures, broadcasting 3

4 4 World (New) Englishes Forms of New Englishes not uniform in characteristics, but share criteria: Forms of New Englishes not uniform in characteristics, but share criteria: developed through education system developed through education system developed in an area where English was developed in an area where English was not spoken by majority of people not spoken by majority of people has become nativised by own language has become nativised by own language features features ( after J.Jenkins, World Englishes,2003,p 22/23) ( after J.Jenkins, World Englishes,2003,p 22/23)

5 5 May 2007May 2007 The Concepts of ENL, ESL & EFL Three distinct forms of users Three distinct forms of users increasingly difficult to classify speakers belonging to only one group increasingly difficult to classify speakers belonging to only one group but important starting point to understand distinctions and spread of New & World Englishes but important starting point to understand distinctions and spread of New & World Englishes

6 6 ENL English as Native Language language of people born &raised in countries, where English is (historically) the first language language of people born &raised in countries, where English is (historically) the first language countries like: UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand countries like: UK, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand -> as traditional, cultural & linguistic bases around 350 million ENL speakers around the world around 350 million ENL speakers around the world Not one single variety, differences in territories (e.g. UK and US) Not one single variety, differences in territories (e.g. UK and US) Norm providing and spoken in the Inner Circle Norm providing and spoken in the Inner Circle

7 7 ESL English as Second Language people living in territories like India, Bangladesh, Nigeria and Singapore people living in territories like India, Bangladesh, Nigeria and Singapore Countries former colonised by British Countries former colonised by British ->English gained importance in administration English serves official purpose within the country in law, education and government English serves official purpose within the country in law, education and government also worldwide around 350 million speakers also worldwide around 350 million speakers Norm developing and labeled as non-standard, illegitimate, interlanguage, bad, deviant, half baked Norm developing and labeled as non-standard, illegitimate, interlanguage, bad, deviant, half baked

8 8 EFL English as Foreign Language For speakers of EFL English serves no purpose in own country For speakers of EFL English serves no purpose in own country Historically learned for communication with ENL speakers Historically learned for communication with ENL speakers Nowadays used for communication with other non-native speakers Nowadays used for communication with other non-native speakers Norm dependent and used in Expanding Circle Norm dependent and used in Expanding Circle Example for EFL: Indonesia Example for EFL: Indonesia

9 9 Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes most influential model describing spread of World English most influential model describing spread of World English Connected to the ENL, ESL, EFL concepts Connected to the ENL, ESL, EFL concepts Kachru divides World Englishes in three concentric circles Kachru divides World Englishes in three concentric circles

10 10 Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes The Inner Circle Countries: UK, USA, Canada,Australia, New Zealand Countries: UK, USA, Canada,Australia, New Zealand -> ENL countries Spoken English as norm providing Spoken English as norm providing English-language standards determined by ENL speakers (Inner Circle) English-language standards determined by ENL speakers (Inner Circle)

11 11 Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes The Outer Circle Countries: Bangladesh, Singapore, Countries: Bangladesh, Singapore, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Malaysia,… Tanzania, Malaysia,… -> ESL countries Spoken English regarded as norm developing (developing own standards) Spoken English regarded as norm developing (developing own standards)

12 12 Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes The Expanding Circle Countries: China, Egypt, Indonesia, Taiwan, Korea, Israel,… Countries: China, Egypt, Indonesia, Taiwan, Korea, Israel,… -> EFL countries Spoken English regarded as norm performing Spoken English regarded as norm performing -> standards from Inner & Outer Circles are performed / taken over But no official status, therefore dependent on standards set by Inner Circle But no official status, therefore dependent on standards set by Inner Circle

13 13 Kachrus three cirlce model of world Englishes Criticism Model implies uniformity of countries within one circle Model implies uniformity of countries within one circle -> not true: even in Inner Circle differences in amount of liguistic diversity todays Immigration left out of account todays Immigration left out of account grey area between Outer and Expanding Circle -> countries in transition from EFL to ESL status, like: Argentina, Belgium, Denmark… grey area between Outer and Expanding Circle -> countries in transition from EFL to ESL status, like: Argentina, Belgium, Denmark…

14 14 Mc Arthurs circle of World English Mc Arthurs circle of World English Inner Circle: World Standard English World Standard English -> but not existing in identifiable form Outer Circle: Band of regional varieties of English Band of regional varieties of English standard standardising forms forms standard standardising forms forms

15 15 Mc Arthurs circle of World English crowded fringe Dividing the world into 8 seperate regions Dividing the world into 8 seperate regions Describe subvarieties of the standard & standardising forms Describe subvarieties of the standard & standardising forms Examples: Welsh English, Quebec English,… Examples: Welsh English, Quebec English,… Summary example: Summary example: WSE WSE American Standard English Midland Midland

16 16 Singapore English - Short Overview About History Singapore was originally part of the Sri Vijaya kingdom of Sumatra Singapore was originally part of the Sri Vijaya kingdom of Sumatra in 1819 the British trader Sir Stamford Raffles leased the island from the Sultan of Johore in 1819 the British trader Sir Stamford Raffles leased the island from the Sultan of Johore it became the 'Straits Settlements' with Malacca and Penang in 1826 (under the East India Company) it became the 'Straits Settlements' with Malacca and Penang in 1826 (under the East India Company) 1867 British colony 1867 British colony taken by Japanese in 1942 (WW II) but became British again in 1945 taken by Japanese in 1942 (WW II) but became British again in 1945 self-government in 1959 self-government in 1959 part of the Federartion of Malay from 1963 to 1965 part of the Federartion of Malay from 1963 to 1965 then independent state then independent state

17 17 Singapore English - General Facts four official languages in Singapore English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay and Tamil four official languages in Singapore English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay and Tamil English is the language of the law courts, government administration and education English is the language of the law courts, government administration and education ,6 percent of students attended English- medium schools (others attended Chinese- and Tamil-medium schools) ,6 percent of students attended English- medium schools (others attended Chinese- and Tamil-medium schools) since 1987 English is the exclusive medium for primary, secondary and tertiary education since 1987 English is the exclusive medium for primary, secondary and tertiary education main language of commerce and business main language of commerce and business main feature: wide social range of its users main feature: wide social range of its users

18 18 The Concept of basilect and acrolect use of English Social dialectic concept Social dialectic concept Acrolect (standard): Acrolect (standard): Used for international communication Used for international communication And for formal & public intranational interaction And for formal & public intranational interaction Basilect (colloquial): Basilect (colloquial): Used for informal intranational communication Used for informal intranational communication

19 19 Singapore English - General Facts at the higher level there's a government-backed normative variety based on British English at the higher level there's a government-backed normative variety based on British English spoken with a near-RP accent spoken with a near-RP accent used by Singapore Broadcasting Corporation used by Singapore Broadcasting Corporation influenced by American usage influenced by American usage on the other hand home- grown colloquial style - so called Singlish on the other hand home- grown colloquial style - so called Singlish serves the young as a means of solidarity, relaxing and being oneself serves the young as a means of solidarity, relaxing and being oneself vigorous, slangy and creative language vigorous, slangy and creative language

20 20 Singapore English - Particular Features Chinese influence Chinese influence Chinese particles la(h) and aa/ah used to express emphasis and emotion Chinese particles la(h) and aa/ah used to express emphasis and emotion la(h) as a token of informal intimacy Can you come tonight? Can lah/Cannot lah la(h) as a token of informal intimacy Can you come tonight? Can lah/Cannot lah aa/ah in yes-no questions You wait me, aa? instead of Will you wait for me? aa/ah in yes-no questions You wait me, aa? instead of Will you wait for me? I come tonight, ah? instead of Should I come tonight? I come tonight, ah? instead of Should I come tonight? You think I scared of you, ah? You think I scared of you, ah?

21 21 Singapore English - Particular Features Chinese-style interjections Chinese-style interjections ay yaah! to express surprise or exasperation ay yaah! to express surprise or exasperation ay yor! to express pain or wonder or both ay yor! to express pain or wonder or both ay yer! indicating a reaction to something unpleasant and maybe unexptected ay yer! indicating a reaction to something unpleasant and maybe unexptected che! expressing irritation or regret che! expressing irritation or regret

22 22 Singapore English - Pronounciation vowels in words such as take, so and dare are often single vowels as in Scottish English and not diphthongs as in RP vowels in words such as take, so and dare are often single vowels as in Scottish English and not diphthongs as in RP reduction of final consonant clusters to one spoken consonant reduction of final consonant clusters to one spoken consonant juss for 'just' juss for 'just' tol for 'told' tol for 'told' slep for 'slept' slep for 'slept'

23 23 Singapore English - Grammar tendency of omitting tendency of omitting articles You have pen or not? articles You have pen or not? plural inflection -s I got two sister and three brother. plural inflection -s I got two sister and three brother. present-tense inflection -s This radio sound good. present-tense inflection -s This radio sound good. past-tense inflectinon -ed/-t ask for asked and slep for slept past-tense inflectinon -ed/-t ask for asked and slep for slept

24 24 Singapore English - Grammar direct and indirect objects are often placed first Me you don't give it to. instead of You didn't give it to me. direct and indirect objects are often placed first Me you don't give it to. instead of You didn't give it to me. also used more often than too, especially at the end of a sentence But we are supposed to learn Chinese also. also used more often than too, especially at the end of a sentence But we are supposed to learn Chinese also.

25 25 Singapore English - Grammar ways of checking if someone agrees or disagrees or can or cannot do something are pretty informal ways of checking if someone agrees or disagrees or can or cannot do something are pretty informal Are you coming? Yes or not? Are you coming? Yes or not? Like it or not? Like it or not? Are you going? Can or not? Are you going? Can or not? Enough or not? Enough or not?

26 26 Singapore English - Vocabulary English words with re-applied meanings English words with re-applied meanings send meaning 'take' I will send you home. send meaning 'take' I will send you home. open meaning 'put on' Open the light. open meaning 'put on' Open the light. close meaning 'put off' Close the light. close meaning 'put off' Close the light. take suggesting 'eat, drink, like' Do you take hot food? take suggesting 'eat, drink, like' Do you take hot food?

27 27 Singapore English - Vocabulary formal and informal style are less distinct from each other than in British and American usage formal and informal style are less distinct from each other than in British and American usage that results in a mix of highly colloquial and highly formal use her deceased hubby rather then her dead husband that results in a mix of highly colloquial and highly formal use her deceased hubby rather then her dead husband words taken from regional languages words taken from regional languages for example the Malayan word makan (food) Let's have some makan. for example the Malayan word makan (food) Let's have some makan.

28 28 The Implication for LIA No need to bother about World Englishes if you teach EC, ET, EA. No need to bother about World Englishes if you teach EC, ET, EA. Expose the students to World Englishes if you teach CV, CIB etc. to raise their awareness and tolerance and provide your students with cross-cultural communication strategies. Expose the students to World Englishes if you teach CV, CIB etc. to raise their awareness and tolerance and provide your students with cross-cultural communication strategies.


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