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NEW OPPORTUNITIES TO SYNCHRONIZE ESTRUS AND FACILITATE FIXED-TIME AI Division of Animal Sciences University of Missouri-Columbia July 6, 2005 DJ Patterson,

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Presentation on theme: "NEW OPPORTUNITIES TO SYNCHRONIZE ESTRUS AND FACILITATE FIXED-TIME AI Division of Animal Sciences University of Missouri-Columbia July 6, 2005 DJ Patterson,"— Presentation transcript:

1 NEW OPPORTUNITIES TO SYNCHRONIZE ESTRUS AND FACILITATE FIXED-TIME AI Division of Animal Sciences University of Missouri-Columbia July 6, 2005 DJ Patterson, MF Smith, and DJ Schafer

2 The current status of reproductive technology in the U.S. beef cattle industry……

3 Reproductive Technologies Available or on the Horizon Estrus synchronization and AI Ultrasonography Sexed semen Embryo transfer In vitro production of embryos Transgenics (pharming) Cloning Male fertility

4 The U.S. Beef Herd 69% of cow-calf enterprises are secondary income sources 50% of producers report an established breeding season of specific duration 34% of beef herds are routinely pregnancy checked 10% of beef cattle enterprises utilize AI

5 Whats happening in adoption of technology in the beef industry on a global basis?

6 Total Domestic Sales of Beef Semen In the U.S. …... Hough,, 2002

7 Comparison of AI Use In Beef Cattle (U.S. vs. Brazil)

8 Import and Domestic Beef Semen Sales (units sold) ,117, ,025,116 -8% change ,874, ,896, % change From NAAB, 2003; ASBIA, 2003

9 Unless efforts are taken to implement change in the U.S. beef cattle industry, the products of our research and technology may be exported to more competitive international markets (Patterson et al., 2000). Unless efforts are taken to implement change in the U.S. beef cattle industry, the products of our research and technology may be exported to more competitive international markets (Patterson et al., 2000).

10 Why are we here?

11 Artificial insemination and estrus synchronization are generally regarded as the most important and applicable of all available biotechnologies to the beef cattle industry (Seidel, 1995).

12 From NAHMS Survey, 1998

13 Improvements in methods to synchronize estrus create the opportunity to significantly expand the use of AI in the U.S. cowherd ………………….

14 A unique point in time for the U.S. beef industry……… Availability of tools and understanding of methods to control the estrous cycle in cattle A changing market structure that recognizes and rewards quality

15 A unique point in time……… If we dont impact use of AI among beef producers in the U.S. in the near future, will we ever?

16 The challenge of transferring technology (estrus synchronization and AI) to the private sector exceeds the task of research and development of still newer technologies………. The challenge of transferring technology (estrus synchronization and AI) to the private sector exceeds the task of research and development of still newer technologies……….

17 Collectively Adopt common terminology regarding the various estrus synchronization protocols Identify and agree upon short lists of protocols heifers and cows heat detect and AI vs fixed-time AI Work to overcome the attitude of What will this cost me? ….to… Im willing to make an investment in my herd

18 Effective Estrus Synchronization Programs for Beef Cattle Facilitate AI & ET Reduce time required to detect estrus Cycling females conceive earlier in the breeding period Induce cyclicity in peripubertal heifers and anestrous postpartum cows

19 Objective: Development of highly effective & economical estrus synchronization programs Peripubertal heifers Postpartum cows Anestrus and estrous cycling Excellent pregnancy rates

20 Currently Available Products Currently Available Prostglandin Lutalyse, Estrumate, ProstaMate, In Synch, EstroPlan GnRH Cystorelin, Factrel, Fertagyl, OvaCyst Progestins MGA CIDR

21 What We Know About MGA...

22 Progesterone Pregn-4-ene-3, 20-dioneProgesterone O O C C O O CH 3 MGA (melengestrol acetate) 6-methyl-17-alpha-acetoxy-16-methylene-pregn-4, 6-diene-3, 20-dioneMGA (melengestrol acetate) 6-methyl-17-alpha-acetoxy-16-methylene-pregn-4, 6-diene-3, 20-dione C C O O CH 3 O O O O O O C C CH 2

23 What We Know About MGA... Induces puberty in beef heifers (Imwalle et al., 1998) Prevents expression of behavioral estrus (Zimbelman and Smith, 1966; Imwalle et al., 2002) Blocks the preovulatory surge of LH (Imwalle et al., 2002) Blocks ovulation (Zimbelman and Smith, 1966; Imwalle et al., 2002)

24 HEIFERS

25 Reproductive Tract Scores (RTS) Adapted from Anderson et al., 1991 RTS Length > 32 Height Width Ovarian Measurement (mm) Description Infantile Prepubertal Peripubertal Cycling Uterine horns Immature < 20 mm diameter No tone mm diameter No tone mm diameter Slight tone 30 mm diameter good tone > 30 mm diameter Ovarian Structures No palpable follicles 8 mm follicles 8-10 mm follicles > 10 mm follicles CL possible CL present

26 Reproductive Tract Scores (RTS) Summary RTS n Weight (lb) 594 a 620 b 697 c 733 d 755 d Pelvic Width (cm) 10.9 a 11.2 a 11.4 b 11.7 c Pelvic Height (cm) 13.9 a 14.1 a 14.5 b 14.7 c Pelvic Area (cm 2 ) 152 a 158 a 166 b 172 c Estrous Response (%) 54 a 66 b 76 c 83 d 86 d Adapted from Patterson and Bullock, 1995 a, b, c, d Numbers with different superscripts within a column differ (P < 0.05)

27 Exposed21-d PR 2 42-d PR 3 TPR 4 RTS 1 NS 5 (n) SAI 6 (n) NS (%) SAI (%) NS (%) SAI (%) NS (%) SAI (%) a 42 a 63 c 55 c 63 e 60 e a 52 b 54 c 68 d 75 e 82 e a 58 b 65 c 74 d 82 e 87 f a 62 b 72 c 77 d 91 e 87 f a 64 b 74 c 80 d 88 e TOT a 61 b 68 c 73 d 85 e 87 e a,b Means within rows for 21-d PR with different superscripts differ (P <.05) c,d Means within rows for 42-d PR with different superscripts differ (P <.05) e,f Means Within rows for TPR with different superscripts differ (P <.05) From Randle and Patterson, 2005 Comparison of reproductive performance in herds using natural service or synchronization and AI on replacement heifers by RTS

28 MGA (14 days) PG PG Synchronized estrus Treatment days Estrus Brown et al., 1988

29 MGA-PG d Improved estrous response Improved estrous response More heifers in heat More heifers in heat Similar fertility Similar fertility No change in conception or pregnancy rate No change in conception or pregnancy rate Improved synchrony Improved synchrony More heifers in heat in a shorter time More heifers in heat in a shorter time (Deutscher et al., 2000; Lamb et al., 2000)

30 MGA (14 days) PG Wood et al., 2001 MGA-PG Treatment days MGA (14 days) PGGnRH MGA Select

31 Wood et al., 2001

32

33 When to Add GnRH to an MGA-PG Protocol for Heifers Consideration of.... Age Weight Reproductive tract score (RTS) Pubertal status Wood et al., 2000; Kojima et al., 2001

34 How do MGA- and CIDR-based protocols compare in heifers?

35 MGA (14 days) Treatment day days days days days.... GnRH PG Experimental Protocols Kojima et al., 2004 CIDR (14 days) MGA Select 14-d CIDR

36 Experimental Procedures 352 yearling crossbred beef heifers at three locations Location 1 n = 154 (Southeast Missouri) Location 2 n = 113 (North Dakota) Location 3 n = 85 (North central Missouri) Heifers were assigned to one of two treatments (MGA or CIDR) by age and weight Kojima et al., 2004

37 Days after PG % of Heifers Inseminated Summary for Timing of AI No treatment x location effect (P > 0.10); therefore, data were pooled Distribution of AI dates were different between MGA- and CIDR-treated heifers (P < 0.02) CIDR (n = 177) MGA (n = 175) 0% 1% 10% 15% 69% 53% 5% 10% 16% 21% PG Kojima et al., 2004

38 112/177 (63 %) a 83/175 (47 %) b 195/352 (55 %) AI Pregnancy a, b P = % CIDR MGA Total 154/177 (87 %) 147/175 (84 %) 301/352 (86 %) Estrous Response Estrous Response, AI Pregnancy, and Final Pregnancy Rates + 3 % Diff. 164/177 (93 %) 159/175 (91 %) 323/352 (92 %) Final Pregnancy + 2 % Kojima et al., 2004

39 Summary In yearling beef heifers: CIDR-GnRH-PG improved synchrony of estrus compared with MGA Select CIDR-GnRH-PG improved AI pregnancy rate over MGA Select Kojima et al., 2004

40 COWS

41 How do MGA-based protocols perform in synchronizing estrus in mixed populations of postpartum beef cows? (estrous cycling and anestrus)

42 Precise control of the bovine estrous cycle requires the synchronization of both luteal and follicular functions.

43 Protocols MGA (14 days) Treatment day MGA Select MGA 7-11 Synch PGGnRH PG GnRH PG Kojima et al., 2000; Wood et al., 2001

44 These protocols were hypothesized to…… Improve estrous response and pregnancy rates during the synchronized period Effectively synchronize estrus in estrous cycling cows Induce cyclicity in anestrous cows Prevent short cycles among anestrous cows induced to ovulate

45 These protocols were hypothesized to…… Reduce the period of time required to detect estrus Facilitate fixed-time AI

46 How do MGA Select and 7-11 Synch compare on the basis of synchronized estrus and pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows with AI performed on the basis of detected estrus?

47 MGA Select vs Synch AI performed after detected estrus No difference in estrous response Improvement in synchrony of estrus among 7-11 Synch treated cows (P < 0.01) No difference in synchronized conception or pregnancy rates No difference in final pregnancy rate Stegner et al., 2004

48 NR Time after PG, h Cows in estrus, no MGA Select 7-11 Synch Stegner et al., 2004

49 Pregnancy rate No.(%) MGA Select Patterson et al., / Patterson et al., / Stegner et al., / Combined total195/ Synch Kojima et al., /44 68 Stegner et al., / Combined total101/ Pregnancy Rates of Cows Inseminated after Detected Estrus

50 How do MGA Select and 7-11 Synch compare on the basis of pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows inseminated at predetermined fixed times?

51 MGA Select 72 hr 80 hr 72 hr 48 hr Time of AI after PG 64% 50% Stegner et al., % Perry et al., % Stevenson et al., 2003 Pregnancy rate

52 7-11 Synch 61%60 hr Unpublished data., % 59% 48 hr 60 hr Kojima et al., %60 hr Kojima et al., %60 hr Kojima et al., %48 hr Hixon et al., 2001 Pregnancy rate Time of AI after PG

53 Bader et al. (2004) compared pregnancy rates resulting from fixed-time AI among suckled beef cows assigned to the MGA Select or 7-11 Synch protocols.

54 Protocols … … … 72 hr MGA (14 days) Treatment day MGA Select MGA 7-11 Synch … … 60 hr PG GnRH PG AI GnRH AI Bader et al., 2004

55 Location Days postpartum Body condition scoreEstrous cycling No.% 150 ± 1.0 a 5.8 ± 0.1 a 64/20831 a 239 ± 1.3 b 5.8 ± 0.1 a 31/12225 a,b 336 ± 1.5 b 5.4 ± 0.1 b 18/9220 b Combined42 d5.7113/42227 Days postpartum, body condition score, and estrous-cycling status prior to initiation of synchronization treatments a,b (P < 0.05) Bader et al., 2004

56 LocationTreatmentFixed-time AIFinal No.% % Synch 64/ /10491 MGA Select 68/ / Synch 34/605757/5997 MGA Select 43/626960/ Synch 30/456743/4596 MGA Select 31/476642/4789 Combined 7-11 Synch 128/ /20894 MGA Select 142/ /21395 Fixed-time AI and final pregnancy rates Bader et al., 2004

57 MGA Select7-11 Synch CyclingAnestrusCyclingAnestrus LocationNo. Preg% % %No Preg% 120/306748/746524/347140/ /167531/46679/156025/ /87525/39648/108022/3563 Combined38/ / /596987/15058 Fixed-time AI pregnancy rate based on pretreatment estrous cyclicity status Bader et al., 2004

58 Pros and Cons MGA Select - effective in mixed - treatment length populations - MGA intake - synchrony of estrus - fertility after treatment 7-11 Synch - effective in mixed - multiple populations animal handlings - exceptional synchrony - drug costs of estrus - MGA intake - fertility after treatment - treatment duration Advantages Disadvantages

59 Pregnancy rate No.(%) 7-11 Synch Detected estrus101/ Fixed-time AI 446/ MGA Select Detected estrus 195/ Fixed-time AI 281/ Pregnancy rates after AI based on detected estrus or at predetermined fixed times

60 Implications This sequential approach to estrous cycle control (progestin-GnRH-PG) effectively synchronizes estrus with resulting high fertility among mixed populations of estrous cycling and anestrous postpartum beef cows.

61

62 How do MGA- and CIDR-based protocols compare on the basis of pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows inseminated at predetermined fixed times?

63 ……… 0 7………. MGA (14 d) GnRH MGA Select vs. CO-Synch + CIDR MGA Select vs. CO-Synch + CIDR Schafer, 2005 Treatment day PG GnRH PG GnRH AI GnRH AI CIDR (7 d)

64 Timing of Insemination Time of AIPregnancy Protocol after PG rate MGA Select Stevenson et al., h 46% Perry et al., h 61% Bader, h 67% Stegner et al., h 64% 80 h 50% CO-Synch + CIDR Lamb et al., h 56% 48 h 56% Bremer et al., h 67% 66 h 71% Larson et al., h 54%

65 …… 72h 0 7 …... 66h MGA (14 d) GnRH MGA Select vs. CO-Synch + CIDR MGA Select vs. CO-Synch + CIDR Schafer, 2005 Treatment day CIDR (7 d) PG GnRH PG AI GnRH AI

66 Experimental Procedures Schafer, 2005 Animals: Crossbred, suckled, beef cows (n = 650) at four locations were assigned to treatment within age groups by calving date and BCS

67 Experimental Procedures Schafer, 2005 Four different AI sires were used Location 1 = 3 Location 2 = 1 Location 3 = 1 Location 4 = 1 One of the sires that was used at location 1 was the same sire used at Locations 3 & 4

68 Experimental Procedures Schafer, 2005 Cows were exposed to fertile bulls 14 d after AI Pregnancy rate to fixed-time AI was determined with ultrasound 40 – 45 d after insemination

69 Location Days postpartum Body condition score Estrous cycling No. % / / / /19480 Combined 42 d5.5362/65056 Number of cows at each location, DPP, BCS, and estrous-cycling status prior to initiation of synchronization treatments (Schafer, 2005)

70 Fixed-time AI pregnancy rates between treatments and among locations (Schafer, 2005) LocationTreatmentFixed-time AI No.% 1 MGA Select70/10666 CO-Synch+CIDR67/ MGA Select53/8066 CO-Synch+CIDR56/ MGA Select26/4558 CO-Synch+CIDR29/ MGA Select52/9654 CO-Synch+CIDR62/9861

71 Pregnancy rates to fixed-time AI Schafer, 2005 Pregnancy rate Treatment No. % MGA Select 201/32761 CO-Synch+CIDR 214/32366

72 MGA ® SelectCO-Synch+CIDR CyclingAnestrusCyclingAnestrus LocationNo. Preg% % %No Preg% 138/626132/447330/506037/ /296933/516525/347431/ /166915/29528/155321/ /785311/186150/786412/2060 Combined110/ / / /14669 Fixed-time AI pregnancy rate based on pretreatment estrous cyclicity status (Schafer, 2005)

73 Conclusions Schafer, 2005 The results from this experiment demonstrate that comparable pregnancy rates to fixed-time AI can be achieved using the MGA Select or CO-Synch+CIDR protocols to synchronize estrus in postpartum beef cows.

74 Do we know what to expect at calving from cows that conceive on the same day to the same sire?

75 Days relative to 285 d gestation due date; Bader et al., 2004 % of AI calves born A; Angus; +6.2 BW , 20 d B; Angus; +3.3 BW , 17 d C; Red Angus; –1.5 BW, 2 CED , 15 d D; Simmental; -0.6 BW, CE , 19 d B; Angus; +3.3 BW , 17 d

76 Location 1; Sire A (Angus) BW EPD -0.3; CED = +11 Range Mean = 281 Location 1; Sire B (Angus) BW EPD +3.5; CED = +6 Range Mean = 281 Location 1; Sire C (Angus) BW EPD -1.1; CED = +11 Range Mean = 281 Location 2; Sire D (Red Angus) BW EPD +2.3; CED = -2 Range Mean = 283 Location 3; Sire B (Angus) BW EPD +3.5; CED = +6 Range Mean = 283 Location 4; Sire B (Angus) BW EPD +3.5; CED = +6 Range Mean = 284

77 Calving Distribution of AI sired calves (Schafer et al., 2005)

78 Consider the impact of estrus synchronization on calving distribution………

79 Opportunities for increasing profits lie in managing females from the later calving intervals forward toward the first and second calving intervals. High production herds see 61% of the calves born by day 21, 85% by day 42 and 94% by day 63. Hughes, 2005

80 First 15 dFirst 30 d MGA Select 7-11 Synch Calving period Cows calving, % Stegner et al., 2004

81 Calving distribution for locations 1, 2, & 3 (Schafer, 2005) Cumulative Calf % by: day 15 = 64% day 21 = 70% day 30 = 77% day 42 = 91%

82 MU Forage Systems Research Center cumulative calf crops

83 Cumulative calf crops (MU Thompson Farm) for the first 46 days over 10 calving seasons

84 Conclusions and Implications

85 Estrous response and fertility in postpartum beef cows after treatment with various estrus synchronization protocols. Treatment Estrous response Pregnancy rate AI based on detected estrus No. % No. % * DeJarnette and Wallace 2 shot PG Select Synch* MGA-PG MGA Select 7-11 Synch 241/ / / / / / / / / / Fixed-time AI MGA Select 7-11 Synch CO-Synch + CIDR 482/ / /323 66

86 Estrous response and fertility in postpartum beef cows after treatment with various estrus synchronization protocols. Treatment Estrous response Pregnancy rate AI based on detected estrus No. % No. % * DeJarnette and Wallace 2 shot PG Select Synch* MGA-PG MGA Select 7-11 Synch 241/ / / / / / / / / / Fixed-time AI MGA Select 7-11 Synch CO-Synch + CIDR 482/ / /323 66

87 CO-Synch + CIDR Results 66 hr after PG) Herd (Year)No. PregnantTotal No.Percentage 1 (F03) (S04) (S04) (S04) (S04) (S04) (F04) (F04) (F04) (F04) (F04) (F04) (S Total

88 Research is underway to develop new protocols for heifers that will facilitate fixed-time AI …. The technology now exists to successfully inseminate postpartum beef cows at predetermined fixed times with resulting high pregnancy rates

89 Improvements in methods to synchronize estrus create the opportunity to significantly expand the use of AI in the U.S. cowherd

90 Acknowledgements Faculty, Students, & Staff Jon Bader Dr. George Perry Roger Eakins Daniel Schafer Dr. Mark Ellersieck Jon Schreffler Freddie Kojima Dr. Mike Smith Dr. Matthew Lucy Jacob Stegner David McAtee Stacey Wood (Follis)

91 Acknowledgements Research SupportCooperators Select Sires, Inc.4-M Ranch KABA/Select Sires, Inc.John Ranch ABS Global Jim Wallis Farms Merial Jim Clement, DVM Pfizer Animal HealthSEMO University USDA-NRIMFA, Inc. MU Farms & Centers

92 Acknowledgements Beef Reproduction Leadership Team AI industry Pharmaceutical industry Veterinary practitioners North Central Region Bovine Reproduction Task Force


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