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Respiration Chapter 6. Cellular Respiration - Basics releases energy from glucose released energy is chemical energy occurs in cell cytoplasm mitochondria.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiration Chapter 6. Cellular Respiration - Basics releases energy from glucose released energy is chemical energy occurs in cell cytoplasm mitochondria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiration Chapter 6

2 Cellular Respiration - Basics releases energy from glucose released energy is chemical energy occurs in cell cytoplasm mitochondria works better with oxygen (aerobic) than without oxygen (anaerobic)

3 Cellular Respiration - Process glucoseoxygen+waterenergy carbon dioxide ++ CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 H2OH2OO2O2 ATP+++


5 Aerobic Respiration aerobic = with oxygen C 6 H 12 O 6 + O > CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP Three process occur in aerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm oxygen is not required electron acceptor is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD --> NADH glucose 2 pyruvic acid C C C C C C C C C C C C PEP


7 CO 2 Aerobic Respiration contd 2. Krebs Cycle (citric acid cycle) pyruvic acid (3C) (in cytoplasm) acetyl-coenzymeA (2C) (in mitochondron) Krebs Cycle CO 2 ATP NADH FADH 2 occurs in: mitochondria electron acceptors are NAD and FADH 2 C C C C C C C C

8 Krebs Cycle

9 Aerobic Respiration contd 3. Electron transport electrons transferred from NADH, FADH 2 to oxygen and water is formed oxidative phosphorylation ATP synthase complex protons pumped across membrane occurs in mitochondria conversion equivalents: NADH = 3 ATP FADH 2 = 2 ATP


11 Aerobic Respiration contd Energy from aerobic respiration Glycolysis net gain of 6 ATP pyruvic acid --> acetyl-CoA 2 NADH = 6 ATP Krebs Cycle 2 ATP Electron Transport 6 NADH = 18 ATP 2 FADH 2 = 4 ATP oxidative phosphorylation Total = 36 ATP / glucose 39% of energy available 61% of energy is lost as heat

12 Anaerobic Respiration (without oxygen) 1. ethanol fermentation glucose ---> pyruvic acid ---> ethyl alcohol + CO 2 + ATP C 6 H 12 O > 2C 2 H 5 OH + 2CO 2 + 3ATP 25% of energy of aerobic respiration occurs in some plants and microorganisms including yeasts

13 Alcohol Fermentation Ancient Eqyptian wall painting: historical record of wine-making ~ 5000 yrs ago, perhaps earlier Grapes were picked, crushed by foot, juice collected in jugs, then fermented producing wine.

14 Anaerobic Respiration contd 2. lactic acid fermentation glucose ---> pyruvic acid ---> lactic acid + ATP C 6 H 12 O > 2C 3 H 6 O 3 + 2ATP 22% of energy of aerobic respiration mammalian muscle and some microorganisms


16 Organic Macromolecules four groups Carbohydrates built from monosaccharides Protein built from amino acids Lipids built from glycerol & fatty acids Nucleic acids built from nucleotides

17 Carbohydrates monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharide

18 Lipids

19 Protein

20 Biochemical Pathways note catabolic and anabolic pathways note production and use of: proteins lipids besides carbohydrates



23 What is the connection between respiration and photosynthesis?

24 A review: Carbon flow: from atmosphere through photosynthesis in autotrophs through cellular respiration in autotrophs and heterotrophs back into atmosphere

25 Carbon atom movement. Numbers are estimates of carbon expressed in billions of metric tons stored in reservoirs (2000 data) Carbon released by respiration and combustion now exceeds the amount fixed by photosynthesis, by 3 billion metric tons/year. Carbon Cycle CARBON + OXYGEN -> CO 2 + heat

26 Major reservoirs of the carbon cycle

27 Production of CO 2 fossil fuels produces 70% of CO 2 emmisions U.S.24% EU15% China15% Russia6% India5% Japan5% per capita CO 2 emmissions (tons/capita) U.S.5.4 EU2.6 China0.8 Russia2.9 India0.3 Japan2.5



30 Global Response to global warming Kyoto Protocol protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing Greenhouse gases that cause climate change agreed on 11 December 1997 at the 3rd Conference of the Parties to the treaty when they met in Kyoto, and entered into force on 16 February United States although a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, has neither ratified nor withdrawn from the Protocol both Clinton and Bush administrations have refused obtain senate ratification reasons: top emitters excluded (China, India) cause U.S. economic strain to meet requirements Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, as of December 2011, Brown = Countries that have signed and ratified the treaty (Annex I & II countries in dark brown) Blue = No intention to ratify at this stage Dark blue = Canada, which withdrew from the Protocol in December 2011 Grey = no position taken or position unknown

31 Correlation Between Historic CO 2 Levels and Historic Temperatures: Ice core data 31

32 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Air samples at Mauna Loa, Hawaii are collected continuously from air intakes at the top of four 7-m towers and one 27-m tower. Four air samples are collected each hour for the purpose of determining the CO 2 concentration

33 Global Temperature Change

34 How well does CO 2 predict global temperature?

35 What Causes Natural Climatic Swings? Modest climate changes correspond to an 11-year cycle in the Suns intensity Milankovitch Cycles are caused by changes in the Earths orbit (100,000 yr), rotation (40,000 yr) and the wobble of its axis (26,000 yr) 9-35

36 temperature/precipitation changes from the 20th Century

37 Possible Implications of and Debate Surrounding Global Warming More heat waves More extreme storm activity Changes in rainfall, snowfall patterns Ecosystem effects Higher sea levels More disease Winners: Siberia, Scandinavia Losers: most of U.S. (particularly SE; Washington may be nicer), island states

38 Fig Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. New Orleans Miami Shoreline with 1 m sea-level rise Remaining land Current shoreline 100 km 50 km

39 Consequences of Global Warming uncertainty why? testing the predictions Probable environmental alterations from GW: changing climate and weather patterns intensity of weather increased rising sea levels - 3 higher all around the world in 100 years shifting climate zones causing ecosystem devastation and species losses

40 Consequences of CO 2 increase CO 2 as a Greenhouse Gas third most abundant gas in atmosphere absorbs heat energy reflected by earth acts as a blanket around earth produces the greenhouse effect This is normal, and good! Excessive greenhouse gas accumulation? increase GH gas; increase heat absorption increased heat of earth Global Warming

41 CO 2 in atmosphere key component of natures thermostat If carbon cycle removes too much CO 2 earth cools If carbon cycle generates too much CO 2 earth warms

42 Because the World Needs to Know

43 1. Cellular Respiration reactions are anabolic? True False

44 2. The ultimate energy molecule produced in cellular respiration is A. oxygen B. ATP C. glucose D. ethanol

45 3. The final electron acceptor in cellular respiration is A. NADP+ B. oxygen C. ATP D. glucose

46 4. Without oxygen, which process in cellular respiration would NOT occur? A.glycolysis B.Krebs cycle C.electron transport D.all of the above

47 5. Where does glycolysis occur? A.cytoplasm B.inner mitochondrial membrane C.chloroplast D.thylakoid

48 6. Where does Krebs cycle and electron transport occur? A.cytoplasm B.mitochondria C.chloroplast D.thylakoid

49 7. In cellular respiration all glucose is metabolized into ATP. True False

50 8. Name the four groups of organic compounds and their respective building block(s): organic compoundbuilding block(s)

51 9. Carbon reservoirs on earth include A.atmosphere B.ocean C.plants D.all of the above

52 What is the most abundant atmospheric gas? A.nitrogen B.oxygen C.carbon dioxide D.ozone

53 What is the second most abundant atmospheric gas? A.nitrogen B.oxygen C.carbon dioxide D.ozone

54 What is the third most abundant atmospheric gas? A.nitrogen B.oxygen C.carbon dioxide D.ozone

55 How abundant is CO 2 in the atmosphere? A.1000ppm B.500ppm C.390ppm D.350ppm

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