Presentation on theme: "Chemistry: Atoms First Representing Molecules"— Presentation transcript:
1Chemistry: Atoms First Representing Molecules Julia Burdge & Jason OverbyChapter 6Representing MoleculesKent L. McCorkleCosumnes River CollegeSacramento, CA
26 Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts 6.1 The Octet Rule Lewis StructuresMultiple Bonds6.2 Electronegativity and PolarityElectronegativityDipole Moment, Partial Charges and Percent Ionic Character6.3 Drawing Lewis Structures6.4 Lewis Structures and Formal Charge6.5 Resonance6.6 Exceptions to the Octet RuleIncomplete OctetsOdd Numbers of ElectronsExpanded Octets
3• F• •F F F + 6.1 The Octet Rule According to the octet rule, atoms will lose, gain, or share electrons in order to achieve a noble gas electron configuration.Only valence electrons contribute to bonding.•F••F+F FEach F counts both shared electrons to “feel” as though it has a Ne configuration.F 1s22s22p5valence electrons
4F F • F F • F F • The Octet Rule Only two valence electrons participate in the formation of the F2 bond.Pairs of valence electrons not involved in bonding are called lone pairs.F F•F F•orF F•
5Shared electrons shown as dashes (bonds) Lewis StructuresA Lewis structure is a representation of covalent bonding.Shared electron pairs are shown either as dashes or as pairs of dots.Lone pairs are shown as pairs of dots on individual atoms.H with 2 e−H with 2 e−HO••HO••Shared electrons shown as dashes (bonds)O with 8 e−5
6•• O C H O •• O C •• = H O •• Multiple Bonds In a single bond, atoms are held together by one electron pair.In a double bond, atoms share two pairs of electrons.C with 8 e−O with 8 e−O with 8 e−••OCHO••one shared pair of electrons results in a single bond2 shared pairs of electrons result in double bondsOC••=HO••6
73 shared pairs of electrons result in a triple bond Multiple BondsA triple bond occurs when atoms are held together by three electron pairs.each N has 8 e−••NN••≡3 shared pairs of electrons result in a triple bond7
8Multiple BondsBond length is defined as the distance between the nuclei of two covalently bonded atoms.8
9N≡N 110 pm N=N 124 pm N−N 147 pm < < Multiple BondsMultiple bonds are shorter than single bonds.For a given pair of atoms:triple bonds are shorter than double bondsdouble bonds are shorter than single bondsN≡N110 pmN=N124 pmN−N147 pm<<9
10H2(g) → H(g) + H(g) Bond energy = 436.4 kJ/mol Multiple BondsThe shorter multiple bonds are also stronger than single bonds.We quantify bond strength by measuring the quantity of energy required to break it.H2(g) → H(g) + H(g) Bond energy = kJ/molWe will examine this in more detail in Chapter 10.10
116.2 Electronegativity and Polarity There are two extremes in the spectrum of bonding:covalent bonds occur between atoms that share electronsionic bonds occur between a metal and a nonmetal and involve ionsBonds that fall between these extremes are polar.In polar covalent bonds, electrons are shared but not shared equally.M:XPure covalent bondNeutral atoms held together by equally shared electronsMδ+Xδ−Polar covalent bondPartially charged atoms held together by unequally shared electronsM+X−Ionic bondOppositely charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction11
12Electronegativity and Polarity Electron density maps show the distributions of charge.Electrons spend a lot of time in red and very little time in blue.Electrons are shared equallynonpolar covalentElectrons are not shared equally and are more likely to be associated with Fpolar covalentElectrons are not shared but rather transferredfrom Na to Fionic12
13ElectronegativityElectronegativity is the ability of an atom in a compound to draw electrons to itself.13
14Electronegativity and Polarity Electronegativity varies with atomic number.14
15The following rules help distinguish among them: ElectronegativityThere is no sharp distinction between nonpolar covalent and polar covalent or between polar covalent and ionic.The following rules help distinguish among them:A bond between atoms whose electronegativites differ by less than 0.5 is general considered purely covalent or nonpolar.A bond between atoms who’s electronegativies differ by the range of 0.5 to 2.0 is generally considered polar covalent.A bond between atoms whose electronegativities differ by 2.0 or more is generally considered ionic.15
16Worked Example 6.1Classify the following bonds as nonpolar, polar, or ionic: (a) the bond in ClF, (b) the bond in CsBr, and (c) the carbon-carbon double bond in C2H4.Strategy Electronegativity values are: Cl (3.0), F (4.0), Cs (0.7), Br (2.8), C (2.5). Use this information to determine which bonds have identical, similar, and widely different electronegativities.SolutionThe difference between the electronegativies of F and Cl is 4.0 – 3.0 = 1.0, making the bond in ClF polar.In CsBr, the difference is 2.8 – 0.7 = 2.1, making the bond ionic.In C2H4, the two atoms are identical. (Not only are they the same element, but each C atom is bonded to two H atoms.) The carbon-carbon double bond is C2H4 is nonpolar.Think About It By convention, the difference in electronegativity is always calculated by subtracting the smaller number from the larger one, so the result is always positive.
17Dipole Moment, Partial Charges, and Percent Ionic Character Regions where electrons spend little timeRegions where electrons spend a lot of timeH−F••An arrow is used to indicate the direction of electron shift in polar covalent molecules.The consequent charge separation can be represented as:Deltas (δ) denote a partial positive or negative charge.H−F••δ+δ−17
18r is the distance between the charges. Dipole Moment, Partial Charges, and Percent Ionic CharacterA quantitative measure of the polarity of a bond is its dipole moment (μ).Q is the charge.r is the distance between the charges.μ is always positive and expressed in debye units (D).μ = Q x r1 D = 3.336×10−30 C∙m18
19Dipole Moment, Partial Charges, and Percent Ionic Character A quantitative measure of the polarity of a bond is its dipole moment (μ).μ = Q x r19
20Worked Example 6.2Burns caused by hydrofluoric acid [HF(aq)] are unlike any other acid burns and present unique medical complications. HF solutions typically penetrate the skin and damage internal tissues, including bone, often with minimal surface damage. Less concentrated solutions actually can cause greater injury than more concentrated ones by penetrating more deeply before causing injury, thus delaying the onset of symptoms and preventing timely treatment. Determine the magnitude of the partial positive and partial negative charges in the HF molecule.Strategy Solve for Q. Convert the resulting charge in coulombs to units of electronic charge. According to Table 6.2, μ = 1.82 D and r = 0.92 Å for HF. The dipole moment must be converted from debye to C∙m and the distance between ions must be converted to meters.3.336×10-30 C∙m1 Dμ = 1.82 D ×= 6.07×10-30 C∙m1×10-10 m1 År = 0.92 Å ×= 9.2×10-11 m
21Worked Example 6.2 (cont.) H− F •• Solution In coulombs: In units of electronic charge:Therefore, the partial charges in HF are and on H and F, respectively.μr6.07×10-30 C∙m9.2×10-11 mQ === 6.598×10-20 C1 e-1.6022×10-19 C6.598×10-20 C ×= 0.41 e-H−F••+0.41-0.41Think About It Calculated partial charges should always be less than 1. If a “partial” charge were 1 or greater, it would indicate that at least one electron had been transferred from one atom to the other. Remember that polar bonds involve unequal sharing of electrons, not a complete transfer of electrons.
22μ (calculated assuming discrete charges) Dipole Moment, Partial Charges, and Percent Ionic CharacterAlthough the designations “covalent,” “polar covalent,” and “ionic” can be useful, sometimes chemists wish to describe and compare chemical bonds with more precision.Comparing the calculated dipole moment with the measured values gives us a quantitative way to describe the nature of a bond using the term percent ionic character.percent ionic character = ×100%μ (observed)μ (calculated assuming discrete charges)22
23Dipole Moment, Partial Charges, and Percent Ionic Character The figure below demonstrates the relationship between percent ionic character and the electronegativity difference in a heteronuclear diatomic molecule.23
24Worked Example 6.3Using data from Table 6.2, calculate the percent ionic character of the bond in HI.Strategy Calculate the dipole moment in HI assuming that the charges on H and I are +1 and -1, respectively; then calculate the percent ionic character. The magnitude of the charges must be expressed in coulombs (1 e- = ×10-19 C); the bond length (r) must be expressed as meters (1 Å = 1×10-10 m); and the calculated dipole moment should be expressed as debyes (1 D = 3.336×10-30 C∙m).Setup From Table 6.2, the bond length in HI is 1.61 Å (1.61×10-10 m) and the measured dipole moment of HI is 0.44 D.
25Worked Example 6.3 (cont.)Solution The dipole we would expect if the magnitude of the charges were ×10-19 C isConverting to debyes givesThe percent ionic character of the H–I bond is ×100% = 5.7%.μ = Q × r = (1.6022×10-19 C) × (1.61×10-10 m)= 2.58×10-29 C∙m1 D3.336×10-30 C∙m2.58×10-29 C∙m ×= 7.73 D0.44 D7.73 DThink About It A purely covalent bond (in a homonuclear diatomic molecule such as H2) would have 0 percent ionic character. In theory, a purely ionic bond would be expected to have 100 percent ionic character, although no such bond is known.
266.3 Drawing Lewis Structures Follow these steps when drawing Lewis structure for molecules and polyatomic ions.Draw the skeletal structure of the compound. The least electronegative atom is usually the central atom. Draw a single covalent bond between the central atom and each of the surrounding atoms.Count the total number of valence electrons present; add electrons for negative charges and subtract electrons for positive charges.For each bond in the skeletal structure, subtract two electrons from the total valence electrons.Use the remaining electrons to complete octets of the terminal atoms by placing pairs of electrons on each atom. Complete the octets of the most electronegative atom first.Place any remaining electrons in pairs on the central atom.If the central atom has fewer than eight electrons, move one or more pairs from the terminal atoms to form multiple bonds between the central atom and terminal atoms.26
27Drawing Lewis Structures Draw the Lewis Structure for ClO3−.Solution:Step 1 Draw the skeletal structure of the compound. The least electronegative atom is usually the central atom. Draw a single covalent bond between the central atom and each of the surrounding atoms.chlorine’s electronegativity = 3.0oxygen’s electronegativity = 3.527
28Drawing Lewis Structures Draw the Lewis Structure for ClO3−.Solution:Step 2 Count the total number of valence electrons present; add electrons for negative charges and subtract electrons for positive charges.Cl: 1 x 7 = 7 e−O: 3 x 6 = 18 e−Charge: 1 e−Total: valence e−28
30Drawing Lewis Structures Draw the Lewis Structure for ClO3−.Solution:Step 4 Use the remaining electrons to complete octets of the terminal atoms by placing pairs of electrons on each atom. Complete the octets of the most electronegative atom first.6 electrons used in single bonds20 electrons must be placed in the structure starting with terminal atomsThe structure now has a total of 24 valence electrons of the available 26.30
31Drawing Lewis Structures Draw the Lewis Structure for ClO3−.Solution:Step 5 Place any remaining electrons on the central atom.The structure now has a total of 24 valence electrons of the available 26.2 e− remain to be added to the structure.Lewis structures for polyatomic ions are enclosed by square brackets.31
32All atoms already have an octet in this structure. Drawing Lewis StructuresDraw the Lewis Structure for ClO3−.Solution:Step 6 If the central atom has fewer than eight electrons, move one or more pairs from the terminal atoms to form multiple bonds between the central atom and terminal atoms.All atoms already have an octet in this structure.32
34Worked Example 6.4Draw the Lewis structure for carbon disulfide (CS2).SetupStep 1: C and S have identical electronegativities. We will draw the skeletal structure with the unique atom, C, at the center.Step 2: The total number of valence electrons is 16: 6 from each S atom and 4 from the C atom [2(6) + 4 = 16].Step 3: Subtract 4 electrons to account for the bonds in the skeletal structure, leaving us 12 electrons to distribute.Step 4: Distribute the 12 remaining electrons as 3 lone pairs on each S atom.
35Worked Example 6.4 (cont.)Draw the Lewis structure for carbon disulfide (CS2).SetupStep 5: There are no electrons remaining after step 4, so step 5 does not apply.Step 6: To complete carbon’s octet, use one lone pair from each S atom to make a double bond to the C atom.SolutionThink About It Counting the total number of valence electrons should be relatively simple to do, but it is often done hastily and is therefore a potential source of error in this type of problem. Remember that the number of valence electrons for each element is equal to the group number of that element.
36Formal charge = valence electrons – associated electrons Lewis Structures and Formal Charge6.4Formal charge can be used to determine the most plausible Lewis Structure when more than one possibility exists for a compound.To determine associated electrons:1) All the atom’s nonbonding electrons are associated with the atom.2) Half the atom’s bonding electrons are associated with the atom.Formal charge = valence electrons – associated electrons36
37O •• = − Lewis Structures and Formal Charge Determine the formal charges on each oxygen atom in the ozone molecule (O3).O••=−4 unshared + 4 shared = 6 e−22 unshared + 6 shared = 5 e−26 unshared + 2 shared = 7 e−2Valence e−666e− associated with atom657Difference (formal charge)+1−137
38Worked Example 6.5The widespread use of fertilizers has resulted in the contamination of some groundwater with nitrates, which are potentially harmful. Nitrate toxicity is due primarily to its conversion in the body to nitrite (NO2-), which interferes with the ability of hemoglobin to transport oxygen. Determine the formal charges on each atom in the nitrate ion (NO3-).Strategy Follow the six steps to draw the Lewis structure of (NO3-). For each atom, subtract the associated electrons from the valence electrons.SetupThe N atom has five valence electrons and four associated electrons (one from each single bond and two from the double bond). Each singly bonded O atom has six valence electrons and seven associated electrons (six in three lone pairs and one from the single bond). The doubly bonded O atom has six valence electrons and six associated electrons (four in two lone pairs and two from the double bond.)
39Worked Example 6.5 (cont.) Solution The formal charges are as follows: +1 (N atom), -1 (singly bonded O atoms), and 0 (doubly bonded O atom).Think About It The sum of formal charges (+1) + (-1) + (-1) + (0) = -1 is equal to the overall charge on the nitrate ion.
40better structure (based on formal charge) Lewis Structures and Formal ChargeWhen there is more than one possible structure, the best arrangement is determined by the following guidelines:1) A Lewis structure in which all formal charges are zero is preferred.2) Small formal charges are preferred to large formal charges.3) Formal charges should be consistent with electronegativities.OC••=OC••≡−Formal charge+1−1better structure (based on formal charge)40
41Formal charge = valence electrons – associated electrons Lewis Structures and Formal ChargeBased on formal charge, identify the best and the worst structures for the isocyanate ion below:Solution:Step 1 Assign formal charges on each atom using the formulaFormal charge = valence electrons – associated electronsVe−456456456Ae−646547745FC−2+1−1+1−1−3+1+141
42Lewis Structures and Formal Charge Based on formal charge, identify the best and the worst structures for the isocyanate ion below:Solution:Step 2 Determine the best and worst structureFC−2+1−1+1−1−3+1+1Best structure:Small formal chargesFormal charges more consistent with electronegativitiesWorst structure:Large formal chargesFormal charges inconsistent with electronegativities42
43Worked Example 6.6Formaldehyde (CH2O), which can be used to preserve biological specimens, is commonly sold as a 37 percent aqueous solution. Use formal charges to determine which skeletal arrangements of atoms shown here is the best choice for the Lewis structure of CH2O.Strategy The complete Lewis structures for the skeletons shown are:
44Worked Example 6.6 (cont.)Strategy The complete Lewis structures for the skeletons shown are:In the structure on the left, the formal charges are as follows:Both H atoms: 1 valence e- – 1 associated e- (from single bond) = 0C atom: 4 valence e- – 5 associated e- (two in the lone pair, one from the single bond, and two from the double bond) = -1O atom: 6 valence e- – 5 associated e- (two from the lone pair, one from the single bond, and two from the double bond) = +1Formal charges-1+1
45Formal charges all zero Worked Example 6.6 (cont.)Strategy The complete Lewis structures for the skeletons shown are:In the structure on the right, the formal charges are as follows:Both H atoms: 1 valence e- – 1 associated e- (from single bond) = 0C atom: 4 valence e- – 4 associated e- (one from each single bond, and two from the double bond) = 0O atom: 6 valence e- – 6 associated e- (four from the two lone pairs and two from the double bond) = 0Formal charges all zero
46Worked Example 6.6 (cont.)Solution Of the two possible arrangements, the structure on the left has an O atom with a positive formal charge, which is inconsistent with oxygen’s high electronegativity. Therefore, the structure on the right, in which both H atoms are attached directly to the C atoms and all atoms have a formal charge of zero, is the better choice for the Lewis structure of CH2O.Think About It For a molecule, formal charges of zero are preferred. When there are nonzero formal charges, they should be consistent with the electronegativities of the atoms in the molecules. A positive formal charge on oxygen, for example, is inconsistent with oxygen’s high electronegativity.
47Resonance6.5A resonance structure is one of two or more Lewis structures for a single molecule that cannot by represented accurately by only one Lewis structure.Resonance structures are a human invention.Resonance structures differ only in the positions of their electrons.O••=−O••−=47
48Worked Example 6.7High oil and gasoline prices have renewed interest in alternative methods of producing energy, including the “clean” burning of coal. Part of what makes “dirty” coal dirty is its high sulfur content. Burning dirty coal produces sulfur dioxide (SO2), among other pollutants. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the atmosphere to form sulfur trioxide (SO3), which subsequently combines with water to produce sulfuric acid – a major component of acid rain. Draw all possible resonance structures of sulfur trioxide.Strategy Following the steps for drawing Lewis structures, we determine that a correct Lewis structure for SO3 contains two sulfur-oxygen single bonds and one sulfur-oxygen double bond.But the double bond can be put in any one of three positions in the molecule.
49Worked Example 6.7 (cont.) Solution Think About It Always make sure that resonance structures differ only in the position of the electrons, not in the positions of the atoms.
50H Be 6.6 Exceptions to the Octet Rule Exceptions to the octet rule fall into three categories:1) The central atom has fewer than eight electrons due to a shortage of electrons.Elements in group 3A also tend to form compounds surrounded by fewer than eight electrons.Boron, for example, reacts with halogens to form compounds of the general formula BX3 having six electrons around the boron atom.HBeonly 4 total valence electrons in the system50
51O N •• = − • Odd Numbers of Electrons 2) The central atom has fewer than eight electrons due to an odd number of electrons.Molecules with an odd number of electrons are sometimes referred to as free radicals.ON••=−•17 valence electrons in the system51
52Worked Example 6.8Draw the Lewis structure of chlorine dioxide (ClO2).Strategy The skeletal structure isThis puts the unique atom, Cl, in the center and puts the more electronegative O atoms in terminal positions.There are a total of 19 valence electrons (7 from the Cl and 6 from each of the two O atoms). We subtract 4 electrons to account for the two bonds in the skeleton, leaving us with 15 electrons to distribute as follows: three lone pairs on each O atom, one lone pair on the Cl atom, and the last remaining electron also on the Cl atom.Think About It ClO2 is used primarily to bleach wood pulp in the manufacture of paper, but it is also used to bleach flour, disinfect drinking water, and deodorize certain industrial facilities. Recently, it has been used to eradicate the toxic mold in homes in New Orleans that were damaged by the devastating floodwaters of Hurricane Katrina in 2005.Solution
533) The central atom has more than eight electrons. Expanded Octets3) The central atom has more than eight electrons.Atoms in and beyond the third period can have more than eight valence electrons.In addition to the 3s and 3p orbitals, elements in the third period also have 3d orbitals that can be used in bonding.Sulfur has 6 bonds corresponding to 12 electrons53
54Worked Example 6.9 Draw the Lewis structure of boron triiodide (BI3). Strategy The skeletal structure isThere are a total of 24 valence electrons (3 from the B and 7 from each of the three I atoms). We subtract 6 electrons to account for the three bonds in the skeleton, leaving 18 electrons to distribute in lone pairs on each I atom.Solution
55Worked Example 6.9 (cont.)Think About It Boron is one of the elements that does not always follow the octet rule. Like BF3, however, BI3 can be drawn with a double bond in order to satisfy the octet of boron. This gives rise to a total of four resonance structures.
56Worked Example 6.10Draw the Lewis structure of arsenic pentafluoride (AsF5).Strategy The skeletal structure already has more than an octet around the As atom.There are 40 total valence electrons [5 from As (Group 5A) and 7 from each of the five F atoms (Group 7A)]. We subtract 10 electrons to account for the five bonds in the skeleton, leaving 30 to be distributed. Next, we place three lone pairs on each F atom, thereby completing all their octets and using up all the electrons.Think About It Always make sure that the number of electrons represented in your final Lewis structure matches the total number of valence electrons you are supposed to have.Solution
57Worked Example 6.11Draw two resonance structures for sulfurous acid (H2SO3): one that obeys the octet rule for the central atom, and one that minimizes the formal charges. Determine the formal charges on each atom in both structures.Strategy Begin by drawing the skeletal structure and counting the total number of valence electrons. Use the steps outlined in Section 6.4 to draw the first structure and reposition one or more lone pairs to adjust the formal charges for the second structure.Note that each hydrogen in an oxoacid is attached to an oxygen atom, and not directly to the central atom. The total number of valence electrons is 26 (6 from S, 6 from each O, and 1 from each H).
58Worked Example 6.11 (cont.)Solution Following the steps we get the first structure:From the top O atom, which has three lone pairs, we reposition one lone pair to create a double bond between O and S to get the second structure.Incorporating the double bond results in every atom having a formal charge of zero.-1+1Think About It In some species, such as the sulfate ion, it is possible to incorporate too many double bonds. Structures with three and four double bonds to sulfur would give formal charges on S and O that are inconsistent with the electronegativities of these elements. In general, if you are trying to minimize formal charges by expanding the central atom’s octet, only add enough double bonds to make the formal charge on the central atom zero.
59Worked Example 6.12Draw the Lewis structure of xenon tetrafluoride (XeF4).Strategy Follow the steps for drawing Lewis structures. The skeletal structure isThere are 36 total valence electrons (8 from Xe and 7 from each of the four F atoms). We subtract 8 electrons to account for the bonds in the skeleton, leaving 28 to distribute. We first complete the octets of all four F atoms. When this is done, 4 electrons remain, so we place two lone pairs on the Xe atom.Think About It Atoms beyond the second period can accommodate more than an octet of electrons, whether those electrons are used in bonds or reside on the atoms as lone pairs.Solution
606 Chapter Summary: Key Points Lewis Structures Octet Rule Bond Order Electronegativity and PolarityDipole MomentPercent Ionic CharacterDrawing Lewis StructuresFormal ChargeResonance StructuresExceptions to the Octet RuleIncomplete OctetsOdd Numbers of ElectronsExpanded Octets
61Group Quiz #10 Draw Lewis Structures for the following substances: CO2 HCNSO32-6161
62Group Quiz #11 Draw all possible Lewis Structures for: POCl3 BF3 NO2- PF5SO362