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EDUC2029 Week 8 Analysing classroom interactions: an introduction.

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1 EDUC2029 Week 8 Analysing classroom interactions: an introduction

2 Anticipatory set Nominalize the following Harrys parents had died in Voldemorts attack, but Harry had escaped with his lightning scar, and somehow Voldemorts powers had been destroyed. (adapted from Rowling 1998)

3 Anticipatory set Possible answers Harrys parents had died in Voldemorts attack The death of Harrys parents in Voldemorts attack Harry had escaped with his lightning scar Harrys escape with his lightning scar and somehow Voldemorts powers had been destroyed. The destruction of Voldemorts powers

4 Anticipatory set Two consequences: elide actor; opens space for evaluation. The tragic death of Harrys parents in Voldemorts attack Harrys miraculous escape with his lightning scar The unexpected destruction of Voldemorts powers

5 Aims To review nominalization To review the first assignment To clarify requirements for the second assignment To introduce the analysis of classroom interactions

6 Outline of session Feedback on assignment 1 Tips for assignment 2 Classroom interaction Conclusion

7 Feedback on assignment 1

8 Read the question carefully, e.g. you were required to synthesise ideas from four different documents Identify core issues, e.g. multiliteracies and Four Resources Model in Section One Be precise and systematic (e.g. Four Resouces Model to structure Question 2) Question 3: link to personal experience/needs??

9 Feedback on assignment 1 In-text referencing: …may require a wider construct of literacy (Edwards and Potts 2008). Reference list: http://www.library.uq.edu.au/services/referencin g.html Editing and proofreading, in particular sentence structure

10 Tips for assignment 2

11 Use the Fairclough model Start in any box Tutorial – modelling assignment

12 Faircloughs dimension of discourse and discourse analysis Conditions of production & interpretation Socio cultural practice Situational Institutional Societal Process of production & interpretation Discourse practice Text

13 Faircloughs dimension of discourse and discourse analysis Conditions of production & interpretation Socio cultural practice Situational Institutional Societal Process of production & interpretation Discourse practice Text Description: what does it look like? (text analysis) Explanation: why is it this way? (social analysis) Interpretation: what does it all mean? (processing analysis)

14 Approval for policy text If you havent done so yet, make sure you show me what you are planning to use.

15 Classroom interactions A Guided Reading of Anstey

16 Guided reading of Anstey 2003 Why bother? Become a better teacher!! Culican (n.d.): My research so far indicates that working with teachers on analysis of lesson transcripts is both a useful analytic and generative process for my research and also a useful pedagogic process for teachers Note summary on first page Changing Views of Literacy: – Literacy as a social practice – Literacy is not neutral – Literacy constructs our world and we are constructed by it

17 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Professor Severus Snape is addressing a class for the first time: You are here to learn the subtle science and exact art of potion-making, he began. He spoke in barely more than a whisper, but they caught every word – like Professor McGonagall, Snape had the gift of keeping a class silent without effort. As there is little foolish wand-waving here, many of you will hardly believe this is magic. I dont expect you will really understand the beauty of the soft simmering cauldron with its shimmering fumes, the delicate power of liquids that creep through human veins, bewitching the mind, ensnaring the senses…I can teach you how to bottle fame, brew glory, even stopper death – if you arent as big a bunch of dunderheads as I usually have to teach.

18 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Mood Potter! said Snape suddenly. What would I get if I added powdered root of asphodel to an infusion of wormwood? Powdered root of what to an infusion of what? Harry glanced at Ron, who looked as stumped as he was; Hermiones hand had shot into the air. I dont know, sir, said Harry. Snapes lip curled into a sneer. Tut, tut – fame clearly isnt everything. He ignored Hermiones hand. Lets try again, Potter, where would you look if I told you to find me a bezoar? … I dont know, sir. Thought you wouldnt open a book before coming, eh, Potter?

19 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Snape was still ignoring Hermiones quivering hand. What is the difference, Potter, between monkshood and wolfsbane? At this, Hermione stood up, her hand stretching towards the dungeon ceiling. I dont know, said Harry quietly. I think Hermione does, though, why dont you try her? A few people laughed; Harry caught Seamuss eye and Seamus winked. Snape, however, was not pleased. Sit down, he snapped at Hermione. For your information, Potter, asphodel and wormwood make a sleeping potion so powerful… etc etc…

20 From Chapter 8: The Potions Master Literacy as a social practice – Children and adults using language to negotiate relationships and knowledge Literacy is not neutral – Snape is not just asking questions – hes also establishing power and solidarity – These have a basis in a number of factors related to generation, gender, ethnicity, capacity and class Literacy constructs our world and we are constructed by it – Potions matter – A world of insiders and outsiders

21 Analysing classroom discourse classroom discourse mostly consists of question and answer sequences called an Exchange – IRF or IRE structure – Initiation (by the teacher, usually in the form of a question) – Response (by the student) – Feedback (by the teacher) – also called Evaluation

22 IRE/IRF structure Potter! said Snape suddenly. What would I get if I added powdered root of asphodel to an infusion of wormwood? (Initiation) Powdered root of what to an infusion of what? Harry glanced at Ron, who looked as stumped as he was; Hermiones hand had shot into the air. I dont know, sir, said Harry. (Response) Snapes lip curled into a sneer. Tut, tut – fame clearly isnt everything. (Feedback/Evaluation) He ignored Hermiones hand. Lets try again, Potter, where would you look if I told you to find me a bezoar? (Initiation) … I dont know, sir. (Response) Thought you wouldnt open a book before coming, eh, Potter? (Feedback/Evaluation)

23 Closer look at Initiation Potter! said Snape suddenly. What would I get if I added powdered root of asphodel to an infusion of wormwood? (Initiation) Real question Pseudo question Direct request (manage) Indirect request (manage) Initiate direct request (discipline) Indirect request (discipline) Informative Expressive

24 Closer look at response Powdered root of what to an infusion of what? Harry glanced at Ron, who looked as stumped as he was; Hermiones hand had shot into the air. I dont know, sir, said Harry. (Response) Reply React (verbal and non-verbal) Repeat Reinitiate

25 Closer look at Feedback/Evaluation Snapes lip curled into a sneer. Tut, tut – fame clearly isnt everything. (Feedback/Evaluation) Accept Praise Comment Repeat Correct Elaborate Paraphrase

26 Questions re IRE 1.Did my initiating questions and statements contain enough information to direct students in the task? 2.Did I ask a lot of pseudo questions (questions that did not require an answer)? 3.When giving feedback did I simply accept an answer or did I provide praise and/or feedback?

27 Influence of classroom discourse on literary learning What constitutes knowledge and learning; what constitutes literacy and literate practice? How discourse can influence understanding about what constitutes knowledge and learning How discourse can influence understanding about literacy and literate practice How social and cultural aspects of discourse can influence participation in learning How patterns of discourse can aid or hinder learning – Role of question and answer exchanges – Managing the function of classroom discourse and learning – Maintaining the focus of discourse on the learning objective – Discourse around an imaginary learning context Lesson Phases Patterns can advantage and disadvantage

28 Lens metaphor

29 How discourse can influence understanding about what constitutes knowledge and learning Propositional knowledge – knowing about Procedural knowledge – knowing how to do something when the need arises

30 How discourse can influence understanding about literacy and literate practice Knowledge about aspects of literacy (implicit and explicit) Knowledge about how to do literacy First class with Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, Gilderoy Lockhart: I see youve all bought a complete set of my books – well done. I thought wed start today with a little quiz. Nothing to worry about – just to check how well youve read them, how much youve taken in…

31 How discourse can influence understanding about literacy and literate practice Half an hour later, Lockhart collected in the papers and rifled through them in front of the class. Tut, tut – hardly any of you remembered that my favourite colour is lilac. I say so in Year of the Yeti. And a few of you need to read Weekend with a Werewolf more carefully – I clearly state in chapter twelve that my ideal birthday gift would be harmony between all magic and non-magic peoples – though I wouldnt say no to a large bottle of Odgens Old Firewhisky!...but Miss Hermione Granger knew… - good girl! In fact…full marks!...Excellent! What do the students learn ABOUT literacy and HOW to do it?

32 How social and cultural aspects of discourse can influence participation in learning 1.Are the literate practices and discourses of my students socially and culturally different from those of my classroom? 2.Is the lack of participation by some students because they dont understand the content being taught or because they find the rules of interaction difficult to follow or enter into? 3.What other patterns of discourse and interaction might I use to avoid this? 4.Are some of the activities and exchanges of talk I engage in with my students so ritualised that I am seeing procedural display rather than real understanding? 5.How might I check for real understanding rather than procedural display?

33 How patterns of discourse can aid or hinder learning Role of question and answer exchanges Managing the function of classroom discourse and learning Maintaining the focus of discourse on the learning objective Discourse around an imaginary learning context

34 How patterns of discourse can aid or hinder learning Role of question and answer exchanges How much of the information given is knowing that and how much is knowing how? When I ask a question do I only accept the answer in my head or do I accept logical alternatives? What do I do with an incorrect answer? Do I ask students how they arrives at their answer and then identify for the student where they went wrong or do I reject that answer and ask another student for their answer? If I reformulate the question, how do I modify the original to assist in finding the answer? Do I simply narrow the alternatives or do I actually provide information about how to get an answer?

35 How patterns of discourse can aid or hinder learning Managing the function of classroom discourse and learning 1.What is the major focus of the lesson? 2.If the focus is on management, what was it that made this so? 3.How can I manage and plan my lessons to reduce management talk? 4.How can I provide more information about how to do the task and when it is useful? 5.Can I engage students in a real-life example to assist in the learning and thus demonstrate its utility? 6.Did I model cognitive as well as behavioural processes when I explained how to do the task?

36 Managing the function of classroom discourse and learning First class with Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, Gilderoy Lockhart: I see youve all bought a complete set of my books – well done. I thought wed start today with a little quiz. Nothing to worry about – just to check how well youve read them, how much youve taken in… How could Lockhart have improved this part of the lesson?

37 How patterns of discourse can aid or hinder learning Maintaining the focus of discourse on the learning objective 1.Did the lesson have a clear focus? 2.Was the primary focus of learning on a specific literacy outcome? 3.How can I keep the discourse from digressing to other topics? Danger of integrated units…

38 How patterns of discourse can aid or hinder learning Discourse around an imaginary learning context 1.Did the imaginary context for the learning become the focus rather than the literacy outcomes? 2.Was the imaginary context appropriate for the range of students in the class? 3.Does the choice of teaching strategies and materials further the literacy focus of the lesson? A cautionary tale about chocolate and spaghetti

39 Lesson Phases For knowing how focussed lessons: Focus – whats the lesson about? Review – whats been done and learned previously? Guided identification – examples of new knowledge/skills (modelling) Guided practice – trying out new knowledge/skills with teacher support Guided transfer – trying out new knowledge/skills in new context/s – still with appropriate support

40 Lesson Phases 1.Was the selection of phases, activities and materials the best for the intended learning outcome? 2.Did the phase types selected promote the discourse that best suited the intended learning outcome? 3.How many phases were the students engages in over a period of time and were there clear (explicit) connections between them? 4.Were there too many changes of phase and discourse in the lesson so that students were having to concentrate more on literate practices (doing the literacy) than literacy learning?

41 Phases of lesson First class with Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher, Gilderoy Lockhart: I see youve all bought a complete set of my books – well done. I thought wed start today with a little quiz. Nothing to worry about – just to check how well youve read them, how much youve taken in… Read the stories of my battle with the Yeti and the Vampire. What procedures for defeating dark creatures emerge from these stories.. Focus Review Guided identification Guided practice Guided transfer

42 Challenging IRE with PIE David Rose (2004) Prepare Identify Elaborate Used with indigenous communities.

43 Example of PIE Preparation (P) T: There was a long line of trenches all the way from Belgium through Germany. But it starts off Dreams of early success evaporated as both the central powers (which is Germany) and the allies (which is France and Britain) dug in a long line extending through Belgium to France and finishing in the south of Germany. So it starts off by saying people dreamed they could succeed quickly. Can you see the words that mean people dreamed they could succeed quickly? Have a look there. All [look] Identification (I) T: Whats the words that say that? St: Dreams of early successes

44 Example of PIE Affirmation T: Very good, thats great, Dreams of early successes. Lets all do (highlight) that. All [mark wordings] Elaboration T: So that means they were all dreaming, it was just a dream. Its like they were dreaming and their dreams just evaporated into thin air.

45 More information See http://www.readingtolearn.com.au/#/articles/ http://www.readingtolearn.com.au/#/articles/

46 Conclusion

47 Tutorial Questions Modelling discourse analysis

48 References Anstey, M. 2003, Examining classrooms as sites of literate practice and literacy learning, in The literacy lexicon second edition, eds G. Bull and M. Anstey, Prentice Hall, Frenchs Forest NSW, pp. 103-121. Culican, S. J. (n.d.), Troubling teacher talk: The challenge of changing classroom discourse patterns. Retrieved 14 September 2009 from http://www.aare.edu.au/05pap/cul05592.pdf Rose, D. 2004, Sequencing and pacing of the hidden curriculum: How Indigenous learners are left out of the chain, in Reading Bernstein, researching Bernstein, eds J. Muller, A. Morais and B. Davies, RoutledgeFalmer, London, pp. 91-107. Rowling, J. K. (date unknown)*, Harry Potter and the philosophers stone, Bloomsbury, London. Rowling, J. K. 1998, Harry Potter and the chamber of secrets, Bloomsbury, London. * Sorry – couldnt locate the copy I used!!


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