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Accessible e-Learning:

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Presentation on theme: "Accessible e-Learning:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Accessible e-Learning:
Include all learners Badrul Khan Aina G. Irbe Tim Springer Include all learners!

2 The Accessible e-Learning Framework Best Practices Summary
Agenda Introduction Accessibility E-Learning (Education) The Accessible e-Learning Framework Best Practices Summary

3 Identify the relationship between accessibility and e-learning
Objectives Identify the relationship between accessibility and e-learning Discuss the eight dimensions for an accessible e-learning environment Define best practices for accessible e-learning Note to the Presenter: You can say something like … with the three major objectives, you will discuss accessibility issues that encompass the eight dimensions of the e-learning environment along with common Common Disability types. Simply open up a dialogue with participants to discuss how various critical issues play important role in the accessible e-learning development process.

4 Introduction What is Accessibility? A web site or other software is accessible when people with disabilities can use it effectively and for the same purpose(s) as people without disabilities. (John Slatin. The Imagination Gap.) The ability for all users to enjoy the same level of access to and interaction with e-Learning course content, features, instructors, and learners using readily available assistive technologies (Joel Sanda. CSUN Conference Presentation) Source: Klomp, R., (2004). A literature review of the accessibility of e-learning for students with disabilities. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved December 17, 2007, from Joel Sanda. E-College Accessibility: The online campus benefits of accessible e-learning.” CSUN Conference Presentation. Joel Sanda. John Slatin. The Imagination Gap. On a very philosophical level, (John Slatin) presents the widest definition of accessibility. “A web site or other software is accessible when people with disabilities can use it effectively and for the same purpose(s) as people without disabilities.” Furthermore, he emphasizes the fact that this definition “makes accessibility a quality of people’s experience rather than something inherent to the website.” In the same light, Sanda defines accessibility as “The ability for all users to enjoy the same level of access to and interaction with e-Learning course content, features, instructors, and learners using readily available assistive technologies.”

5 Tim Berners-Lee W3C Director & Inventor of the Web
Introduction The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone, regardless of disability, is an essential aspect. Tim Berners-Lee W3C Director & Inventor of the Web Note to the Presenter: Our own Dr. Badrul Khan had the pleasure of discussing global e-learning accessibility issues with Tim Berners-Lee at the 2012 e-learning conference in Ryadh, Saudia Arabia. Both of them served as keynote speakers at the conference.

6 Only twenty percent of the world uses the Web.
Introduction Only twenty percent of the world uses the Web. Note to the Presenter: Stop Video at .43. If appropriate, show this 58-second video to the audience. Since Tim Berners-Lee was in Saudi Arabia and promoted accessible e-learning, the video inclusion may be taken with local pride and sensitivity! To run the video (which will appear on the right of the screen) from the local file from the folder file, click on any space below the text “… uses the Web.” The left image has a link to Youtube site.

7 Introduction What is E-Learning? E-Learning can be viewed as an innovative approach for delivering well-designed, learner-centered, interactive, and facilitated learning environment to anyone, anyplace, anytime by utilizing the attributes and resources of various digital technologies along with other forms of learning materials suited for open and distributed learning environment. (Khan, 2005) There are numerous names for e-learning: Distance Learning (DL) Online Learning (OL) Web-Based Learning (WBL) Web-Based Instruction (WBI) Web-Based Training (WBT) Internet-Based Training (IBT) Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) Distributed Learning (DL) Mobile Learning (or m-Learning) or Nomadic Learning, Remote Learning, Off‑site Learning, a‑Learning (anytime, anyplace, anywhere learning) Khan, B. H. (2005). Managing e-learning strategies: Design, delivery, implementation, and evaluation. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

8 Common e-learning delivery environments
Introduction E-Learning and Delivery Format Common e-learning delivery environments In-class, instructor led Web-based, instructor led (synchronous and asynchronous) Web-based, self-paced Common self-paced e-learning formats and/or tool outputs HTML Adobe Flash Documents MS Word, MS PowerPoint, PDF, etc. Note 1 – this session focuses on common web-based, self-paced e-learning accessibility issues Note 2 - “out of the box” Flash solutions commonly present  reading order and focus issues especially with dynamic content because of the limitations of controlling objects in the development environment, in other words, the content is very linear

9 Introduction Designing accessible e‑learning requires in-depth understanding of how to integrate e‑learning factors and international accessibility guidelines throughout the entire e‑learning development process. Abstract Designing accessible e‑learning requires in-depth understanding of how to integrate e‑learning factors and international accessibility guidelines throughout the entire e‑learning development process. Extended Abstract Now, more than ever before, learning can be made accessible to anyone regardless of diversity of physical, mental, economic, and other social conditions. With the emergence of the Web and advances in digital technologies (Khan & Ally, in press), learning can be designed to encompass the needs of learners with disabilities. In addition to common disability types, such as visual, auditory, mobility, speech, cognitive, and age‑related, some socio-economic issues/policies affecting learning context also must be examined. Ongoing technological solutions for accessibility is undoubtedly making a huge difference in e‑learning, however, consideration of broader social, economic, and political context conducive to learning is critical. In designing accessible e‑learning, it is necessary to reflect on issues that affect the success of the program beyond common disability types. Accessible e-learning design must address critical issues of e‑learning environment and should be designed with appropriate learning strategies supported by instructional design principles (Irbe, 2012). Therefore, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of open and distributed accessible e‑learning systems require thoughtful analysis and investigation of how to use the attributes and resources of the Internet and digital technologies in concert with instructional design principles for online learning and in compliance with accessibility standards. In this presentation, a framework for e‑learning (Khan, 2005) will be introduced to discuss comprehensive and critical issues of accessibility in the design of globally diverse and meaningful e‑learning. The framework identifies the eight vital dimensions for an accessible e‑learning environment: (1) The pedagogical dimension of e-learning refers to teaching and learning. This dimension addresses instructional design issues concerning content analysis, audience analysis, goal analysis, media analysis, design approach, organization and methods and strategies of e-learning environments. (2) The technological dimension examines issues of technology infrastructure in e-learning environments. This includes infrastructure planning, hardware and software. (3) The interface design refers to the overall look and feel of e-learning programs. Interface design dimension encompasses page and site design, content design, navigation, and usability testing. (4) The evaluation for e-learning includes both assessment of learners and evaluation of the instruction and learning environment. (5) The management of e-learning refers to the maintenance of learning environment and distribution of information. (6) The resource support dimension examines the online support and resources required to foster meaningful learning environments. (7) The ethical considerations of e-learning relate to social and political influence, cultural diversity, bias, geographical diversity, learner diversity, information accessibility, etiquette, and the legal issues. (8) The institutional dimension is concerned with issues of administrative affairs, academic affairs, and student services related to e-learning. As more and more institutions worldwide implementing e‑learning, there is a tremendous need for designing learning materials that can be globally accessible and useful. Therefore, a comprehensive examination of critical e‑learning factors and meaningful integration of international accessibility guidelines starting with the very early stages and throughout the entire e‑learning development process will ensure an accessible and successful experience.

10 Introduction Designing accessible e-learning should not only adhere to its technical accessibility requirement, but should also address critical issues that can foster the its meaningful implementation. Source: Khan, B. H. (in press). Meaningful E-Learning. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

11 Introduction Accessibility Within the scope of today’s presentation, we will discuss the eight categories of the e-learning framework intended to provide design guidance and best practices for accessible e-learning. Discuss how does this relate to e-learning projects

12 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
Note to the Presenter: We are at SSBBART dedicated to create meaningful accessible e-learning materials. In this regard, we follow the eight critical dimensions of Khan’s Accessible Framework which helps us to think through every aspect of what we are doing during the steps of the e‑learning design process. Please note that each dimension consists of issues focused on a specific aspect of accessible e‑learning environment. 1. Institutional dimension is concerned with issues of administrative affairs, training/academic affairs and learner services related to e-learning. 2. Pedagogical dimension of e‑learning refers to teaching and learning. This dimension addresses issues concerning content analysis, audience analysis, goal analysis, medium analysis, design approach, organization, and learning strategies. 3. Technological dimension examines issues of technology infrastructure in e-learning environments. This includes infrastructure planning, hardware and software. 4. Interface design refers to the overall look and feel of e-learning programs. Interface design dimension encompasses page and site design, content design, navigation, accessibility and usability testing. 5. Evaluation for e-learning includes both assessment of learners and evaluation of the instruction and learning environment. 6. Management dimension refers to the maintenance of learning environment and distribution of information. 7. Resource support dimension examines the online support and resources required to foster meaningful learning. 8. Ethical considerations of e-learning relate to social and political influence, cultural diversity, bias, geographical diversity, learner diversity, digital divide, etiquette, and the legal issues. How to use the Framework? Throughout the e-learning development process, the issues within each dimension of the E‑Learning Framework should be thought of as questions that course designers can ask themselves when planning e‑learning. As you know each e‑learning project is unique. I encourage you to identify as many issues (in the form of questions) as possible for your own e‑learning project by using the framework. One way to identify critical issues is by putting each stakeholder group (such as learner, instructor, support staff, etc.) at the center of the framework and raising issues along the eight dimensions of the e‑learning environment. This way you can identify many critical issues and answer questions that can help create a meaningful accessible e‑learning environment for your particular group. By repeating the same process for other stakeholder groups, you can generate a comprehensive list of issues for your e‑learning project.

13 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
Note to the Presenter: We are at SSBBART Group dedicated to create meaningful accessible e-learning materials. In this regard, we follow the eight critical dimensions of Khan’s Accessible Framework which helps us to think through every aspect of what we are doing during the steps of the e‑learning design process. Please note that each dimension consists of issues focused on a specific aspect of accessible e‑learning environment. 1. Institutional dimension is concerned with issues of administrative affairs, training/academic affairs and learner services related to e-learning. 2. Pedagogical dimension of e‑learning refers to teaching and learning. This dimension addresses issues concerning content analysis, audience analysis, goal analysis, medium analysis, design approach, organization, and learning strategies. 3. Technological dimension examines issues of technology infrastructure in e-learning environments. This includes infrastructure planning, hardware and software. 4. Interface design refers to the overall look and feel of e-learning programs. Interface design dimension encompasses page and site design, content design, navigation, accessibility and usability testing. 5. Evaluation for e-learning includes both assessment of learners and evaluation of the instruction and learning environment. 6. Management dimension refers to the maintenance of learning environment and distribution of information. 7. Resource support dimension examines the online support and resources required to foster meaningful learning. 8. Ethical considerations of e-learning relate to social and political influence, cultural diversity, bias, geographical diversity, learner diversity, digital divide, etiquette, and the legal issues. How to use the Framework? Throughout the e-learning development process, the issues within each dimension of the E‑Learning Framework should be thought of as questions that course designers can ask themselves when planning e‑learning. As you know each e‑learning project is unique. I encourage you to identify as many issues (in the form of questions) as possible for your own e‑learning project by using the framework. One way to identify critical issues is by putting each stakeholder group (such as learner, instructor, support staff, etc.) at the center of the framework and raising issues along the eight dimensions of the e‑learning environment. This way you can identify many critical issues and answer questions that can help create a meaningful accessible e‑learning environment for your particular group. By repeating the same process for other stakeholder groups, you can generate a comprehensive list of issues for your e‑learning project.

14 ?? Note to the Presenter: Within the scope of today’s presentation, I would focus on one issue from each dimension. (Press space bar to go next for selected eight issues in the Table). 1. Policy from Institutional dimension 2. Content Analysis from Pedagogical dimension 3. Infrastructure planning from Technological dimension. 4. Page and Site Design from Interface design dimension. 5. Proctored Tests from Evaluation dimension. 6. Staffing from Management dimension. 7. Online Resources from Resource Support dimension. 8. Digital Divide from Ethical considerations dimension.

15 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
POLICY (Institutional Dimension) Develop policies which require all courseware to be accessible Develop guidelines for institutional responsibility Develop guidelines for the procurement of equipment to ensure accessibility Develop a committee to oversee the accommodation requirements of individuals with disabilities Source: Distance Education and Individuals with Disabilities: Ron Stewart. CSUN 1999 Conference Note to the Presenter The following article is a good read for academic world: Creating an Institutional Culture that Embraces Accessibility and Supports Online Student Success by By Kristen Betts | Director of Online and Blended Learning, Armstrong Atlantic State University URL:

16 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
CONTENT (Pedagogical Dimension) Course Goals and Objectives clearly state what the participants will know or be able to do at the end of the course. The course is organized into units and lessons. Each lesson includes a lesson overview, content and activities, assignments and assessments to provide multiple learning opportunities for students to master the content. The course instruction engages students in learning activities that address a variety of learning styles and preferences. Source: Standards for Quality Online Courses Source: Standards for Quality Online Courses Note to the Presenter: Please indicate an instructionally sound e-learning course (i.e., instructional design) is more accessible than one without it.

17 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
INFRASTUCTURE PLANNING (Technological) )Dimension) Employ robust accessibility standards throughout the courseware development to yields consistent results with most assistive technology CourseSmart focuses on accessible reading via the web, where there are robust accessibility standards that have been evolving since Assistive technology has capitalized on the standardization HTML affords, and CourseSmart's HTML-based approach to accessibility yields consistent results with most assistive technology. Source:

18 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
STAFFING (Management Dimension) Personnel: Commit resources to hire staff to monitor and support accessibility. Training Provide training to developers and content providers so they are aware of accessible issues before they design courseware and course content. (Source: Mark Urban & Michael Burks. CSUN 2002 Conference) Provide in-service accessibility training and ongoing support for all staff, trainers and instructors who must implement accommodation. (Challenges in Creating Software and Content for Distance Learning, Mark Urban & Michael Burks. CSUN 2002 Conference) Source: Esther Paist: Servicing Students with Disabilities in Distance Education Programs

19 E-Learning Accessibility Issues
The Accessible e-Learning Framework PAGE & SITE DESIGN (Interface Design Dimension) Make an effort to reduce or avoid the use of jargon, idioms, ambiguous or cute humor, and acronyms to improve cross-cultural verbal communication and avoid misunderstanding. E-Learning Accessibility Issues Source: Khan, B. H. (2005). Managing e-learning strategies: Design, delivery, implementation, and evaluation. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing. The “thumbs up” gesture meaning well done in the US, represents an obscenity meaning in Iraq, Iran, and Thailand. In Bangladesh it is a derogatory term.

20 E-Learning Accessibility Issues
The Accessible e-Learning Framework DIGITAL DIVIDE (Ethical Dimension) The term "digital divide" has traditionally described inequalities in access to computers and the Internet between groups of people based on one or more social or cultural identifiers.  Source Multicultural Education and the Digital Divide, by Paul C. Gorski A notable shortcoming is that web-based education can worsen the divide between those who have access to online learning and those who do not. Source: Online Education Implementation and Evaluation by Shelley L. Balanko E-Learning Accessibility Issues Source: Multicultural Education and the Digital Divide (September 2001) by Paul C. Gorski, Hamline University and EdChange Online Education Implementation and Evaluation Shelley L. Balanko, Ph. D. December, 2002

21 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
ONLINE RESOURCES (Resource Support Dimension) Digital Library Access to large amounts of information to users wherever they are and whenever they need it. Access to primary information sources. Support multimedia content along with text Network accessibility on Intranet and Internet User-friendly interface Hypertext links for navigation Client-server architecture Advanced search and retrieval. Integration with other digital libraries. Source: Digital Libraries: Functionality, Usability, and Accessibility by Mayank Trivedi Digital Libraries: Functionality, Usability, and Accessibility by Mayank Trivedi Ability OnLine Supports A free internet community where children and youth with disabilities or illness and their parents can meet others like them, make friends from all over the world, share their hopes and fears, find role-models and mentors, and feel like they belong.

22 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
PROCTORED TESTS (Evaluation Dimension) Allow the student to take proctored exams at his or her own site ... changing test formats ... allowing more time ... provide a distraction free environment. Source: Servicing Students with Disabilities in Distance Education Programs by Esther Paist Policies regarding assessment and test proctoring in online classes. Source: 2012 Pedagogical Issues Report. Educational Technology Leadership Group, UCLA Will campuses allow online proctoring? If so, how will they make sure that bandwidth and other learning infrastructure is in place on campus to support student use of the services? If campuses require in-person testing, will they establish testing centers? Will they accept proctoring at remote locations? This requires input from local administrators and faculty senates to set the operational parameters (Source: https://spaces.ais.ucla.edu/download/attachments/ /Pedagogical+Issues+June pdf?version=1&modificationDate= )

23 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
Note to the Presenter: So far I have present issues and best practices for the eight dimension of the accessible e-learning environment. Next, I am going to discuss Common Disability types for e-learning.

24 The Accessible e-Learning Framework
For a truly meaningful accessible e-learning environment, the eight dimensions of the accessible e-learning framework must be considered along with accessibility compliance. Source: Khan, B. H. (in press). Meaningful E-Learning. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

25 Accessible E-Learning
Best Practices for Accessible E-Learning Note to the Presenter: We are at SSBBART dedicated to create meaningful accessible e-learning materials. In this regard, we follow the eight critical dimensions of Khan’s Accessible Framework which helps us to think through every aspect of what we are doing during the steps of the e‑learning design process. Please note that each dimension consists of issues focused on a specific aspect of accessible e‑learning environment. 1. Institutional dimension is concerned with issues of administrative affairs, training/academic affairs and learner services related to e-learning. 2. Pedagogical dimension of e‑learning refers to teaching and learning. This dimension addresses issues concerning content analysis, audience analysis, goal analysis, medium analysis, design approach, organization, and learning strategies. 3. Technological dimension examines issues of technology infrastructure in e-learning environments. This includes infrastructure planning, hardware and software. 4. Interface design refers to the overall look and feel of e-learning programs. Interface design dimension encompasses page and site design, content design, navigation, accessibility and usability testing. 5. Evaluation for e-learning includes both assessment of learners and evaluation of the instruction and learning environment. 6. Management dimension refers to the maintenance of learning environment and distribution of information. 7. Resource support dimension examines the online support and resources required to foster meaningful learning. 8. Ethical considerations of e-learning relate to social and political influence, cultural diversity, bias, geographical diversity, learner diversity, digital divide, etiquette, and the legal issues. How to use the Framework? Throughout the e-learning development process, the issues within each dimension of the E‑Learning Framework should be thought of as questions that course designers can ask themselves when planning e‑learning. As you know each e‑learning project is unique. I encourage you to identify as many issues (in the form of questions) as possible for your own e‑learning project by using the framework. One way to identify critical issues is by putting each stakeholder group (such as learner, instructor, support staff, etc.) at the center of the framework and raising issues along the eight dimensions of the e‑learning environment. This way you can identify many critical issues and answer questions that can help create a meaningful accessible e‑learning environment for your particular group. By repeating the same process for other stakeholder groups, you can generate a comprehensive list of issues for your e‑learning project.

26 Best Practices Include accessibility at the onset of the project Choose content creation tools with accessible output Develop requirements/design documents to include accessibility Use (or create) storyboards that will include accessibility best practices Conduct an accessibility check for your storyboards (pre-programming) Use automated tools AND conduct manual testing for your prototype/final product Recruit test users with disabilities AND test with ATs

27 Summary Note to the Presenter: How to use the Framework?
We are at SSBBART dedicated to create meaningful accessible e-learning materials. In this regard, we follow the eight critical dimensions of Khan’s Accessible Framework which helps us to think through every aspect of what we are doing during the steps of the e‑learning design process. Please note that each dimension consists of issues focused on a specific aspect of accessible e‑learning environment. 1. Institutional dimension is concerned with issues of administrative affairs, training/academic affairs and learner services related to e-learning. 2. Pedagogical dimension of e‑learning refers to teaching and learning. This dimension addresses issues concerning content analysis, audience analysis, goal analysis, medium analysis, design approach, organization, and learning strategies. 3. Technological dimension examines issues of technology infrastructure in e-learning environments. This includes infrastructure planning, hardware and software. 4. Interface design refers to the overall look and feel of e-learning programs. Interface design dimension encompasses page and site design, content design, navigation, accessibility and usability testing. 5. Evaluation for e-learning includes both assessment of learners and evaluation of the instruction and learning environment. 6. Management dimension refers to the maintenance of learning environment and distribution of information. 7. Resource support dimension examines the online support and resources required to foster meaningful learning. 8. Ethical considerations of e-learning relate to social and political influence, cultural diversity, bias, geographical diversity, learner diversity, digital divide, etiquette, and the legal issues. How to use the Framework? Throughout the e-learning development process, the issues within each dimension of the E‑Learning Framework should be thought of as questions that course designers can ask themselves when planning e‑learning. As you know each e‑learning project is unique. I encourage you to identify as many issues (in the form of questions) as possible for your own e‑learning project by using the framework. One way to identify critical issues is by putting each stakeholder group (such as learner, instructor, support staff, etc.) at the center of the framework and raising issues along the eight dimensions of the e‑learning environment. This way you can identify many critical issues and answer questions that can help create a meaningful accessible e‑learning environment for your particular group. By repeating the same process for other stakeholder groups, you can generate a comprehensive list of issues for your e‑learning project.

28 Summary Designing accessible e-learning should not only adhere to technical accessibility requirements, but should also address the eight dimensions of the e-learning framework in order to foster meaningful implementation.

29 Questions?

30 Thank you!

31 Accessible e-Learning:
Include all learners Badrul Khan Aina G. Irbe Tim Springer Include all learners!


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