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1PROF. DR. ABDUL SALAM BABJI Recent Developments and Concerns of Meat- Based Food Products among Muslim in ASEAN RegionPROF. DR. ABDUL SALAM BABJI
2INTRODUCTION Muslims eat to live and not live to eat Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaINTRODUCTIONMuslims eat to live and not live to eatEating is a matter of worship and begins in the name of AllahMuslims are not to be misled by their appetites unchecked by knowledge (Surah Al-An' am (6):119)“Eat less you will be healthier” (Hadis)
3Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia INTRODUCTIONToday’s consumers (Muslims) are concerned on HALAL, health, diet and wholesomeness products.Development of HALAL , healthful new meat based-products is a profitable venture.Health conscious consumer-driven market especially in selecting meat products (high fat, high cholesterol, unhealthy).Manufacturers have to consider quality, consumer preference, overall acceptance, cost and pricing as equally important factors in the formulation of fish, poultry and meat products.
4INTRODUCTIONUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaHealth conscious consumer-driven market especially in selecting meat products (high fat, high cholesterol, unhealthy)Manufacturers have to consider quality, consumer preference, overall acceptance, cost and pricing as equally important factors in the formulation of fish, poultry and meat products.
6Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia DefinitionFood permitted under the Shariah law and fulfils the following conditions:Does not contain any parts or products of animals that are non-halal to Muslims or products of animals which are not slaughtered according to Shariah law.Does not contain any ingredients that are Najs according to Shariah law.Is safe and not harmful.Is not prepared, processed or manufactured using equipment that is contaminated with things that are Najs according to Shariah law.The food or its ingredients do not contain any human parts or its derivatives that are not permitted by Shariah law.During its preparation, processing, packaging, storage or transportation, the food is physically separated from any other food that does not meet the requirements stated in items a), b), c) d) or e) or any other things that have been decreed as Najs by Shariah law.
7Why Halal Food? The lives of Muslims are guided by Shariah Law Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaWhy Halal Food?The lives of Muslims are guided by Shariah LawShariah Law means Islamic Law based on the Quran, Hadith, Ijma’ and Qiyas according to the Shafiie or any one of the Hanafi, Maliki or Hanbali School of Thought or fatwa approved by the relevant Islamic Authority.A particular food becomes Halal or non-Halal by Shariah Law if it is considered so through by any one of the above mentioned sources.
8Halal Concept The underlying principle for a Muslim diet : Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaHalal ConceptThe underlying principle for a Muslim diet :Halal (permissible)Thoyyiban (wholesome: healthy, safe, nutritious & quality).
9Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Principles of HalalThe basic principle established by Islam is the principle of natural usability and permissibility of things.Nothing is forbidden except what is prohibited either by a verse of the Quran or an authentic and explicit Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).The basic principle of halal is that all things created by Allah S.W.T. are halal (permitted), with a few exceptions that are prohibited.Those exceptions include:PorkBloodCarrionFood that has been dedicatedImmolated to someone other than Allah( Surah Al-Maidah (5) : 3 )
10Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia NAJSAnimals or things that are themselves not permissible such as pig (khinzir) and all its derivatives, blood and carrion.Halal food that is contaminated with things that are non-halal.Halal food that comes into direct contact with things that are non-halal.
11Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia NAJSAny liquid and objects discharged from the orifices of human beings or animals such as urine, excrement, blood, vomit, pus, sperm and ova of pigs and dogs except sperm and ova of other animals; andCarrion or halal animals that are not slaughtered according to Shariah law.
12Islamic Dietary Practices Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaIslamic Dietary PracticesEating is a form of “ibadah”, which begins with “Bismillah”The Prophet’s Dietary PracticesPrayer before mealPrayer after mealEat when you are hungry, stop eating before you are full
13Hadith (The Prophet’s Dietary Practices): Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaContinued………Hadith (The Prophet’s Dietary Practices):- One third of the stomach content should be food, one third should be water and the remaining one third should be air- Eat less and slowly (it is discouraged to eat in excess and wastage is condemned)- Eat a balanced diet (Prophet’s favourite food: milk, fruits, meat and honey)- Eat moderately- Eat in a group (togetherness)
15Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Surah Al-An’Aam 6:142“Of the cattle are some for burden and some for meat: eat what God hath provided for you, and follow not the footsteps of Satan: for he is to you an avowed enemy.”
16God expects spiritual leaders to teach His people to distinguish between biblically right and wrong behavior. He says, through the prophet Ezekiel: “ They shall teach My people the difference between the holy and the unholy, and cause them to discern between the unclean and the clean” (Ezekiel 44:23, emphasis added throughout).God is consistent and unchanging. Animals He categorized as unclean thousands years ago remain unclean in the future.
17Some have looked for scientific reasons that God may have had in mind when He told the ancient Israelites not to eat pork (Leviticus 11:7; Deuteronomy 14:8). One theory is that god forbade the eating of pork so that the Israelites would not catch certain diseases, such as trichinosis, that pigs can carry.So God, not man, is the authority on our conduct (Proverbs 14:12), including deciding that of what foods we may eat or may not eat.Almost 1,000 years before God made a convenant with the nation of Israel, in fact centuries before there even was an Israel, He told Noah to take into the ark unclean animals by twos and the clean ones by sevens (Genesis 6:19; 7:2)
18God simply said “ of every clean animal you shall take seven pairs, males and their mates, and of every animal that is not clean, two, a male and its mate”.In Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14, we find lists of clean and unclean animals. The two chapters give the same reason for god’s instruction on clean and unclean meats.Unclean could refer to animals God did not intend to be used as food. Unclean could also refer to ceremonial uncleanness.
19Are distinctions between clean and unclean meats a matter of health? Doctors offer their viewScripture and medical research agree that modern lifestyles lived without reference to God’s laws and design shorten life and hasten death’ ( What the Bible says about Healthy Living, 1999)
20The Bible speaks of unclean animals (Revelation 18:2) and punishment of those who disobey Him in this matter (Isaiah 66:15-17). The Bible continues to show obedience to the laws of clean and unclean food as an identifying characteristics of God’s people.God’s Word describes the flesh of unclean animals as an “abomination” (Leviticus 11:10-13, 20, 23, 41-42) and “detestable” (Deuteronomy 14:3)- and in that light we are warned against consuming such meat (Leviticus 11:43).God reveals which animals – including fish and birds – are suitable and unsuitable for human consumption in (Basic food laws) in Levitius 11 and Deuteronomy 14.
21“We’ve only discovered that animal fat is bad for us in the last 50 years. To the Christian a century ago, the directive in Leviticus 3:17 to avoid animal fat made no sense at all. Yet, it’s clear to us today. WHAT IF there’s something in lobster that’s harmful to our health?“The lists of clean and unclean animals in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14 have a significance often ignored.”
22Beef, and fish that have scales and fins, is ideal for the health of humans. Many land animals God designed for food provide an additional benefit in that they generally eat grasses and grains that were designed for food.Almost all of the creatures on the unclean list are scavengers,” “in many cases, they don’t hunt for their own food; they eat the dead and decaying matter of our environment. A catfish does that at the bottom of a pond; lobsters and shrimp do it in the ocean. A pig will eat anything. Vultures, almost by definition, are known for their scavenger habits.
23Horses and rabbits, are not clean as they do not have spilt hooves Horses and rabbits, are not clean as they do not have spilt hooves. Studies showed that horse meat often contain viruses and parasites. Rabbits, are the course of tularemia.“one reason for God’s rule forbidding pork is that the digestive system of a pig is completely different from that of a cow. It is similar to ours, in that the stomach is very acidic. Pigs are gluttonous. Their stomach acids become diluted because of the volume of food, allowing all kinds of vermin to pass through this protective barrier. Parasites, bacteria, viruses and toxins can pass into the pig’s flesh.”
24Don Colbert, M.D., adds” besides being gluttons, swine are also extremely filthy animals. Pork is also a very fatty meat. The toxins in pork are held especially in the fat, which is not isolated from the meat as can be the case in lean beef.3 of the 6 most common food-borne parasitic diseases of humans are associated with pork consumption. These includes toxoplasmosis, taeniasis or cysticercosis (caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium) and trichinellosis.
25‘shellfish can be placed in a body of water that is contaminated with cholera bacteria, and they will purify the water. Shrimp, oysters, crab, scallops and mussels are particularly efficient in this. They filter large volumes of water every day. Sewage laden with chemicals, toxins and harmful bacteria, parasites and viruses become concentrated in those shellfish.”This cause of cholera outbreaks in several areas has been traced to contaminated shrimp, crab, oysters and clams.Dr. Russell’s conclusion” although swine help clean the earth, and shellfish and catfish are ideally designed to purify the water, we don’t want to eat what they clean up!”
26God’s words through Moses:” Observe and obey all these words which I command you, that it may go well with you and your children after you forever, when you do what is good and right in the sight of the Lord your God’ ( Deuteronomy 12:28)May we all be careful to “discreet between the unclean and the clean” (Ezekiel 44:23)
27Nutrition in Halal Food Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaNutrition in Halal Food
28MEATUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaDefinition :Edible flesh and organs of animals & fowls.Processed/manufactured meat products.Including : beef, chicken and other poultry, pork, fish, lobster, lamb & even alligator & crocodile etc.Meat is a source of high quality protein, fat (saturated & unsaturated), cholesterol & other nutrients e.g. vitamin B & minerals.Red meat : cattle, swine & sheep etc.White meat : chicken, turkey & other poultryWhite meat vs Red meat : ↑ protein ;↓ fat & cholesteroldecline in red meat consumption.
29NUTRIENT COMPOSITION (USDA) FoodEnergy (kcal)Protein (g)CHO (g)Fat (g)Cholesterol (mg)Beef (3 oz lean ground beef)238241586Chicken (3 oz without skin)14227373Pork (3 oz lean cutlet)175878Veal (3 oz braised cutlet)1666100
30Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia TYPESkeletal - striated, non-branching, ultinucleated, voluntary, 40% of body weight.Cardiac - striated, branching, multinucleated, involuntary.Smooth – nonstriated, branching, nonucleated, involuntary .
31NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN MEAT PROCESSING Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaNEW TECHNOLOGIES IN MEAT PROCESSING
32ADVANCES IN PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES Thoracic sticking slaughterElectrical stunningCaptive bolt stunningKobi beef, kosher cutsOrganic meat productsGelatin, bird nest, shark fin surimi and many surimi pdts.
33ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEAT PROCESSING Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEAT PROCESSINGAutomation in slaughter houses.Rapid nondestructive online detection systems.Decontamination, high-pressure processing, fat reduction, functional meat compounds, nitrite free products.Bacterial starters & fermentation products.Meat product packaging systems.
34ADVANCED MEAT PROCESSING Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaADVANCED MEAT PROCESSINGHydrodynamic pressure processingFunctional Bioactive PeptidesNitrite free meat productsUse of Bacteriocins against pathogensMeat bacterial startersModified atmosphere packagingActive packaging of meat products.
35Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia NEW TECHNOLOGYChicken, beef and fish are main protein sources among Malaysian.The affluence society is clearly indicated by the rapid emergence of convenience food, fast food outlets and supermarkets with modern retailing storage and display cases facilities.Society requires food with minimum preparation time but no compromise on freshness, nutritional value and wholesomeness.Singly or in combination to produce a wide range of value-added products.
36MEAT PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
37Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA
38Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMADarah dan plasma tambah -> mutu daging dan produk makanan dagingProtein protein haiwan meningkat ciri ciri teknologi rangkaian matrik protein dalam dagingJuga mengikat air dan lemakPlasma darah dari proses penyembelehan sangat baik > ciri ciri berfungsi protein.Meningkatkan kandungan protein dalam produk
39BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA Darah menghasilkan plasma dan pewarna merah Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBLOOD & BLOOD PLASMADarah menghasilkan plasma dan pewarna merahPlasma dalam bentuk powder or cecairTambah dalam sosej dan banyak bahan mentah- surimi,MDM,luncheon meats.Sebab di tambah->WHC,FBC, Pengemulsian. ->kekenyalan ,tektur produk.
40Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMAProses pemasakan mengkoagulasikan plasma dan mengikat lemak dan air.Campur bentuk dalam rencah, marinade, air @ 2%, beku, flakes, perisa, pembawa.Plasma darah biasanya di tambah bersama air/ais semasa pengisaran daging
41BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA pH plasma darah 6-7 baik >WHC/WBC Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBLOOD & BLOOD PLASMApH plasma darah 6-7 baik >WHC/WBCLebih banyak air dapat di ikat oleh daging berplasma darah>untungPlasma juga disuntik dalam ketulan daging>lebih berjus.Makanan bertin-plasma > kepadatan daging dan lebih sedap.
43Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMADalam sosej terfermen pewarna merah dari darah di tambahJARANG sekali di sebut dalam penlebelan isi kandungan sebab % plasma sangat sedikit <2%SUKAR di kesan sebab mudah sisebatikan dengan isi daging dan termusnah dalam teknologi pemperosesan haba.
44Nur Baizura, S.1, Aminah, A.1 & Adura, M. A.2 Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaNur Baizura, S.1, Aminah, A.1 & Adura, M. A.21School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, FST, UKM. 2School of Bioscience & Biotechnology, FST, UKM
45Plasma form a strong gel & proteolytic enzymes inhibitor properties. Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaSurimi with good gelling properties and smooth texture is required to produce a high quality and product.Plasma form a strong gel & proteolytic enzymes inhibitor properties.The usage of various animals (swine & bovine) plasma protein.Plasma NON-HALALMethod (identification) DNA method (more reliable)
46Three out of 12 surimi-based products tested shows POSITIVE results on amplification using BOVINE specific primer (beef).The HALAL status of these products are DOUBTFUL for Muslim consumers.
49BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES FROM MEAT PROTEINS Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBIOACTIVE PEPTIDES FROM MEAT PROTEINS
50Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia FUNCTIONAL FOODS‘Processed foods having disease-preventing and health-promoting benefits in addition to their nutritional value’
51Direction of meat products Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaDirection of meat products“The meat industry must adapt to the new concepts in nutrition. There is now a potential market for functional foods, based on the principle of added value linked to health benefits, which is one of the main trends in the development of food products.”“New approaches for the development of functional meat products” (Chapter 11) Jiménez-Colmenero, Reig & Toldrá(2006)
52BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES FROM MEAT PROTEINS Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBIOACTIVE PEPTIDES FROM MEAT PROTEINSConcerns about health leads to much attention to physiological functions of foods.Anti carcinogen, anti-mutagen, antioxidant, anti-aging.Develop new foods-functional ingredients.
53AMINO ACID, PEPTIDES, OLIGOPEPTIDE Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaAMINO ACID, PEPTIDES, OLIGOPEPTIDEL-carnitine reproductive performance.Assist in energy metabolism and energy reserves.Other bioactive components:CarnosineAnserineCLAGlutathioneTaurineCreatineProtein derived peptides released by proteolytic enzymes.
54Peptides sources: muscles, microbial, digestive proteinases. Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaPeptides sources: muscles, microbial, digestive proteinases.Meat proteins beyond a nutritional source.Like antihypertensive opioid, immunostimulating, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative peptides.
55Possible strategies for developing healthier meat and meat products Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaPossible strategies for developing healthier meat and meat productsModification of carcass compositionManipulation of meat raw materialsReformulation of meat products
56Reformulation of meat products Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaReduction of fat contentModification of fatty acid profileReduction of cholesterolReduction of caloriesReduction of sodium contentReduction of nitritesIncorporation of functional ingredients
57Meat-based bioactive compounds (Nutraceutical compounds in meat) Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaMeat-based bioactive compounds (Nutraceutical compounds in meat)Conjugated linoleic acidCarnosine, anserineL-CarnitineGlutathioneTaurineCreatine, etc.
58Examples of healthy meat products Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaExamples of healthy meat productsFat-free Bologna ham(USA)Calcium and fiber-fortified sausages(Japan)
59Foods for specified health use (FOSHU) Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaFoods for specified health use (FOSHU)Established in Japan in 1991FOSHU are foods that, based on knowledge of the relationship between foods or food components and health, are expected to have certain health benefits and have been licensed to bear labeling claiming that a person using them may expect to obtain health benefits through the consumption of these foods.(Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare)Approved FOSHU: 600 productsMarket scale: €4 billion/year
60Representative functional ingredients used for FOSHU products Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaRepresentative functional ingredients used for FOSHU productsSoy proteinsPeptidesCalciumIronGlycosidesPolyphenolsOligosaccharidesDietary fibersLactic acid bacteriaSugar alcoholsSterol estersDiacylglycerolsFOSHU“for people with high blood pressure”“preventing fat accumulation”
61Utilization of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaUtilization of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides
62Representative activities of food protein-derived bioactive peptides Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaRepresentative activities of food protein-derived bioactive peptidesAntihypertensiveAntioxidativeOpioidagonisticImmunomodulatoryAntimicrobialPrebioticMineralBindingHypocholesterolemic
63Generation of bioactive peptides from meat proteins Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaGeneration of bioactive peptides from meat proteinsGastrointestinal proteolysis: pepsin, trypsin, chymotripsin, etc.Aging and storage: calpains, cathepsins, etc.Fermentation: muscle enzymes, microbial enzymes.Enzymatic treatment : proteinases from various sources.
64Antioxidative peptides generated from meat proteins Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaAntioxidative peptides generated from meat proteinsAntioxidative substances have been reported to play many physiological roles, such as prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress.
66FOOD INDUSTRY: MEAT PROCESSING Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaFOOD INDUSTRY: MEAT PROCESSING
67PROCESSED MEAT PRODUCTS Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaPROCESSED MEAT PRODUCTSDef: whole muscle product that has been transformed into a manufactured product by chemical, enzymatic, or mechanical treatment.From the animalType of productsMeat cutsRetail cutsSteakBaconMeat trimmingsEmulsion& fermented sausagesLiver pâtéMeat ballsHamburgersRestructured meatFatFrying fat, fat for bakery & margarineBoneConverted to feeding stuff
68MEAT & MEAT PRODUCT PROCESSING Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaMEAT & MEAT PRODUCT PROCESSINGGrinding meat ingredientsAdding non-meat ingredientsBlending, stuffing, marinatingMassaging, restructuring.
69MICROBIAL P-HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTS Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaPROCESSESENZYMES, SCP, BIOACTIVESFERMENTATION PRODUCTSMICROBIAL P-HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTSBYPRODUCTS-MDM, CT, CASINGSFUNCTIONAL FOODS & DRINKSPET FOOD AND ANIMAL FEED
70CLASSIFICATION OF PROCESSED MEATS Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaCLASSIFICATION OF PROCESSED MEATSProcessed MeatsNon-comminuted products e.g. sectioned & formed products : cooked hamsMulti-needle injectionMassaging/tumblingGrinder/mincerBowl chopperCoarsely comminuted products e.g. hamburgersFinely comminuted products e.g. sausagesComminuted products
71Enhancement of Processed MEATS Using Phytochemical Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaEnhancement of Processed MEATS Using PhytochemicalMalaysia being a tropical country enjoys the privilege of abundant rain forests, rich in phytochemicals.Herbs and spices possessed anti-oxidative property and since ancient time those plant chemicals have been used to prolong shelf-life and improve taste of meat products (Mielnik et al., 2003).Several studies had been conducted to evaluate the correlation between phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity.
72Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia PHYTOCHEMICAL IN MEATA study by Rumaizah et al., (2005) investigated the effectiveness of three types of local plants ethanolic extracts, Indian pennywort (Centella asiatica L.), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates) to act as antioxidants in minced spent hen meat.All tested extracts were found to have lowerthiobarbituric acid (TBARS) values (P<0.05) regardless the storage duration.In another study by Noriham et al. (2005), water extracts of two local herbs were tested against lipid oxidation in mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) sausages during storage at- 18˚C for 6 months.
73Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Extracts obtained from Tamarindus indica (tamarind), Allium sativum (garlic), Apium graveolens (celery) and Curcuma domestica (turmeric) were evaluated for the antioxidative effects in delaying lipid oxidation and rancidity in chicken ball during chill storage (4˚C) for 10 days.
74Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Marinating of meatMarinating is an excellent way to turn less value meat cuts into succulent food products.Turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antioxidative activity, while lemon grass have been noted to exhibit antimicrobial effect in the marinated meat and roast chicken.Addition of turmeric and lemon grass and their combination in marinades also resulted in improving consumer acceptance of the roasted spent hen breast meat.
75Incorporation of palm fat/oil in meat product Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaIncorporation of palm fat/oil in meat productTraditional meat products are commonly associated with high fats and cholesterol.So it is only prudent for meat producers to offer less cholesterol/ less fats processed meats to the consumer.Babji et al. (2001) indicated that addition of red palm fat and palm oil resulted in chicken bologna with better sensory properties.Chicken burgers that were treated with palm fat and redpalm fat had higher content of antioxidants, alpha, gamma and delta tocotrienol and had better shelf life quality compared to burgers formulated with chicken fat (Wan Rosli et al., 2004 & Wan Rosli et al., 2003)