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Recent Developments and Concerns of Meat- Based Food Products among Muslim in ASEAN Region PROF. DR. ABDUL SALAM BABJI.

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Presentation on theme: "Recent Developments and Concerns of Meat- Based Food Products among Muslim in ASEAN Region PROF. DR. ABDUL SALAM BABJI."— Presentation transcript:

1 Recent Developments and Concerns of Meat- Based Food Products among Muslim in ASEAN Region PROF. DR. ABDUL SALAM BABJI

2 INTRODUCTION Muslims eat to live and not live to eat Eating is a matter of worship and begins in the name of Allah Muslims are not to be misled by their appetites unchecked by knowledge (Surah Al-An' am (6):119) Eat less you will be healthier (Hadis) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

3 INTRODUCTION Todays consumers (Muslims) are concerned on HALAL, health, diet and wholesomeness products. Development of HALAL, healthful new meat based-products is a profitable venture. Health conscious consumer-driven market especially in selecting meat products (high fat, high cholesterol, unhealthy). Manufacturers have to consider quality, consumer preference, overall acceptance, cost and pricing as equally important factors in the formulation of fish, poultry and meat products. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

4 INTRODUCTION Health conscious consumer-driven market especially in selecting meat products (high fat, high cholesterol, unhealthy) Manufacturers have to consider quality, consumer preference, overall acceptance, cost and pricing as equally important factors in the formulation of fish, poultry and meat products. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

5 HALAL FOOD? Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

6 Definition Food permitted under the Shariah law and fulfils the following conditions: a.Does not contain any parts or products of animals that are non-halal to Muslims or products of animals which are not slaughtered according to Shariah law. b.Does not contain any ingredients that are Najs according to Shariah law. c.Is safe and not harmful. d.Is not prepared, processed or manufactured using equipment that is contaminated with things that are Najs according to Shariah law. e.The food or its ingredients do not contain any human parts or its derivatives that are not permitted by Shariah law. f.During its preparation, processing, packaging, storage or transportation, the food is physically separated from any other food that does not meet the requirements stated in items a), b), c) d) or e) or any other things that have been decreed as Najs by Shariah law. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

7 Why Halal Food? The lives of Muslims are guided by Shariah Law Shariah Law means Islamic Law based on the Quran, Hadith, Ijma and Qiyas according to the Shafiie or any one of the Hanafi, Maliki or Hanbali School of Thought or fatwa approved by the relevant Islamic Authority. A particular food becomes Halal or non-Halal by Shariah Law if it is considered so through by any one of the above mentioned sources. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

8 Halal Concept The underlying principle for a Muslim diet : Halal (permissible) Thoyyiban (wholesome: healthy, safe, nutritious & quality). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

9 Principles of Halal The basic principle established by Islam is the principle of natural usability and permissibility of things. Nothing is forbidden except what is prohibited either by a verse of the Quran or an authentic and explicit Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The basic principle of halal is that all things created by Allah S.W.T. are halal (permitted), with a few exceptions that are prohibited. Those exceptions include: Pork Blood Carrion Food that has been dedicated Immolated to someone other than Allah ( Surah Al-Maidah (5) : 3 ) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

10 NAJS Animals or things that are themselves not permissible such as pig (khinzir) and all its derivatives, blood and carrion. Halal food that is contaminated with things that are non-halal. Halal food that comes into direct contact with things that are non-halal. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

11 Any liquid and objects discharged from the orifices of human beings or animals such as urine, excrement, blood, vomit, pus, sperm and ova of pigs and dogs except sperm and ova of other animals; and Carrion or halal animals that are not slaughtered according to Shariah law. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia NAJS

12 Islamic Dietary Practices 1.Eating is a form of ibadah, which begins with Bismillah 2.The Prophets Dietary Practices oPrayer before meal oPrayer after meal 3.Eat when you are hungry, stop eating before you are full Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

13 Hadith (The Prophets Dietary Practices): - One third of the stomach content should be food, one third should be water and the remaining one third should be air - Eat less and slowly (it is discouraged to eat in excess and wastage is condemned) - Eat a balanced diet (Prophets favourite food: milk, fruits, meat and honey) - Eat moderately - Eat in a group (togetherness) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Continued………

14 MEAT Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

15 Surah Al-AnAam 6:142 Of the cattle are some for burden and some for meat : eat what God hath provided for you, and follow not the footsteps of Satan: for he is to you an avowed enemy. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

16 God expects spiritual leaders to teach His people to distinguish between biblically right and wrong behavior. He says, through the prophet Ezekiel: They shall teach My people the difference between the holy and the unholy, and cause them to discern between the unclean and the clean (Ezekiel 44:23, emphasis added throughout). God is consistent and unchanging. Animals He categorized as unclean thousands years ago remain unclean in the future.

17 Some have looked for scientific reasons that God may have had in mind when He told the ancient Israelites not to eat pork (Leviticus 11:7; Deuteronomy 14:8). One theory is that god forbade the eating of pork so that the Israelites would not catch certain diseases, such as trichinosis, that pigs can carry. So God, not man, is the authority on our conduct (Proverbs 14:12), including deciding that of what foods we may eat or may not eat. Almost 1,000 years before God made a convenant with the nation of Israel, in fact centuries before there even was an Israel, He told Noah to take into the ark unclean animals by twos and the clean ones by sevens (Genesis 6:19; 7:2)

18 God simply said of every clean animal you shall take seven pairs, males and their mates, and of every animal that is not clean, two, a male and its mate. In Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14, we find lists of clean and unclean animals. The two chapters give the same reason for gods instruction on clean and unclean meats. Unclean could refer to animals God did not intend to be used as food. Unclean could also refer to ceremonial uncleanness.

19 Are distinctions between clean and unclean meats a matter of health? Doctors offer their view Scripture and medical research agree that modern lifestyles lived without reference to Gods laws and design shorten life and hasten death ( What the Bible says about Healthy Living, 1999)

20 The Bible speaks of unclean animals (Revelation 18:2) and punishment of those who disobey Him in this matter (Isaiah 66:15-17). The Bible continues to show obedience to the laws of clean and unclean food as an identifying characteristics of Gods people. Gods Word describes the flesh of unclean animals as an abomination (Leviticus 11:10-13, 20, 23, 41-42) and detestable (Deuteronomy 14:3)- and in that light we are warned against consuming such meat (Leviticus 11:43). God reveals which animals – including fish and birds – are suitable and unsuitable for human consumption in (Basic food laws) in Levitius 11 and Deuteronomy 14.

21 Weve only discovered that animal fat is bad for us in the last 50 years. To the Christian a century ago, the directive in Leviticus 3:17 to avoid animal fat made no sense at all. Yet, its clear to us today. WHAT IF theres something in lobster thats harmful to our health? The lists of clean and unclean animals in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14 have a significance often ignored.

22 Beef, and fish that have scales and fins, is ideal for the health of humans. Many land animals God designed for food provide an additional benefit in that they generally eat grasses and grains that were designed for food. Almost all of the creatures on the unclean list are scavengers, in many cases, they dont hunt for their own food; they eat the dead and decaying matter of our environment. A catfish does that at the bottom of a pond; lobsters and shrimp do it in the ocean. A pig will eat anything. Vultures, almost by definition, are known for their scavenger habits.

23 Horses and rabbits, are not clean as they do not have spilt hooves. Studies showed that horse meat often contain viruses and parasites. Rabbits, are the course of tularemia. one reason for Gods rule forbidding pork is that the digestive system of a pig is completely different from that of a cow. It is similar to ours, in that the stomach is very acidic. Pigs are gluttonous. Their stomach acids become diluted because of the volume of food, allowing all kinds of vermin to pass through this protective barrier. Parasites, bacteria, viruses and toxins can pass into the pigs flesh.

24 Don Colbert, M.D., adds besides being gluttons, swine are also extremely filthy animals. Pork is also a very fatty meat. The toxins in pork are held especially in the fat, which is not isolated from the meat as can be the case in lean beef. 3 of the 6 most common food-borne parasitic diseases of humans are associated with pork consumption. These includes toxoplasmosis, taeniasis or cysticercosis (caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium) and trichinellosis.

25 shellfish can be placed in a body of water that is contaminated with cholera bacteria, and they will purify the water. Shrimp, oysters, crab, scallops and mussels are particularly efficient in this. They filter large volumes of water every day. Sewage laden with chemicals, toxins and harmful bacteria, parasites and viruses become concentrated in those shellfish. This cause of cholera outbreaks in several areas has been traced to contaminated shrimp, crab, oysters and clams. Dr. Russells conclusion although swine help clean the earth, and shellfish and catfish are ideally designed to purify the water, we dont want to eat what they clean up!

26 Gods words through Moses: Observe and obey all these words which I command you, that it may go well with you and your children after you forever, when you do what is good and right in the sight of the Lord your God ( Deuteronomy 12:28) May we all be careful to discreet between the unclean and the clean (Ezekiel 44:23)

27 Nutrition in Halal Food Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

28 MEAT Definition : Edible flesh and organs of animals & fowls. Processed/manufactured meat products. Including : beef, chicken and other poultry, pork, fish, lobster, lamb & even alligator & crocodile etc. Meat is a source of high quality protein, fat (saturated & unsaturated), cholesterol & other nutrients e.g. vitamin B & minerals. 1. Red meat : cattle, swine & sheep etc. 2. White meat : chicken, turkey & other poultry White meat vs Red meat : protein ; fat & cholesterol decline in red meat consumption. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

29 NUTRIENT COMPOSITION (USDA) Food Energy (kcal) Protein (g)CHO (g)Fat (g) Cholestero l (mg) Beef (3 oz lean ground beef) Chicken (3 oz without skin) Pork (3 oz lean cutlet) Veal (3 oz braised cutlet)

30 TYPE 1. Skeletal - striated, non-branching, ultinucleated, voluntary, 40% of body weight. 2. Cardiac - striated, branching, multinucleated, involuntary. 3. Smooth – nonstriated, branching, nonucleated, involuntary. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

31 NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN MEAT PROCESSING Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

32 ADVANCES IN PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES Thoracic sticking slaughter Electrical stunning Captive bolt stunning Kobi beef, kosher cuts Organic meat products Gelatin, bird nest, shark fin surimi and many surimi pdts.

33 ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEAT PROCESSING Automation in slaughter houses. Rapid nondestructive online detection systems. Decontamination, high-pressure processing, fat reduction, functional meat compounds, nitrite free products. Bacterial starters & fermentation products. Meat product packaging systems. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

34 ADVANCED MEAT PROCESSING Hydrodynamic pressure processing Functional Bioactive Peptides Nitrite free meat products Use of Bacteriocins against pathogens Meat bacterial starters Modified atmosphere packaging Active packaging of meat products. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

35 NEW TECHNOLOGY Chicken, beef and fish are main protein sources among Malaysian. The affluence society is clearly indicated by the rapid emergence of convenience food, fast food outlets and supermarkets with modern retailing storage and display cases facilities. Society requires food with minimum preparation time but no compromise on freshness, nutritional value and wholesomeness. Singly or in combination to produce a wide range of value-added products. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

36 MEAT PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

37 BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

38 BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA Darah dan plasma tambah -> mutu daging dan produk makanan daging Protein protein haiwan meningkat ciri ciri teknologi rangkaian matrik protein dalam daging Juga mengikat air dan lemak Plasma darah dari proses penyembelehan sangat baik > ciri ciri berfungsi protein. Meningkatkan kandungan protein dalam produk Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

39 BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA Darah menghasilkan plasma dan pewarna merah Plasma dalam bentuk powder or cecair Tambah dalam sosej dan banyak bahan mentah- surimi,MDM,luncheon meats. Sebab di tambah->WHC,FBC, Pengemulsian. ->kekenyalan,tektur produk. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

40 BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA Proses pemasakan mengkoagulasikan plasma dan mengikat lemak dan air. Campur bentuk dalam rencah, marinade, 2%, beku, flakes, perisa, pembawa. Plasma darah biasanya di tambah bersama air/ais semasa pengisaran daging Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

41 BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA pH plasma darah 6-7 baik >WHC/WBC Lebih banyak air dapat di ikat oleh daging berplasma darah>untung Plasma juga disuntik dalam ketulan daging>lebih berjus. Makanan bertin-plasma > kepadatan daging dan lebih sedap. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


43 BLOOD & BLOOD PLASMA Dalam sosej terfermen pewarna merah dari darah di tambah JARANG sekali di sebut dalam penlebelan isi kandungan sebab % plasma sangat sedikit <2% SUKAR di kesan sebab mudah sisebatikan dengan isi daging dan termusnah dalam teknologi pemperosesan haba. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

44 Nur Baizura, S. 1, Aminah, A. 1 & Adura, M. A. 2 1 School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, FST, UKM. 2 School of Bioscience & Biotechnology, FST, UKM Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

45 Surimi with good gelling properties and smooth texture is required to produce a high quality and product. Plasma form a strong gel & proteolytic enzymes inhibitor properties. The usage of various animals (swine & bovine) plasma protein. Plasma NON-HALAL Method (identification) DNA method (more reliable) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

46 Three out of 12 surimi-based products tested shows POSITIVE results on amplification using BOVINE specific primer (beef). The HALAL status of these products are DOUBTFUL for Muslim consumers.




50 FUNCTIONAL FOODS Processed foods having disease-preventing and health-promoting benefits in addition to their nutritional value Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

51 Direction of meat products New approaches for the development of functional meat products (Chapter 11) Jiménez-Colmenero, Reig & Toldrá(2006) The meat industry must adapt to the new concepts in nutrition. There is now a potential market for functional foods, based on the principle of added value linked to health benefits, which is one of the main trends in the development of food products. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

52 BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES FROM MEAT PROTEINS Concerns about health leads to much attention to physiological functions of foods. Anti carcinogen, anti-mutagen, antioxidant, anti-aging. Develop new foods-functional ingredients. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

53 AMINO ACID, PEPTIDES, OLIGOPEPTIDE L-carnitine reproductive performance. Assist in energy metabolism and energy reserves. Other bioactive components: a.Carnosine b.Anserine c.CLA d.Glutathione e.Taurine f.Creatine Protein derived peptides released by proteolytic enzymes. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

54 Peptides sources: muscles, microbial, digestive proteinases. Meat proteins beyond a nutritional source. Like antihypertensive opioid, immunostimulating, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative peptides. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

55 Possible strategies for developing healthier meat and meat products 1. Modification of carcass composition 2. Manipulation of meat raw materials 3. Reformulation of meat products Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

56 Reformulation of meat products Reduction of fat content Modification of fatty acid profile Reduction of cholesterol Reduction of calories Reduction of sodium content Reduction of nitrites Incorporation of functional ingredients Reduction of fat content Modification of fatty acid profile Reduction of cholesterol Reduction of calories Reduction of sodium content Reduction of nitrites Incorporation of functional ingredients Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

57 Meat-based bioactive compounds (Nutraceutical compounds in meat) Conjugated linoleic acid Carnosine, anserine L-Carnitine Glutathione Taurine Creatine, etc. Conjugated linoleic acid Carnosine, anserine L-Carnitine Glutathione Taurine Creatine, etc. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

58 Examples of healthy meat products Fat-free Bologna ham (USA) Calcium and fiber-fortified sausages (Japan) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

59 Foods for specified health use (FOSHU) FOSHU are foods that, based on knowledge of the relationship between foods or food components and health, are expected to have certain health benefits and have been licensed to bear labeling claiming that a person using them may expect to obtain health benefits through the consumption of these foods. (Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare) Established in Japan in 1991 Approved FOSHU: 600 products Market scale: 4 billion/year Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

60 Representative functional ingredients used for FOSHU products Oligosaccharides Dietary fibers Lactic acid bacteria Sugar alcohols Sterol esters Diacylglycerols Soy proteins Peptides Calcium Iron Glycosides PolyphenolsFOSHU for people with high blood pressure preventing fat accumulation Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

61 Utilization of meat protein- derived bioactive peptides Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

62 Representative activities of food protein-derived bioactive peptides Antihypertensive Antioxidative Opioidagonistic Immunomodulatory Antimicrobial Prebiotic Mineral Binding Hypocholesterolemic Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

63 Generation of bioactive peptides from meat proteins 1. Gastrointestinal proteolysis: pepsin, trypsin, chymotripsin, etc. 2. Aging and storage: calpains, cathepsins, etc. 3. Fermentation: muscle enzymes, microbial enzymes. 4. Enzymatic treatment : proteinases from various sources. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

64 Antioxidative peptides generated from meat proteins Antioxidative substances have been reported to play many physiological roles, such as prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


66 FOOD INDUSTRY: MEAT PROCESSING Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

67 PROCESSED MEAT PRODUCTS Def: whole muscle product that has been transformed into a manufactured product by chemical, enzymatic, or mechanical treatment. From the animalType of products Meat cutsRetail cuts Steak Bacon Meat trimmingsEmulsion& fermented sausages Liver pâté Meat balls Hamburgers Restructured meat FatFrying fat, fat for bakery & margarine BoneConverted to feeding stuff Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

68 MEAT & MEAT PRODUCT PROCESSING Grinding meat ingredients Adding non-meat ingredients Blending, stuffing, marinating Massaging, restructuring. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia


70 CLASSIFICATION OF PROCESSED MEATS Processed Meats Non-comminuted products e.g. sectioned & formed products : cooked hams Multi-needle injection Massaging/tumbling Grinder/mincerBowl chopper Coarsely comminuted products e.g. hamburgers Finely comminuted products e.g. sausages Comminuted products Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

71 Malaysia being a tropical country enjoys the privilege of abundant rain forests, rich in phytochemicals. Herbs and spices possessed anti-oxidative property and since ancient time those plant chemicals have been used to prolong shelf-life and improve taste of meat products (Mielnik et al., 2003). Several studies had been conducted to evaluate the correlation between phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Enhancement of Processed MEATS Using Phytochemical

72 PHYTOCHEMICAL IN MEAT A study by Rumaizah et al., (2005) investigated the effectiveness of three types of local plants ethanolic extracts, Indian pennywort (Centella asiatica L.), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates) to act as antioxidants in minced spent hen meat. All tested extracts were found to have lowerthiobarbituric acid (TBARS) values (P<0.05) regardless the storage duration. In another study by Noriham et al. (2005), water extracts of two local herbs were tested against lipid oxidation in mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) sausages during storage at- 18˚C for 6 months. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

73 Extracts obtained from Tamarindus indica (tamarind), Allium sativum (garlic), Apium graveolens (celery) and Curcuma domestica (turmeric) were evaluated for the antioxidative effects in delaying lipid oxidation and rancidity in chicken ball during chill storage (4˚C) for 10 days. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

74 Marinating of meat Marinating is an excellent way to turn less value meat cuts into succulent food products. Turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antioxidative activity, while lemon grass have been noted to exhibit antimicrobial effect in the marinated meat and roast chicken. Addition of turmeric and lemon grass and their combination in marinades also resulted in improving consumer acceptance of the roasted spent hen breast meat. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

75 Incorporation of palm fat/oil in meat product Traditional meat products are commonly associated with high fats and cholesterol. So it is only prudent for meat producers to offer less cholesterol/ less fats processed meats to the consumer. Babji et al. (2001) indicated that addition of red palm fat and palm oil resulted in chicken bologna with better sensory properties. Chicken burgers that were treated with palm fat and redpalm fat had higher content of antioxidants, alpha, gamma and delta tocotrienol and had better shelf life quality compared to burgers formulated with chicken fat (Wan Rosli et al., 2004 & Wan Rosli et al., 2003) Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia



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