3Designer Drugs:drugs, which are created (or reformulated, if the drug already existed) to get around existing drug laws (CSA), usually by modifying the molecular structures of existing drugs to varying degrees
4Designer Drugs:“designer drug” was first coined by law enforcement in the 1980ssecond International Opium Convention in 1925 which specifically banned alternative esters of morphine1960s s, new synthetic hallucinogens (modifications of LSD & PCP)1980s s, design of MDMA (ecstasy) & methcathinone, derivatives of psilocybin & mescaline - anabolic steroid
5What Drives the Production Designer Drugs ? consumer preferenceslaw enforcement control
8“Listed” Ingredients in Spice Canavalia rosea: commonly known as beach bean or bay bean - vine found in tropical and subtropical beach dunesNymphaea caerulea: also known as Blue Egyptian water lilyScutellaria nana: perennial herb also known as Dwarf skullcapPedicularis densiflora: known commonly as Indian warrior - a perennial herbLeonotis leonurus: also known as Lion's Tail and Wild Dagga - a perennial shrub native to southern AfricaZornia latifolia: is a perennial herbNelumbo nucifera: known by a number of names including Indian Lotus, or simply Lotus - aquatic perennial commonly found in ChinaLeonurus sibiricus: commonly called Honeyweed or Siberian motherwort, herbaceous plant native to Asiavanillahoney
9Preparation of the “incense”: botanicals are sprayed with liquid preparations of:HU-210HU-211CP 47,497JWH-018JWH-073
10Synthetic cannabinoids are not Salvia divinorum Synthetic cannabinoids are not Salvia divinorum. Salvia divinorum is a psychoactive plant which can induce dissociative effects.
11Where can these “incense” products be purchased?
12Sources of Incense Products: “head” shops/alternative medicine storesinternet/on-line sources (2004)1-(800) phone ordering servicesindividual distributors
18More Directions:There is 1.5g of Natural Super Puff in each package. Super Puff incense is an ultra strong aromatic incense, and is one of the world's strongest herbal incense blends available. It contains an extremely potent blend of herbal resins, extracts, and leaves. This incense is for botanical use only and is not for human consumption.
19Terms: You affirm and agree to the following: That you are 18 years of age or older.NO EXCEPTIONS! You agree to useour products for their intended purposesonly. You waive without exceptionyour right to hold Seller liable in anyway for the misuse of Seller’s products.Buyer understands that all of Seller’sproducts are offered for scientificresearch purposes only and that theseproducts are not intended for humanconsumption. Buyer understands thatSeller’s products are not meant for oralconsumption or inhalation of smoke/hotvapors. The Seller does NOT supplyinstructions on proper use of any productprovided.
20What’s the story behind these synthetic THC chemicals?
21Synthetic Cannabinoids HU-210HU-211CP 47,497 (and related chemicals)JWH-018JWH-073
22Origins of Synthetic Cannabinoids HU-210 & HU synthesized at Hebrew University, Israel in HU-210 is an anti-inflammatory; HU-211 as an anestheticCP 47,497 - developed by Pfizer in 1980 as an analgesicJWH-018 & JWH synthesize by a researcher at Clemson (1995) for use in THC receptor research - John W. Huffmanmore than 100 different synthetic cannabinoids have been created
23Synthetic Cannabinoids Timeline: first appearance on the Internet 2004Europe was original target marketby 2008 widespread in Europe2008 introduced into USwidespread in US by latelate 2008 University Hospital Freiburg, Germany first analysis of incensefirst Spring 2009laboratory testing available late 2010
24Pharmacological Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids HU-210CP 47,497JWH-018JWH-073All act as THC agonists
25An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and triggers a response – often mimicking the action of a naturally occurring substance.ReceptorDrug (agonist)
26CB Receptors:CB1 and CB2CB1 receptor influence mainly the brain (central nervous system, CNS), but there are also effects expressed in the lungs, liver and kidneysCB2 receptor effects mainly the immune system and in certain stem cells
27Why Change the Key? prolong the effect of the drug increase the potency of the drug“select” the desired effectmake the drug more difficult to detectavoid patent infringementmake an illegal drug “legal”Drug
29Smoking Cannabinoids What does CB1 receptor control? BG: motor control, learningHippo: memory, spatial navigationCB: cognitive functions - attention, language, emotions
30Pharmacological Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids are Similar to THC increase heart rate & blood pressurealtered state of consciousnessmild euphoria and relaxationperceptual alterations (time distortion)intensification of sensory experiencespronounced cognitive effectsimpaired short-term memoryreduction in motor skill acuityincrease in reaction times
32Reported Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids are Different to THC production inconsistenciesherbal incense blends are harsher to inhaleeffect on appetite is non-existentincreased restlessness & aggressive behaviorherbal incense produces a shorter “high” (perceptual alterations & sensory effects are limited)doesn’t mix well with alcohol (hangovers)incense costs more than marijuana
33Abuse of Synthetic Cannabinoids versus Methamphetamine Spice/K2 can be legally purchasedsynthetic cannabinoids are not as overtly addictivedifficult to detect by most drug testing methodsare not “dangerous” to manufacture & necessary chemicals are easier to purchase
34What’s the legal status of synthetic cannabinoids?
35Legal Status of Synthetic Cannabinoids (DEA) March 1, 2011, the DEA, issued final notice to temporarily place five synthetic cannabinoids into the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) for at least one yearsynthetic cannabinoids treated as Schedule 1 drugsa drug that has a high potential for abusea drug that has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United Statesthere is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug under medical supervision
36Legal Status of Synthetic Cannabinoids (DEA) synthetic cannabinoids covered under the DEA’s proposed new rule includes the following:JWH-018 *JWH-073 *JWH-200CP-47,497CP-47,497 (C-8 homologue)
38Legal Status of Synthetic Cannabinoids (DEA) DEA took action - imminent hazard to the public safetywhen finalized - impose criminal sanctions and regulatory controls of Schedule I substances under the CSAcovers the manufacture, distribution, possession, importation, and exportationChristine Sannerud, Ph.D., Chief, Drug & Chemical Evaluation Section, Office of Diversion Control
39Ramifications of DEA Action: eliminate the commercial distribution of synthetic cannabinoidsdrive synthetic cannabinoids undergroundlimit their availabilityimpact on criminal justice - wait and see?
40Prevalence of Synthetic THC? no national statisticsLouisiana:9 clients “pre-selected” based upon suspicion7 tested positiveColumbia MO:17 clients “pre-selected” based upon suspicion12 tested positive5 self-admissions
41National Statistics for Synthetic THC American Association of Poison Control Centers has reported:All of 200913 casesFirst half of 2010567 cases in 41 states4000% increase
42Can synthetic THC chemicals be detected by drug testing?
43Drug Testing: NO on-site, rapid, instant tests NO laboratory-based screening testsFive laboratories employing LC/MS/MS technology$20 - $50 per samplemany unknowns regarding this testing
44Five Laboratories Are: Redwood Toxicology Laboratory Santa Rosa, CANational Medical Services Willow Grove, PAMedTox Scientific St. Paul, MNNorChem Flagstaff, AZSterling Reference LaboratoriesTacoma, WA
45The Wild, Wild West (Issues of Concern): What synthetic compounds (or metabolites) are being tested by these laboratories?no standardized urine cutoff levelsno standardized methods (LC/MS/MS)tests detect metabolitesno independent quality control materialsno proficiency testingdetection window unknowncaveat emptor!
46Are There Control Strategies Other Than Testing?
47Alternative Control Strategies: community supervisionsearch & seizure (client contract)car, home, possessions
48Court’s Response:place specific synthetic cannabinoid prohibition in your client contractestablish a date certain testing date - inform client populationestablish sanction severityselect participants for testing where there are indications of herbal incense useidentify positive participants in court & sanction openly to enhance deterrent effectprovide opportunity for participants to self-report
50Bath Salts:The term bath salts refers to a range of water-soluble products designed to be added to a bath. They are said to improve cleaning, improve the experience of bathing, serve as a vehicle for cosmetic agents, and some even claim medical benefits. Bath salts have been developed which mimic the properties of natural mineral baths or hot springs.
51Sold Under the Names: Ivory Wave Ivory Pure Ivory Coast Purple Wave Vanilla Sky
55What is Ivory Wave:Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a psychoactive drug with stimulant properties which acts as both a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI).MDPV has four times the potency of RitalinMDPV - no history of FDA approved medical usesold since 2007 as a research chemical
56MDPV: currently popular in Europe, UK & Australia is usually snorted - similar to cocaineconsidered extremely addictiveMDPV is “legal”adverse medical/psychiatric ramificationsFew drug tests available commercially
57Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone) designer drug chemically similar to cathinonecathinone is a chemical found in the khat plant of Eastern Africapowerful synthetic stimulantfirst synthesized in 1929“rediscovered” in 2003widespread in Europe, Australia, US
58Client Prohibition Guidance: Any and all “designer drugs” that can be purchased legally, over the counter without a physician’s prescription are strictly prohibited.Any and all “smoking mixtures” (other than products specifically designated to contain only tobacco) are strictly prohibited.Any and all products sold or marketed under false pretenses with the warning “Not for Human Consumption” are strictly prohibited.
59Designer Drugs: brings me no joy to alert you of this trend designer drugs are here to stayevolutionary patternstesting will lag behindlegal controls with be difficultBE PROACTIVE!build community supervision/expand search & seizure efforts