2Objectives of the Layout Strategy Develop an economical layout which will meet the requirements of:product design and volume (product strategy)process equipment and capacity (process strategy)quality of work life (human resource strategy)building and site constraints (location strategy)This may be again a good time to reinforce the point that all of an organization’s strategies must work together.
3Six Layout Strategies Fixed-position layout Process-oriented layout large bulky projects such as ships and buildingsProcess-oriented layoutdeals with low-volume, high-variety production (“job shop”, intermittent production)Office layoutpositions workers, their equipment, and spaces/offices to provide for movement of information
4Six Layout Strategies - continued Retail/service layoutallocates shelf space and responds to customer behaviorWarehouse layoutaddresses trade-offs between space and material handlingProduct-oriented layoutseeks the best personnel and machine use in repetitive or continuous production
5Emergency Room Layout Surgery Radiology E.R. beds Pharmacy Billing/exitE.R.Triage roomE.R. AdmissionsPatient B - erratic pacemakerPatient A - broken legLaboratoriesStudents may be asked to evaluate alternative layouts for an emergency room. Perhaps a visit to view a local emergency room might be helpful.
6Cellular Workplaces Includes Every Step Source Inspection Point of Use StorageFlexible OutputReduced Lot SizeSimplified HandlingVisual Goals & MetricsOkay, here's the equipment layout that a Cell Design Kaizen Team. A U-shaped flow cycles from the Raw Material (RM) through the 8 Work-stations to the Finished Goods (FG).The cell works in a counter-clockwise U-shaped flowThe next step is to populate the cell with raw materials, components, drums of coolant & cleaners. All in labeled containers.Now, we need access aisles all around the cell for material replenishment, equipment servicing and quicker changeovers. Main aisles on both ends of the cell allow for material flow and personnel flow between cells.We've right-sized the material containers, so we eventually run out of raw materials and the green diamond represents a Kanban Post that will play a vital role in material replenishmentNow, the blue bin runs empty--no more parts--what happens next????This rack on the backside of the cell contains a second set of components in a second set of labeled and right-sized containers.So the operator simply walks the side-aisle to the rack, picks up a new container of parts and puts it in the work-stationBut how do we get it replenished again?? Put the empty labeled bin on the Kanban Post and the Material Clerk who circulates throughout the shop will take the empty back and refill it before the backup container can be emptied....FGRM
7Retail Layouts - Some Rules of Thumb Locate high-draw items around the periphery of the storeUse prominent locations such as the first or last aisle for high-impulse and high margin itemsRemove crossover aisles that allow customers the opportunity to move between aislesDistribute what are known in the trade as “power items” (items that may dominate a shopping trip) to both sides of an aisle, and disperse them to increase the viewing of other itemsUse end aisle locations because they have a very high exposure rateStudents can be asked to provide examples of instances in which these rules were implemented.
8Precedence Diagram Example BEHCDFGI10 Min.51112374