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505-881-1112 / 800-640-0724 ▪ www.safetycounselling.com Safety Counselling, Inc. ▪ 3207 Matthew Ave. NE ▪ Albuquerque, NM 87107 505-881-1112 / 800-640-0724.

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Presentation on theme: "505-881-1112 / 800-640-0724 ▪ www.safetycounselling.com Safety Counselling, Inc. ▪ 3207 Matthew Ave. NE ▪ Albuquerque, NM 87107 505-881-1112 / 800-640-0724."— Presentation transcript:

1 505-881-1112 / 800-640-0724 ▪ www.safetycounselling.com
Safety Counselling, Inc. ▪ 3207 Matthew Ave. NE ▪ Albuquerque, NM 87107 / ▪ Fire Extinguishers Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011

2 Presentation Contents
Fire Basics The Fire Triangle Types of Fires Types of Extinguishers How to Use an Extinguisher Rules for Fires Egress and Fire Requirements Permits Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973

3 Key Terms Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic
solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 3

4 Key Terms Flash Point Flammable Combustible
The lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapors to ignite if it comes in contact with an ignition source, such as a spark or flame Flammable A liquid is flammable if it has a flash point of less than 100 degrees Fahrenheit Combustible A liquid is combustible if its flash point is 100 degrees Fahrenheit or higher Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 4

5 Key Terms Pyrophoric Spontaneous Combustion Flashback
A type of gas or substance that will ignite when exposed to air Spontaneous Combustion The process of a substance catching fire as a result of heat generated by an internal chemical action Flashback The rapid travel of a spreading gas from a source of ignition back to the point at which it originated Flashback occurs when a gas or vapor heavier than air travels at a low level to an ignition source Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 5

6 Key Terms Lower Explosive Limit Upper Explosive Limit
The minimum concentration of a flammable substance in the atmosphere that will ignite Upper Explosive Limit The maximum concentration of a flammable substance in the atmosphere that will ignite Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 6

7 The Fire Triangle Once the four requirements are met and a fire has started, it continues to burn due to complex chain reactions between the fuel and oxygen The relationship between fuel, heat, and oxygen is best described by a three-sided diagram known as the “Fire Triangle” Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973

8 The Fire Triangle Safety Counselling, Inc.
Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973

9 Air, Fuel, and Heat To START, a fire must be supplied with:
Oxygen Catalyst that sustains combustion Can come from air or fuel itself Heat Raises material to ignition temperature Fuel Supports combustion The chemical reaction when these elements interact results in a fire Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973

10 The Fire Tetrahedron ALL fires require four basic elements:
Oxygen Fuel Heat Chemical Reaction Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973

11 Extinguishing a Fire One of the basic elements must be REMOVED to extinguish a fire: Fuel – Cool to below the temperature at which it will burn (kindling temperature) Oxygen – Cut off supply (smothering the fire) Chemical Reactions – Interrupt the chain reactions that keep the fire going by reducing or eliminating the heat or ignition source (primary extinguishment method when using a dry-chemical fire extinguisher) Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973

12 Types of Fires Fires are classified by the type of fuel they burn – the five classes of fire are known as: A B C D K Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973

13 Class A Fires Ordinary Combustibles: Wood Paper Cloth Plastic Trash
Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 13

14 Class B Fires Flammable Liquids: Flammable Gases:
Gasoline Oil Grease Paint Flammable Gases: Propane Butane Does NOT include fires involving cooking oils or grease Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 14

15 Class C Fires Energized Electrical Equipment:
Motors Switchgears Transformers Appliances Heaters Remove the power and a Class C fire becomes one of the other classes of fire Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 15

16 Class D Fires Combustible Metals: Potassium Sodium Aluminum Magnesium
Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 16

17 Class K Fires Cooking Oils and Greases:
Animal fats Vegetable fats Typically found in commercial kitchens Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 17

18 Types of Fire Extinguishers
Water CO2 Foam Halon Powder Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011

19 Dry Powder Fire Extinguishers
Two types: Copper Sodium Chloride Extinguish the fire by separating the fuel from the oxygen element or by removing the heat elements of the fire triangle For use on Class D fires ONLY Remember Class D fires have extreme heat and toxic fumes Ineffective on all other classes of fire Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 19

20 Combination Fire Extinguishers
Combination ABC or BC extinguishers are used when a fire involves one or more of the three types of fires ABC Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 20

21 Tips for Extinguishing a Fire
Important: Aiming an extinguisher at a single point at the edge, 2”-4” outside edge, of the fire will not work; the fire will simply spread around the spot that has been put out Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 21

22 Kitchen Oil Fire Video Safety Counselling, Inc.
Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 22

23 Operating Fire Extinguishers
Four basic steps: Pull the pin Aim low Squeeze the lever (trigger) Sweep side to side Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 23

24 Operating Fire Extinguishers
After the fire appears to be extinguished, watch the fire area. Don’t waste expellant Keep in mind that the discharge time of a portable extinguisher can be very short If the fire cannot be completely extinguished, leave the area immediately and wait for the fire department to arrive Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 24

25 Operating Portable Fire Extinguishers
NFPA recommends that when a small fire breaks out, someone should call the fire department immediately A portable extinguisher may not be able to put out the fire, and waiting to call the fire department could waste valuable time The fire department should inspect all fires even after they have been extinguished Because it is standard procedure for most fire departments to respond to any call by dispatching a fully-staffed fire truck to the scene, many people feel this step is unnecessary. But from the fire professional’s point of view, it is better to prevent a small fire from re-igniting than to deal with a full-blown fire emergency Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 25

26 Size of an Extinguisher
NEVER fight a fire without the proper type and size of fire extinguisher: 2 lb 5 lb 10 lb 20 lb 40 lb Or Bigger Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 26

27 REMEMBER! Fires have many possible characteristics depending on location and fuel All fires are unpredictable and should be approached with caution and respect Keep in mind that unconfined or uncontrolled fires spread, advancing outward in all directions from where they started toward new fuel This is an important concept to remember because to put out even a small fire it is necessary to work from the outside in Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 27

28 Christmas Tree Fire Video
Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 28

29 Tips for Extinguishing a Fire
Most Class A fires start small - be careful not to make them bigger! Begin fighting the fire from a safe distance of at least six feet or until you feel heat. Avoid direct exposure to smoke as much as possible Stay up wind. Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 29

30 Tips for Extinguishing a Fire
Aim the extinguisher low at the base of the fire, not at the center of the blaze Fires tend to be coolest at their edges and therefore are easier to extinguish there Sweeping the extinguishing agent from side to side will extinguish the edge of the fire evenly - like using a hose to wash dirt off a sidewalk As the edge of the fire recedes, it is alright to move closer to the fire area Always keep in mind that the capacity of a portable fire extinguisher is limited, so work to extinguish the fire as quickly and safely as possible. Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 30

31 REMEMBER! It is very important to use the proper extinguisher for the type of fuel present! Using the incorrect agent can allow the fire to re-ignite after seemingly being extinguished successfully Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 31

32 Fire Rules FIRES ARE VERY DANGEROUS!
Pull the fire alarm Call 911 Assist anyone in danger Be certain that you will not endanger yourself or others when attempting to put out a fire Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 32

33 Fire Rules NEVER fight a fire if you don’t know what’s burning
If you don't know what’s burning, you don't know what type of extinguisher to use Even if you have an ABC extinguisher, there may be something in the fire that will explode or produce highly toxic smoke Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 33

34 Fire Rules NEVER fight a fire if it’s spreading rapidly beyond the spot where it started The time to use an extinguisher is in the beginning stages of a fire If the fire is already spreading quickly, it is best to simply evacuate the building, closing doors and windows behind you as you leave Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 34

35 Fire Rules NEVER fight a fire if you don't have adequate or appropriate equipment If you don't have the correct type or large enough extinguisher, it is best not to try to fight the fire NEVER fight a fire if you might inhale toxic smoke If the fire is producing large amounts of smoke that you would have to breathe in order to fight it, it is best not to try Gases from man-made materials can be fatal, even in very small amounts Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 35

36 Fire Rules NEVER fight a fire if your instincts tell you not to
If you are uncomfortable with the situation for any reason, just let the fire department do their job ALWAYS position yourself with an exit or means of escape at your back before you attempt to use an extinguisher to put out a fire In case the extinguisher malfunctions or something unexpected happens, you need to be able to get out quickly You don't want to become trapped Just remember, always keep an exit at your back or back to the wind Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 36

37 Important Reminders Thermal decomposition of fire extinguisher agents:
ABC dry chemical (ammonium phosphate) is the most common extinguisher Contains agents of ammonia, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Do not use in confined areas as this gas will displace the oxygen in the air and will cause asphyxiation Halon 1211 Halon fire extinguishers should not be used in confined areas or small rooms with poor ventilation will cause asphyxiation Smoke from fires Can cause asphyxiation, respiratory problems, and may contain chemical contents that are toxic Rekindling of fires All fires must be watched closely since rekindling is always a possibility Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 37

38 Extinguisher Regulations and Placement
Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 38

39 Extinguisher Placement
Fire extinguishers weighing 40 pounds or less should be installed so that the top of the extinguisher is no more than five feet above the floor Extinguishers weighing more than 40 pounds should be installed so that the top of the extinguisher is no more than 3½ feet above the floor The clearance between the bottom of the extinguisher and the floor should never be less than four inches Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 39

40 Extinguisher Placement
Extinguishers should be conspicuously located where they will be readily accessible and immediately available in the event of a fire Place them along normal paths of travel, including exits from areas Labels which point to and identify extinguisher placement can be purchased from local vendors Fire extinguishers should be installed in plain view, not stored in cabinets or closets Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 40

41 Responsibilities The owner or occupant of a property in which fire extinguishers are located should: Read and understand the nameplate(s) and instruction manual for the extinguisher(s) Train personnel in the correct use of fire extinguishers on the different types of fires that may occur on the property Recognize fire hazards on his or her property and plan in advance the exact means and equipment with which a fire will be fought Ensure that everyone knows how to call the fire department and stress that they do so for every fire, no matter how small Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 41

42 Responsibilities Under Standard 29 CFR , OSHA requires most companies to: Provide portable fire extinguishers Maintain these extinguishers in good working order (requires monthly visual inspections and annual maintenance) Provide annual training for employees in correct extinguisher use (NOTE: This regulation exempts companies from compliance if their written fire safety policy requires all employees to evacuate immediately in case of fire and if they also have an emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan. However, many companies that meet these requirements also have fire extinguishers, so it’s a good idea for employees to know how to use them.) Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 42

43 Statistics In recent years, the greatest number of OSHA standard violations involved: Employee training (nearly 15,000 violations) Maintenance of fire extinguishers (nearly 1,000 violations) Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 43

44 Statistics Fires and explosions kill more than 200 and injure more than 5,000 workers each year There is a long and tragic history of workplace fires in this country caused by problems with fire exits and extinguishing systems OSHA requires employers to provide proper exits, fire fighting equipment, and employee training to prevent fire deaths and injuries in the workplace Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 44

45 Escape Route A continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way (a street, yard, court, or other open space leading to the street) Three parts to an escape route: Way of exit access Exit Way of exit discharge Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 45

46 Escape Routes – General Requirements
Fire alarms are required if a fire could start without providing adequate warning to occupants There must be enough exits in the proper arrangement for quick escape Adequate and reliable illumination must be provided for all exit facilities Escape Routes: Minimum width = 28 inches Minimum ceiling height = 7½ feet Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 46

47 Locking Exits MUST NOT install any lock or fastening that impedes or prevents escape from the inside of any building Locked and blocked exit Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 47

48 Access to Exits Exits must be readily accessible at all times
A door from a room to an exit or escape route must be a side-hinged swinging type and swing in the direction of exit travel when the room is occupied by more than 50 people or contains high hazard contents Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 48

49 Maintaining Escape Routes
Escape routes from all parts of the building must be continuously maintained free of all obstructions in case of emergency Obstructed exit Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 49

50 Exit Marking Exits must be marked by a readily visible sign when the exit or way to reach it is not immediately visible to occupants Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 50

51 Exit Marking If a door, passage, or stairway is not an exit or a way of exit access but may be mistaken for one, it must be identified by a sign reading “Not an Exit”, “Storeroom”, “To Basement”, etc. Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 51

52 Exit Marking A sign reading “Exit” with an arrow indicating the directions must be placed in every location where the direction of travel to the nearest exit is not immediately apparent Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 52

53 Emergency Action Plan Describes actions that must be taken to ensure employee safety in emergencies Includes floor plans or maps which show emergency escape routes Tells employees what actions to take in emergency situations Covers emergencies the employer may reasonably expect, such as fires, explosions, toxic chemical releases, hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, and floods Where to meet Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 53

54 Fire Prevention Plan The plan MUST include:
List of the major fire hazards and handling, storage, and control procedures Names or job titles of persons responsible for maintenance of equipment and systems to prevent or control ignitions or fires Names or job titles of persons responsible for control of fuel source hazards Training for all employees who have responsibilities in the plan Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 54

55 Portable Fire Extinguishers
If portable fire extinguishers are provided for employee use, the employer must mount, locate, and identify them so workers can access them without subjecting themselves to possible injury Blocked extinguisher Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 55

56 Portable Fire Extinguisher Training and Education
Where portable fire extinguishers have been provided for employee use in the workplace, employees must be provided with an educational program on the: General principles of fire extinguisher use Hazards of incipient (beginning) stage fire fighting Employees designated to use extinguishers must receive instruction and hands-on practice in the operation of equipment Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 56

57 Permits and Specifications
Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 57

58 Permits Check with your supervisor for any specific permits that must be obtained before any type of hot work is conducted AT ANY LOCATION Abide by any of those permit requirements If you have questions, contact your supervisor or safety officer/coordinator Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 58

59 SNL Requirements (SNL ONLY)
Firewatchers shall be required whenever welding or cutting is performed in locations where other than a minor fire might develop (OSHA 29 CFR (a)(2)(iii)(A) Firewatchers shall have fire extinguisher equipment readily available and be trained in its use (OSHA 29 CFR (a)(2)(iii)(B) The employer shall provide employees who have been designated to use fire-fighting equipment as part of an emergency action plan with training in the use of the appropriate equipment (OSHA 29 CFR (g)(3). The employer shall provide the training upon initial assignment … and at least annually thereafter (OSHA 29 CFR (g)(4). Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 59

60 SNL Requirements (SNL ONLY)
Firewatchers shall be required whenever welding, cutting, open flames, grinding or other sparks are created by task being performed. Fire watchers shall remain in place for 30 minutes after activity is completed. Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 60

61 SNL Requirements (SNL ONLY)
REMEMBER, if a fire is detected at SNL you should: Pull the fire alarm Call 911 from an SNL phone to reach the SNL Emergency Operations Center If an SNL phone is not available dial (505) Important Note: If you call 911 from an outside telephone line such as a cell phone, the call will go to the Albuquerque 911 call center and thus delay the response time Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 61

62 Summary Fire is a dangerous element that deserves respect
In order to put out a fire you must remove one of the four elements: Air, Fuel, Heat, Chemical Reaction There are many types of extinguishers - make sure to know the classifications - fire extinguisher classes and numerical ratings help a user understand its capabilities Fire extinguishers must be inspected and maintained and employees must be trained in how to use them Remember to P.A.S.S. when extinguishing a fire Escape routes must be marked, lighted, and free of obstructions, and locks must not be used to impede or prevent escape An emergency action plan and a fire prevention plan must be in place in buildings and at job site locations Training Safety Counselling, Inc. Providing creative, pragmatic solutions to business safety since 1973 Updated 5/2011 62


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