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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 C H A P T E R Nutrition Through the Life Cycle: Childhood to Late Adulthood and In Depth
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Toddlers Age 1 to 3 years Rapid growth rate of infancy begins to slow Gain 5.5 to 7.5 inches and 9 to 11 pounds High energy requirement due to increased activity level
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Toddlers Macronutrients 30–40% of total kcal from fat 1.10 g of protein per kg body weight 130 g carbohydrates per day 14 g fiber per 1,000 kcal of energy consumed
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Toddlers Micronutrients Ensure adequate intake of the micronutrients obtained from fruits and vegetables, including Vitamins A, C, E, calcium, iron, zinc Iron-deficient anemia is the most common nutrient deficiency in young children
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Toddlers Fluid needs 1.3 liters/day Supplements Toddlers may need supplements due to their erratic eating habits, especially for fluoride Supplements should not exceed 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for any nutrient
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Toddlers
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Toddlers Nutritious food choices Toddlers have an innate ability to match their intake with their needs Keeping a nutritious variety of foods available encourages a healthful diet Food should not be forced on a child Do not use bribery to encourage children to eat Foods prepared should be fun
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Toddlers Allergies Continue to watch for food allergies Introduce one new food at a time Vegetarian families A diet including eggs and dairy can be a healthful diet A strict vegan diet lacks the essential vitamins and minerals young children need
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Young Children Age 4 to 8 years Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values are the same for both boys and girls through the age of about 8 Growth rate is 2 to 4 inches per year
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Young Children Macronutrients Total fat intake should gradually drop to a level closer to adult fat intake 25–35% of total energy from fat 0.95 g of protein per kg body weight 130 g carbohydrate per day 14 g fiber per 1,000 kcal of energy consumed
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Young Children Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals from fruits and vegetables continue to be a concern Vitamins A, C, E, calcium, iron, zinc Large increases in DRIs compared to toddlers
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Young Children Fluid 1.7 liters/day (about 5–8 cups), including water Supplements May be recommended when particular food groups are not eaten regularly Supplements should be appropriate for the childs age
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Young Children Nutritious food choices Parents can teach children about healthful food choices Some foods help us grow healthy and strong Some foods are better used as occasional treats Eating a balanced breakfast has many benefits Some school lunch programs are in need of updated and more healthful menu selections
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. MyPyramid for Kids
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Children: Nutrition-Related Concerns Overweight/obesity Dental caries Inadequate calcium intake Body image Food insecurity
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Children Age 9 to 13 years Growth is slow and steady2 to 3 inches per year Children begin to make their own food choices Activity levels vary
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Children Macronutrients 25–35% of total energy from fat 0.95 g protein per kg body weight 130 g carbohydrates per day 45–60% of kcal from carbohydrates 14 g fiber per 1,000 kcal of energy consumed
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Children Micronutrients Micronutrient needs rise sharply as children approach puberty Meeting the needs for calcium and iron is very important
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Children Fluid Adequate Intake (AI) of fluids varies by gender, ranging from 2.1 liters/day (females) to 2.4 liters/day (males) Supplements A vitamin/mineral supplement supplying no more than 100% of the daily values may be warranted
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Children Nutritious food choices Peer pressure can influence a childs food choices Healthy role models, such as athletes, can be used to encourage good choices School lunches must meet U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) guidelines, but this does not control what the child actually eats
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Adolescents Age 14 to 18 years Growth spurts begin at age 10 to 11 for girls, and 12 to 13 for boys An average 20–25% increase in height is expected Weight and body composition also change
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Adolescents
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Adolescents Macronutrients Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) for adolescents are based on gender, age, activity level, height, and weight 25–35% of total energy from fat 45–65% of kcal from carbohydrates 0.85 g protein per kg body weight 26 g of fiber per day
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Adolescents Micronutrients Calcium and vitamin D intakes must be sufficient for achieving peak bone density Iron needs are relatively high 15 mg/day for girls 11 mg/day for boys Vitamin A is critical for supporting rapid growth and development
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Adolescents Fluid The need to maintain fluid intake is increased by higher activity levels Boys: 3.3 liters/day Girls: 2.3 liters/day Supplements A multivitamin can be a safety net, but should not replace a healthful diet
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Adolescents Nutritious food choices Peer influences and fast-paced lifestyle can lead adolescents to choose fast foods Parents can act as role models and keep healthful food choices available Adequate intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains should be encouraged
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Adolescents Nutrition-related concerns Bone density concerns arise from inadequate calcium intake Eating disorders and poor body image problems can begin during these years Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use all have a significant impact on growth and health
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Pediatric Obesity Overweight for children Risk for overweight: a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile Overweight: a BMI in the 95th percentile Increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other serious medical problems Overweight children are at much greater risk of becoming overweight adults
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Pediatric Obesity Obesity is now epidemic in the United States among school-aged children Caused by too many calories and not enough physical activity Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that children be very active for at least 1 hour per day
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Pediatric Obesity: Prevention Constructive support for physical activity Healthful, balanced, regular meals Developing healthful eating habits early in life Family-wide support for nutritious food choices Parental control of food purchase and preparation Minimize the amount of meals eaten out of the home, especially fast food School support for healthful food choices Daily activity and exercise
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fitness Pyramid for Kids
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Adults Physiologic changes to the bodies of older adults, age 65 years and older, include Decreased muscle and lean tissue Increased fat mass Decreased bone density Decreased immune function Impaired absorption of nutrients Taste and smell perception is often diminished
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Adults Macronutrients Energy needs usually decrease due to reduced activity levels and lower lean body mass General recommendations for fat, carbohydrate, and protein intakes are the same as for younger adults Recommended to not consume more than 30% of energy from sugars Fiber recommendations are slightly lower for older adults
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Adults
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Adults Micronutrients Calcium and vitamin D requirements increase due to poor calcium absorption Iron needs decrease Zinc intake should be maintained for optimizing immune function Adequate intake of B-vitamins is a special concern Vitamin A requirements are the same as for all adults, but older adults should be careful to not exceed the RDA
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Adults Fluid AI for fluid is the same as for younger adults Men: 3.7 liters/day Women: 2.7 liters/day Older adults are especially susceptible to dehydration because changes in kidney function in older adults can impair their thirst mechanism Important to seek medical attention for incontinence and to drink plenty of fluids
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Tufts Food Guide Pyramid for Older Adults
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Adults Nutrition-related concerns Many chronic diseases are more prevalent in overweight or obese adults Underweight may result from illness, disability, loss of sense of taste or smell, depression, and social isolation Dental health issues may cause older adults to avoid meats, firm fruits, and vegetables
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Older Adults Nutrition-related concerns Age-related eye diseases can cause vision impairment and blindness Some prescription medications can alter nutrient absorption or decrease appetite Financial and mobility problems
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Geriatric Weight Loss
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. In Depth: The Fountain of Youth Growing numbers of people are experimenting with new methods to achieve greater longevity Calorie restriction Fasting Supplements
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Calorie Restriction (CR) Researchers have not identified a precise number of calories to qualify as restricted Typically involves eating fewer calories than your body needs to maintain normal weight Should allow for differences in gender, height, age, body composition, activity level, and so forth Many people practicing CR strive to consume 20– 30% fewer calories than usual
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Calorie Restriction: Metabolic Effects Decreased fat mass and lean body mass Decreased insulin levels and improved insulin sensitivity Decreased core body temperature and blood pressure Decreased energy expenditure Decreased oxidative stress (less free radical damage) Lower levels of DNA damage Lower levels of chronic inflammation Protective changes in some hormone levels
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Calorie Restriction: Challenges Data are still preliminary May be ethical concerns for some peoples participation (potential malnutrition) Much of the data are self-reported from CR groups May be necessary for CR to last many years to see longevity benefits Reported side effects include constant hunger, feeling cold, lower sex drive Long-term effects are not known
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Calorie Restriction: Alternatives Intermittent fasting (IF): Alters the pattern of food consumption Has shown positive effects in animals May be able to be tolerated by more people Limiting total protein intake Exercise-induced leanness
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Supplements The anti-aging market is rife with supplements making longevity claims No research trials to date have shown a clear connection between increased nutrient intake from supplements and lower rates of death Greatly increased nutrient intake levels may pose dangers to some people Many non-nutrient supplements (e.g., ginko, DHEA, etc.) can have potentially serious side effects
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. In Depth: The Fountain of Youth Proven things you can do to increase your chances of living a long and healthful life Get regular physical activity Eat nutritious, balanced meals Take only supplements recommended by a qualified healthcare provider, in only the amounts recommended Maintain a healthful body weight Don't smoke or use tobacco products Consume alcohol in moderation
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