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Aquatic Ecology Life of the Wet Things. Marine vs. Fresh Marine = Salt water –Estuaries, Coastlines, Coral reefs, Coastal marshes, Deep ocean Freshwater.

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Presentation on theme: "Aquatic Ecology Life of the Wet Things. Marine vs. Fresh Marine = Salt water –Estuaries, Coastlines, Coral reefs, Coastal marshes, Deep ocean Freshwater."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aquatic Ecology Life of the Wet Things

2 Marine vs. Fresh Marine = Salt water –Estuaries, Coastlines, Coral reefs, Coastal marshes, Deep ocean Freshwater = Non-salty water –Lakes, Ponds, Stream, Rivers, Inland wetlands

3 Major Types of Aquatic Life Plankton – Free floating Nekton – Strong swimming Benthos – Bottom dwelling

4 Advantages of Living in Water Natural buoyancy –Less energy spent on support Usually limited fluctuations of temperature Nutrients usually available Waste/toxins diluted

5 Limiting Factors of Life at Different Depths Three major zones –Surface –Middle –Bottom

6 Limiting Factors of Life at Different Depths Life limited by following factors at different depths –Temperature –Sunlight –DO –Nutrients

7 Limiting Factors of Life at Different Depths Temperature drops as depth increases

8 Limiting Factors of Life at Different Depths Sunlight can only penetrate about 100ft (30m) –Euphotic Zone

9 Limiting Factors of Life at Different Depths DO –Varies by temperature and depth –Comes mostly from atmosphere –Can be added to by producers –Depleted by consumers

10 Limiting Factors of Life at Different Depths

11 Nutrients –Affected by upwelling –Phosphorus (phosphates) most limiting in freshwater –Nitrogen (nitrates) most limiting in saltwater

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13 Saltwater Life Zones Importance of oceans –71% of planet –Heat sink –Major role in hydrologic cycle –Has a somewhat large influence in the earths weather patterns Ok, not so large, more like HUGE –Gigantic reservoir for CO 2

14 Saltwater Life Zones Two major life zones –Coastal Zone On top of the continental shelf 10% of ocean/90% of ocean life High primary and net productivity –Open Ocean

15 Saltwater Life Zones

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17 Estuaries and Tidal Zones –Salt and freshwater mix Temperature and salinity vary –Runoff –Tidal flow Huge cleaning affect on environment

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22 Saltwater Life Zones Coastal Wetlands –Covered by salt water most of the year –Breeding grounds/habitat for wildlife –Filters waste/toxin –Buffers shores against damage –Bays, Mud flats, Salt marshes

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24 Saltwater Life Zones Rocky and Sandy Shores –Intertidal Zone Between low and high tide –Rocky shores Pounded by waves, but still lots of life –Barrier beaches Life must dig

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26 Saltwater Life Zones Human impact on coastal zones –2/3 of human life live within 100 miles of a coast –California has lost 91% of its original coastal wetlands

27 Saltwater Life Zones Coastal wetlands very vulnerable to pollution –Easy to trap pollutants Coral reefs decreasing due to human destruction

28 Saltwater Life Zones Open ocean –Three life zones based on penetration of sunlight Euphotic Bathyal Abyssal

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30 Saltwater Life Zones Euphotic –Photosynthesis takes place –Low nutrients –High DO

31 Saltwater Life Zones Bathyal and abyssal zones –COLD –Low DO –High nutrients –Life includes Deposit feeders Filter feeders –Tragedy of Commons

32 Things to Remember While Googling Its abyssal, not abysmal.

33 Freshwater Life Zones Dissolved salt <1% by volume Two types –Standing –Flowing

34 Freshwater Life Zones About 1% of earths surface, but 41% of known fish

35 Freshwater Life Zones Closely connected to their surrounding terrestrial biomes. –Why?

36 Freshwater Life Zones Dissolved salt <1% by volume Two types –Standing –Flowing

37 Freshwater Life Zones About 1% of earths surface, but 41% of known fish

38 Freshwater Life Zones Closely connected to their surrounding terrestrial biomes. –Why?

39 Freshwater Lakes Lake Zones

40 Freshwater Lakes Littoral zone –Shallow –Near shore –Rooted plants stop growing outside the zone –Rich in nutrients –High in biological diversity Rooted plants, decomposers, and the usual suspects

41 Freshwater Lakes Limnetic zone –Like the euphotic zone –Enough light for photosynthesis Limits depth of limnetic zone –Starting with plankton, simple food web

42 Freshwater Lakes Profundal zone –Deep, open water –Too deep for photosynthesis –Fish only

43 Freshwater Lakes Benthic zone –Its the bottom. –Mostly decomposers and detritus- feeders

44 Types of Freshwater Lakes Two types –Oligotrophic –Eutrophic

45 Types of Freshwater Lakes Oligotrophic –Poorly nourished

46 Freshwater Lakes

47 Types of Freshwater Lakes Oligotrophic –Deep with steep sides –Crystal-clear blue or green water

48 Types of Freshwater Lakes Eutrophic –Well-nourished

49 Freshwater Lakes

50 Types of Freshwater Lakes Eutrophic –Lots of nutrients for producers Nitrates and phosphates –Usually shallow and murky –During summer, bottom may have low DO

51 Season Changes in Lakes Water is cool, especially when frozen –Makes water unique –Also helps lakes survive wickedly cold winters Wickedly meaning not like Mr. Williamson, its cold in here or Its freezing outside in the F-quad

52 Season Changes in Lakes

53 Lake layers –Epiliminon –Thermocline –Hypoliminon

54 Season Changes in Lakes Winter –Top layer freezes Insulates lower layers from wicked cold DO ok in epiliminon, not so good in hypoliminon

55 Season Changes in Lakes

56 Spring –Ice melts and warms, reaching max density –Sinks forcing nutrient rich water from bottom Helped by winds –Spring overturn

57 Season Changes in Lakes

58 Summer –VERY definite stratification –Causes bottom to loose DO and nutrients

59 Season Changes in Lakes

60 Fall –Epiliminon cools and becomes more dense –Sinks, causing cooler, nutrient rich water to rise –DO good everywhere

61 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Consists of runoff Watershed

62 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Three zones –Headwater or source zone –Transition zone –Flood plain zone

63 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Source zone –Cold water –Fast moving –Lots of DO –Organisms well adapted to environment

64 Freshwater Streams and Rivers

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66 Transition zone –Deeper channels –Slower water –Warmer water

67 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Flood plain zone –Slow moving –Murky

68 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Importance of inland wetlands –Food source and habitats –Improved water quality –Reduced flooding and erosion –Replenish groundwater

69 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Human impact –Loss of wetlands due to Agriculture (80%) Mining Forestry Oil/gas extraction Urban development

70 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Mitigation banking –Replacing lost wetlands with equal area of sime type Doesnt work well

71 Freshwater Streams and Rivers Best course of action –Prevention

72 Aquatic Life Zones Why are they important? How do humans impact them? How does species diversification relate?


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