4Different types of joint There are 3 different types of joint:1. Immovable (or fixed) joints2. Slightly movable jointsReference to skeletal structures could be enhanced by using a skeleton or skeletal models if available. Use this presentation to remind students of the names of a range of bones. Students must be confident in naming the bones of the skeleton and their position/ location in the body. Without this understanding they will struggle to identify the bones that form joints.3. Movable (or synovial) joints
51. Fixed or immovable joints There are fewer than 10 immovable joints in the body.They are sometimes called fibrous joints because the bones are held together by tough fibres.Immovable joints can be found in the skull and pelvis, where several bones have fused together to form a rigid structure.Fixed or immoveable joints such as those of the flat bones of the skull allow very slight movement – ask students why they should allow a little movement. Movement is necessary for expansion of the soft tissues of the brain and to absorb some of the force of impacts – if joints were completely fixed they might crack with an impact such as a blow on the head.
6Interosseous Membrane SutureBones tightly bound by minimal fiberOnly found in skullSyndesmosesBones connected by ligamentsE.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulnaInterosseous MembraneA sheet that binds neighbouring long bone and permit a very little moment
72. Slightly movable joints Slightly movable joints are sometimes called cartilaginous joints.The bones are separated by a cushion of cartilage. The joints between the vertebrae in the spine are cartilaginous joints.The bones can move a little bit, but ligaments stop them moving too far. This is why we can bend, straighten and rotate through the back, but not too far.bonecartilageboneDiscuss with students the structure of the spinal column and why slightly moveable joints are the most suitable type of joint for the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine areas. Ask them why the sacrum and coccyx areas of the spine are fixed joints? Answer: for attachment of lower back muscles (Sacrum) and balance (coccyx).ligaments
93. Freely movable or synovial joints 90% of the joints in the body are synovial joints. They are freely movable.Synovial joints contain synovial fluid which is retained inside a pocket called the synovial membrane. This lubricates or ‘oils’ the joint.All the moving parts are held together by ligaments.These are highly mobile joints, like the shoulder and knee.Synovial fluidSynovial joints offer a wide range of sporting movement.Synovial membraneKnee
12Connective tissuesConnective tissues are vital to the functioning of joints. There are 3 types of connective tissue:Ligaments are tough, elastic fibres that link bones to bones.Tendons connect muscles to bones.Discussion of the properties of the different connective tissues would be relevant here.Ligaments – are elastic allowing the bones to twist and turn – however if the stress on the ligaments is too great or forceful they can be overstretched or torn (like an elastic band) and will cause injury to the sportsperson. The cruciate ligaments of the knee are commonly injured in sport.Cartilage – is found at the ends of bones and is smooth and slightly flexible providing shock absorption and reducing friction for ease of movement between bones/ jointsTendons – are less elastic and join bone to muscle – like ligaments they can be damaged by the stress and strain of excessive movements – the achilles tendon that joins the foot to the calf muscle (gastrocnemius) can be injured through repeated jumping movements.Cartilage prevents the ends of bones rubbing together at joints. Its slippery surface also helps to lubricate the joint.
13Tendons and ligamentsLigaments are responsible for holding joints together. They prevent bones moving out of position during the stresses of physical activity.If they are pulled or twisted too far by extreme physical movements, ligaments can tear and the joint may dislocate.Tendons anchor muscles to bones, allowing the muscles to move the skeleton. Tendons are not very elastic – if they were, then the force produced by muscles would be absorbed instead of creating movement.Tendons can also be torn if subjected to too much force.
14Types of synovial joints In ball and socket joints, the rounded end of one bone fits inside a cup-shaped ending on another bone.HipBall and socket joints allow movement in all directions and also rotation. The most mobile joints in the body are ball and socket joints.Examples: Shoulders and hips.Describe ball and socket joints at the hip and shoulder. Discuss the movements possible at these joints. How do they help during sport?
16Types of synovial joints Pivot joints have a ring of bone that fits over a bone protrusion, around which it can rotate.These joints only allow rotation.AtlasExamples: The joint between the atlas and axis in the neck which allows you to shake your head.Axis
18Types of synovial joints In saddle joints, the ends of the two bones fit together in a special way, allowing movement forwards and backwards and left to right, but not rotation.Examples: The thumb is the only one.Hinge joints – as their name suggests – only allow forwards and backwards movement.Examples: The knee and elbow.Elbow
20Types of synovial joints Condyloid joints have an oval-shaped bone end which fits into a correspondingly shaped bone end.They allow forwards, backwards, left and right movement, but not rotation.Examples: between the metacarpals and phalanges in the hand.
24Types of synovial joints Convex surface of bone fits in concave surface of 2nd boneUnixlateral like a door hingeExamples:Knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal jointsMovements produced:flexionextensionhyperextension