Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 37 Presentation By Jaspreet Rekhi Introducing Sites: -

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 37 Presentation By Jaspreet Rekhi Introducing Sites: -"— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Presentation By Jaspreet Rekhi Introducing Sites: -

2 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 JOINTS AND MOVEMENTS

3 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Joint movement – what are joints? A joint is a place where two or more bones meet. Without joints, our bodies would not be able to move. Joints, along with the skeleton and muscular system, are responsible for the huge range of movement that the human body can produce. There are several different types of joint, each producing different types and amounts of movement.

4 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Different types of joint There are 3 different types of joint: 1.Immovable (or fixed) joints 3.Movable (or synovial) joints 2.Slightly movable joints

5 © Boardworks Ltd of Fixed or immovable joints There are fewer than 10 immovable joints in the body. They are sometimes called fibrous joints because the bones are held together by tough fibres. Immovable joints can be found in the skull and pelvis, where several bones have fused together to form a rigid structure.

6 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Suture Bones tightly bound by minimal fiber Only found in skull Syndesmoses Bones connected by ligaments E.g. tibiofibular ligament, interosseous membrane of radius/ulna Interosseous Membrane A sheet that binds neighbouring long bone and permit a very little moment

7 © Boardworks Ltd of Slightly movable joints Slightly movable joints are sometimes called cartilaginous joints. The bones are separated by a cushion of cartilage. The joints between the vertebrae in the spine are cartilaginous joints. The bones can move a little bit, but ligaments stop them moving too far. This is why we can bend, straighten and rotate through the back, but not too far. bone ligaments cartilage bone

8 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Synchondrosis Hyaline cartilage unites bones Epiphyseal growth plates Costal cartilage-sternum Symphyses Fibrocartilage unites bones Pubic symphysis Intervertebral disc

9 © Boardworks Ltd of Freely movable or synovial joints 90% of the joints in the body are synovial joints. They are freely movable. Synovial joints contain synovial fluid which is retained inside a pocket called the synovial membrane. This lubricates or oils the joint. All the moving parts are held together by ligaments. These are highly mobile joints, like the shoulder and knee. Synovial fluid Knee Synovial membrane

10 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

11 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

12 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Connective tissues Connective tissues are vital to the functioning of joints. There are 3 types of connective tissue: Ligaments are tough, elastic fibres that link bones to bones. Tendons connect muscles to bones. Cartilage prevents the ends of bones rubbing together at joints. Its slippery surface also helps to lubricate the joint.

13 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Tendons and ligaments Ligaments are responsible for holding joints together. They prevent bones moving out of position during the stresses of physical activity. If they are pulled or twisted too far by extreme physical movements, ligaments can tear and the joint may dislocate. Tendons anchor muscles to bones, allowing the muscles to move the skeleton. Tendons are not very elastic – if they were, then the force produced by muscles would be absorbed instead of creating movement. Tendons can also be torn if subjected to too much force.

14 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Types of synovial joints In ball and socket joints, the rounded end of one bone fits inside a cup-shaped ending on another bone. Ball and socket joints allow movement in all directions and also rotation. The most mobile joints in the body are ball and socket joints. Examples: Shoulders and hips. Hip

15 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

16 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Types of synovial joints Pivot joints have a ring of bone that fits over a bone protrusion, around which it can rotate. These joints only allow rotation. Examples: The joint between the atlas and axis in the neck which allows you to shake your head. Axis Atlas

17 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

18 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Types of synovial joints In saddle joints, the ends of the two bones fit together in a special way, allowing movement forwards and backwards and left to right, but not rotation. Examples: The thumb is the only one. Hinge joints – as their name suggests – only allow forwards and backwards movement. Examples: The knee and elbow. Elbow

19 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

20 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Types of synovial joints Condyloid joints have an oval- shaped bone end which fits into a correspondingly shaped bone end. They allow forwards, backwards, left and right movement, but not rotation. Examples: between the metacarpals and phalanges in the hand.

21 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

22 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Gliding joints have two flat faces of bone that slide over one another. They allow a tiny bit of movement in all directions. Examples: between the tarsals in the ankle. Types of synovial joints

23 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

24 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Types of synovial joints Convex surface of bone fits in concave surface of 2 nd bone Unixlateral like a door hinge Examples: Knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal joints Movements produced: -flexion -extension -hyperextension

25 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

26 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Synovial joints – sporting examples During the butterfly stroke, the ball and socket joint of the shoulder allows the swimmers arm to rotate. You might head a football using the pivot joint in your neck, which allows your head to rotate.

27 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Synovial joints – sporting examples The saddle joint allows the thumb to curl around a canoe paddle to give a firm grip. The hinge joint at the knee allows the leg to flex and extend, for example when a hurdler extends their trail leg at take-off and then flexes it as they clear the hurdle.

28 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Planes

29 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Anatomical Position

30 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Various Movements Gliding (a) Gliding movements at the wrist

31 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 (b) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the neck HyperextensionExtension Flexion

32 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Hyperextension Flexion Extension (c) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the vertebral column

33 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Extension Flexion (d) Angular movements: flexion and extension at the shoulder and knee

34 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Abduction Adduction (e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder Circumduction

35 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Lateral rotation Medial rotation Rotation (f) Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb

36 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) (a) Pronation (P) and supination (S) Pronation (radius rotates over ulna)

37 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion (b) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

38 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Eversion Inversion (c) Inversion and eversion

39 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Protraction of mandible Retraction of mandible (d) Protraction and retraction

40 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Elevation of mandible Depression of mandible (e) Elevation and depression

41 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 (f) Opposition Opposition

42 © Boardworks Ltd of 37

43 © Boardworks Ltd of 37 Thanks for downloading…… Do Comment plz……. By : - Jaspreet Rekhi

Download ppt "© Boardworks Ltd 20061 of 37 Presentation By Jaspreet Rekhi Introducing Sites: -"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google