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COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming COAP 2000 XHTML PROGRAMMING: INTRODUCTION TO WEB PROGRAMMING Fall I, 2012 Instructor: Dejan Dimitrovski Tuesday 18:30 – 20:30 Thursday 18:30 – 20:30 TEXTBOOK HTML for the World Wide Web with XHTML and CSS: Visual QuickStart Guide, 6 th Edition by Elizabeth Castro, Peachpit Press © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming COURSE DESCRIPTION HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the programming language that kick-started the World Wide Web and makes the Internet useable. It is as responsible for the Internet revolution as the mangle of cables, routers and Wi-Fi devices that have transformed the way we use information. First used as a basic language for creating personal home pages and simple web sites, HTML has evolved into its current form, XHTML (Extensible HTML). XHTML is the backbone of the web on which all online content relies for navigation, presentation and structure. This makes XHTML the industry standard programming language that supports and drives the myriad applications found on the web today. These applications range from basic home pages, multimedia and social networking to the multi-billion dollar economic phenomenon that only a few short years ago could not have been imagined. In this course you will look under the hood of XHTML and cover the basics of XHTML and HTML programming. A significant part of this course deals with hands-on exercises that will provide students with relevant and tangible experience which they can immediately put into action. Students will use text editors to write and troubleshoot XHTML and HTML code and will be introduced to industry standard (X)HTML software tools for developing and posting web pages on the World Wide Web. If you are one of the many who would find it difficult to live without the web and you have an idea you would like to share with billions of people, taking this course will enable you to acquire the knowledge to do it. © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming CLASS POLICY Class attendance is mandatory Computers will be used for class related activities only (no s, no Facebook, no live scores, no anything that is not related to the class ) Cell phones are not to be used during class Cheating/Plagiarising is strictly forbidden Class related discussion is strongly encouraged. There are no stupid questions © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming COURSE OBJECTIVES: To introduce syntax for XHTML To introduce students to an industry standard web authoring tool – Dreamweaver To develop an understanding of basic Internet standards To review design criteria for effective Web pages To prepare simple web pages COURSE PREREQUISITES: Basic understanding of computers and Internet Knowledge of using text editors to modify text files Seriousness, but a sense of humor at the same time © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming GRADING AND EVALUATION No collaborative home pages will be accepted! Grades: A-=90-92; A=93-100; B-=80-82; B=83-86; B+=87-89; C-=70-72; C=73-76; C+=77-79; D=60-66; D+=67-69; F<60. Mid-term = 30%, Final exam = 30% Completion of homework and website = 30% Class participation = 10% © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Course Logistics All classes will take place in Computer Lab 208 Classes will start with a presentation of the work that is to be completed and the most important points will be identified Classes will be mostly hands-on and based on lessons in the course book Most work should be completed in class, work not completed in class is to be presented at next class for review and feedback Post your completed work on your website Questions will be addressed either in class or via or phone NOTEPAD must be used to create your web pages!! No special software to be used in the first half of the term! Ignore any reference in the text book to more advanced chapters unless directed to them by me or in provided course notes!! © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Your website Website will be created in Week 1 – Project Initiation Exercise web pages should be posted on your website using the title of the particular exercise as its file name ALL class work and homework MUST be posted on your website by noon - day BEFORE the first class of the week! As part of Week 7 and 8 tasks you will organize your website by creating links to your completed class exercises as well as creating a small website using the criteria provided to you. © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Course goals Provide an understanding of the Internet Provide a comprehensive understanding of the eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) Make you competent at creating visually pleasing, well organized and technically sound web content Predominantly hands-on to provide as much experience as possible To take you through the process of creating web pages step-by-step Introduce you to a website development tool and a WYSIWYG authoring tool © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming WEEK 1 Introduction to the Web © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming What is the Internet and XHTML all about What is Internet? Collection of interconnected computers and networks Independent of connection method Collection of documents (mostly HTML) Founder: Tim Berners-Lee To make it work it was essential that it be based on hypertext and offer universality Hypertext provides links to all information media in any location Open to all and you get to decide what should be on it! © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming What is the Internet? Image credit: © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming What is the Internet and XHTML all about What is XHTML? Universality provided by text only files A formatting, not a programming language ALL the web pages are written with some form of (X)HTML Simple text file defines formatting as well as textual content and access to sound, graphics, video XHTML content relies on tags that define specific content Tags (or elements or markup) are keywords enclosed in signs, e.g., Important in your XHTML file, produces Important in your browser Many WYSIWYG software tools available Learning XHTML means not being limited by the features of a specific software tool © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Non-linear but also Non-standard Was it just as good for you as it was for me? Web browsers are used to view web pages Internet Explorer, Netscape, Safari, Chrome, Opera … Proprietary extension challenges waning Display/Viewing disparity © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Trying to make amends, the W3C World Wide Web Consortium is the internet advisory body Return to original concept of universality Estimated 25% of designer time creating workarounds Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) enter the fray separating content from layout CSS offers powerful formatting and layout options for whole websites versus individual pages Advent of CSS was the beginning of the end for some tags CSS offers precision formatting allowing professional layouts Striving to dictate and maintain standards © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming XML and XHTML – one and the same The answer to sloppy code and proprietary extensions Using XML you can create your own programming languages HTML written in XML, hence the term XHTML While XML is more adaptable, using the HTML lexicon makes XHTML universally understood by current browsers while retaining the power of XML Price to pay for more power is syntax inflexibility! Course text deals with both HTML and XHTML, but goal of this course is to focus on XHTML to create a small collection of web pages Where you see (X)HTML in the course text book it indicates that both XHTML and HTML syntax are the same © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Flavours of XHTML, Document Type Definition (DTD) Three DTDs for present use: Transitional Permits use of deprecated tags More forgiving for the sloppy developer Frameset Permits use of deprecated tags Permits use of Frames More forgiving for the sloppy developer Strict Prohibits the use of any deprecated tags Demands careful attention to coding syntax! © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Which DTD flavour is yours? (uses and preferences) Transitional Used on large commercial sites to reach as wide an audience as possible Personal websites, again to reach as wide an audience as possible, but also because learning CSS may appear complicated to the hobby developer or laziness prevails Frameset Used on some personal sites for menu systems to prevent replicating code Strict Also used on large commerce sites to benefit from the powerful features of XHTML and CSS Use is enforced on some sites to fulfil accessibility requirements for disabled users © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Know your audience! Lack of standards can cause major headaches for the web designer Design for a wide public audience forces designer into duplication of work Design for specific audience/browser if feasible An estimated 5% of your potential audience are using old browser versions (>50 million users!) You will be using mostly Transitional markup in this course © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Week 1 Schedule You will be working through chapters i, 1, 2 & 3 of the course text book. Follow the online tutorial as you progress as it guides you through the course text book readings and gives further clarification of terms and examples found in it. If I miss a page, i.e., I dont make any comments on the text on a specific page, dont worry! It simply means that I think the explanation given is clear and understandable and you dont need further clarification. I may use XHTML file or XHTML coded source file or XHTML text file or source file, these are one and the same! An XHTML coded source file is where you write the code (using Notepad) for your web pages A web page is displayed in the browser and is the result of your XHTML coding © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Web Page Building Blocks A web page has three essential components: Textual content – any writing you have added to your web page References to complex content – this may be links to other web pages and/or images and/or video and/or sound, etc… Markup – instructions written in your web page that describes how your web page content should be displayed/formatted The common denominator is text! Text = Universality, i.e., platform independence Logon to your workstation, open your web browser and type in the address field © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Markup (p.28) Principle types of Markup: Elements, Attributes and Values Elements: Elements, more commonly referred to as tags, are like labels that identify and structure/format parts of your web page, of which an example of an opening and closing tag pair is. When applied to textual content in your web page a NON-EMPTY element/tag pair would have the effect of formatting text enclosed within it. For example, the XHTML code below would look how in the browser? This is easy !! Would look like this in an internet web browser: This is easy !! Look at the source file for the Webster homepage. Can you identify any NON-EMPTY elements/tags? © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Markup (p.28) Elements: There is another definition of tag, an EMPTY tag. An empty tag may seem a confusing term as it does actually contain information Takes the form of a combination of an open and closing tag. For example: Please note that even though we will be using Transitional coding, you MUST use the closing space and forward-slash to finish off your empty tag before the closing greater-than sign! You will be marked down if you forget this! Look at the source file for the Webster homepage. Can you identify any EMPTY elements/tags? © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Markup (p.29) Attributes and Values: Attributes contain information about content in the web page An attributes value MUST ALWAYS be enclosed in quotation marks! Numeric values never contain unit types, e.g., width=10 Some tags accept multiple attributes and values, e.g., Sometimes values are limited to predefined choices and those limited in choice only accept lower case values in XHTML as shown in the Figure below. What is the attribute value pair in the coding above? Look at the source file for the Webster homepage. Can you identify any attribute and value pairs? © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Block vs. Inline (p.30) Block-level elements: Like paragraph tags will always start its enclosed text on a new line Are larger structural pieces of a web page and can contain other block- level elements, inline elements and text Inline elements: Like tags will format its content, but the content will retain its position on the same line on the web page Look at the source file for the Webster homepage. Can you identify any block-level or inline tags? © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Parents and Children (p.31) Nesting: Tags that contain other tags are parents and the enclosed tags are the children (Figure 1.8 shows parent-child tag pairs) Nesting is the placement of one set of tags within another set Closing tags MUST correspond to the last open tag! Shown below are examples of correct and incorrect nesting. text here more text here and yet more text here at the end. Can you identify the correctly nested pair? Can you correctly identify the parent and child tag pairs? © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – A web pages text content (p.32) Typing Notepad does not correct typing mistakes XHTML collapses extra spaces, tabs and returns Use this to your advantage to add structure in your source file (see Fig. 1.8 again) Special Symbols & is special as it denotes the beginning of a special character You can use character references, e.g., © for © Or you can simply type the character and specify UNICODE (specifically UTF-8) as the encoding character set you wish your web page source file to be saved as Some character references are provided in Appendix D Encoding means converting characters you type into bits that are machine readable Encoding can be automatically detected by the browser (View | Encoding | Auto-Select) © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – A web pages text content (p.32) Unicode Estimated 40% of web public speak English, therefore 60% expecting something else Designed as a universal system for encoding all of the characters in all of the worlds languages So not just non-English character sets are supported, but also script languages like Cyrillic, Chinese, Greek, etc Encodes all ASCII characters as ASCII does, thus if old browser does not understand your UTF-8 encoding it will still display English characters properly When you save your XHTML coded source files for your web pages in Notepad you will state that the encoding is UTF-8 You will need to declare UTF-8 in your Document Type Definition (DTD) declaration in your XHTML coded source file so the browser can display your special characters properly on your web page Open Microsoft Word, Insert | Symbol and select Arial Unicode MS © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming A web pages text content (continued) GOOD PRACTICES (STRUCTURE OF XHMTL DOCUMENT) Use spaces and tabs to structure your XHTML coding in your text files. It helps you, and/or other people who may follow you in editing your web page, make sense of what you have written. Use returns to structure your document parts, I will be looking for this when we start creating more complicated pages. Below provides examples of good and bad practice with regard to the use of returns to create document structure: Bad practice! any text in this cell more text in this cell anymore text you like more text to labour the point © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming A web pages text content (continued) Good practice! any text in this cell more text in this cell anymore text you like more text to labour the point © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Links, images and other non-text content (p.33) Links : Links are simply an abbreviating of hyperlinks Links are defined by tags in your XHTML source file Links can be text or other non-text content in your web page like images Linking a file that your browser does not understand will cause it to launch a Helper Application or prompt you to download a Plug-in Images: Images are NOT stored in your XHTML source file, but are referenced from within it, e.g., This means your web page remains text based and universally accessible Typical image types used in web pages are jpeg, png and gif Your browser understands most image types by default © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Links, images and other non-text content (p.33) Other content – Flash MX, video, mp3, etc…: Again these are textual references within the XHTML source file so content is stored elsewhere This content may need Helper Application or Plug-in installed on users computers as stated in Links above Good practice to inform users what link does especially if it is linking a 20Mb file! Good practice to inform users where to get trusted plug-ins so that they feel confident they arent compromising their security © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Your Web Page File names (p.34) Good practice: Always use lowercase file names Prevents user typos and resulting frustration Prevents typos when creating hyperlinks Use the correct file extension, either.htm or.html Select one and stick with it! Use a short, descriptive word(s) for your file names, but if you must use multiple words for file names decide and stick with a standard join method, usually - or _ or nothing, e.g., branko-homepage.htmlor branko_homepage.htmlor brankohomepage.html © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Scheme / type of communication protocol Server name / location Chapter 1 – URLs (web address composition) Path or folder name(s) on server File / web page name Use lower case names for folders too! If no name given for file name it means the server will serve a file with the name default.html or index.html if these files exist No default.html or index.html file means error message or worse! © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – URLs (web address composition) Uniform (Universal) Resource Locator: An URL is a fancy name for internet address Contains information about where a file is and what the browser should do with it Scheme: First part of the URL is the scheme, which for this course will always be the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) HTTP protocol simply defines a standardized method of communication between servers and clients Server name/address: This is the second part of the URL and defines the name and location of the server that stores the web page Path: This is the folder name(s) on the server in which the web page is stored © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Absolute and Relative URLs (pp.36-37) Absolute URLs Absolute URLs must be given if the web page or other content your hyperlink references is on a different server than your own It must include the scheme information so that the browser knows how to communicate with the remote site You can use absolute URLs for files on your own server too, but this may become cumbersome, inflexible and is prone to errors Relative URLs Can be used when the web page or other content your hyperlink references resides on your server Cannot be used to reference content on remote sites To reference a file in your current folder, just use the file name To reference a file in a sub-folder of your current folder simply type the folder name followed by a forward slash and file name To reference a file in a folder in a higher-level folder, use two dots and a forward slash followed by folder/file_name IMPORTANT CONCEPT ! © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – HTML vs. XHTML (pp.38-39) HTML Who cares, so you miss some quotes, or a closing tag or even the main web page tags like, and Browser support - billions of pages out there already XHTML Much more ordered and fussy about syntax Browsers have at last caught up with its specification Normally used for bigger projects that require clearly defined functionality Because it encapsulates HTML developers really dont have to learn new language, just get used to its terminology A well defined standard will more likely be better supported in future generations of web software Offers disability support which is not available in HTML and this added-value is being insisted upon by some organizations © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Versions, flavours and DOCTYPE (pp.40-41) – Standards vs Quirks Standards Mode (DOCTYPE) Informing the web browser what type of DTD standard your web page follows Strict, Transitional or Frameset The browser will recognise the DOCTYPE standard and will display the web page accordingly Quirks mode If DOCTYPE is omitted, the browser assumes page is old fashioned HTML and reverts to QUIRKS mode Quirks mode simply means it will interpret the code as it is written, which depending on the browser, could be very different to what you intended © Webster University Vienna
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COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 1 – Cascading Style Sheets (pp.41-46) CSS CSS is essentially a series of rules used to format your web pages Provides vastly improved formatting options to place content anywhere on (or off) a web page Rules consist of a selector, property and value CSS is perfect for large complex sites as formatting can be applied to whole site from one rule set CSS doesnt work so well with HTML as it prefers all tags to be closed properly © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 2 – Creating a new web page (p.45) Remember to chose either HTM or HTML as your file extension, but stick with whichever one you chose! Creating and saving an XHTML document (exercise) 1. Decide how you are going to arrange files created in this course 2. Suggestion: create folders for each week either on your Webster account or on an USB stick. 3. Follow the instructions for creating an empty XHTML file on the handout provided – Exercise 1 4. Answer the questions after the exercise. © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 2 – Saving your web page (pp.46-48) Creating and saving an XHTML document in MS Word 1. I do not recommend anyone to use MS Word to create web pages, here you will find out why 2. Follow Exercise 2 on the handout provided 3. Answer the question after the exercise © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 3 – Basic XHTML Structure Just what is my type? Now – creating real web pages with XHTML coding First you will create a template XHTML file Create a template.html file Make that a proper XHTML documents by declaring this fact in your via the DOCTYPE declaration You will also specify the encoding type UTF-8 so that the browser knows what character set to use for display purposes UTF-8 character encoding isnt really important for us using English operating systems and software, but it may be important for other language operating systems and browser software! You are going to complete the template.html file and you will use this as the basis for nearly all web pages you will create on this course, so dont skip! The typing you are expected to do for each exercise is shown in the Figure on the same or opposite page as the exercise description © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 3 – Starting your web page (pp.56-57) 1. First open your blank template.html file in Notepad 2. Follow the instructions To begin a transitional XHTML page (p.56) 3. Complete steps 1 to 4 4. Save the changes you have made to your file 5. Your file should look like Figure 3.2 (p.57) when you have completed step 5 NOTE: the figures provided in the course book show text wrapped in the boxes. This text is wrapped due to limited space and you dont have to wrap your text! Read the Tips. They are essentially what I have already provided you with, but they may clarify something you are unclear about. © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 3 – Creating the foundation (p.58) Head and Body tags The head and body tags are essential to your XHTML structure (but not to HTML) The head section is where you define your web page title, your encoding, add styles, add scripts and define metadata All content that is displayed in the web browser is entered in-between the tags (exercise) 1. If you closed your template.html file after the last exercise re-open it in Notepad 2. Follow the instructions for both exercises To create the head section: andTo create the body: (p.58) 3. Complete all steps and save your file 4. Your file should look like Figure 3.3 when you are finished Read the Tips. I have essentially already provided you with the data, but they may clarify something you are unclear about. © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 3 – Declaring the encoding (p.59) UTF-8 Character Set The character set encoding declared in your XHTML file (in the head section) should be the same as that used when saving your source code Browser Compatibility: The UTF-8 encoding is declared as meta information in the head section instead of at the very beginning of the web page source code because IE has a problem with this! UTF-8 is for language other than English and/or special symbols. (exercise) – p If you closed your template.html file after the last exercise re-open it in Notepad 2. Follow the instructions for adding the meta information for utf-8 encoding 3. Save your file, it should now look like Figure 3.5 © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 3 – Creating a title (p.60) Web page titles Every XHTML web page must have a title Title appears in the title bar of the browser window Title shows as the page name in Favourites if your page is bookmarked The title cannot contain any formatting (bold, italic, etc.), images or hyperlinks Make titles as short and descriptive as possible A title can effect a documents ranking on search engines (exercise) – p If you closed your template.html file after the last exercise re-open it in Notepad 2. Follow the instructions for adding the title tags 3. Add the text YourName Default Template as the title 4. Save your file as this is now the completed template.html file that you will use as the basis for all your web pages 5. Close Notepad and make a copy of this file as a backup! © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 3 – Creating structures (pp.61-68) Info about everyday web page elements Header tags (pg.61) define sections of your web page. Paragraph tags (pg.62) are block tags, they must be closed in XHTML Naming elements (pg.63) is a powerful method of identifying parts of your web page content Naming elements you will be using later. For now just add the ids and classes as specified in the exercises on the next page, page 64! DIV tags (pg.64) are also block tags that are useful in web page design layout Span tags (pg.65) dont have any inherent formatting, they function inline Line break tags (pg.66) are used to create manual line breaks without additional line spacing Comments (pg.67) are extremely useful and should be used liberally! Labeling (pg.68) (windows tool-tip) is also a useful tool © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming Chapter 3 – Creating structures (pp.60-68) Exercises You will now complete all exercises on pages paying attention to the figure that accompanies each exercise so that you can check that your file appears exactly as the exercise dictates. 1. Re-open template.html in Notepad, add the title as it appears in Figure 3.6 then save the file as gaudi.html 2. Follow the instructions for all remaining exercises in Chapter 3 adding the text as well as the tags being discussed, saving your gaudi.html file after completing each exercise © Webster University Vienna
COAP 2000 – XHTML Programming You will now use my instructions on creating your very own website. This is a detailed step-by-step process so pay close attention! NEXT WEEK We will start next weeks class by adding your template.html file and your gaudi.html files to your website under the week1 heading so that I can review online and provide feedback. HOMEWORK If you didnt finish the exercises in Chapter 3 make sure you complete them before next weeks class. Read through the course books Introduction, Chapter 1 and Designing Your Website on page 44. This presentation provides a good overview of this content but you will need a thorough understanding of these concepts as you progress through the course – not to mention the exams! © Webster University Vienna
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