Presentation on theme: "Competencies for Food Contamination and Spoilage"— Presentation transcript:
0 Chapter 2 Food Contamination and Spoilage Food Safety: Managing the HACCP Process(245TXT or 245CIN)
1 Competencies for Food Contamination and Spoilage Distinguish between pathogens and spoilage organisms, and list four types of microorganisms responsible for most food contamination.Explain the four factors affecting bacterial reproduction.Explain why the temperature danger zone (TDZ) is important to food safety.Briefly describe food infections and intoxications.Explain how to prevent cross-contamination.List common chemical poisons and foodborne physical hazards, and briefly describe control measures.Describe personal health and hygiene practices necessary in a food establishment.(continued)
2 Competencies for Food Contamination and Spoilage (continued)Describe the steps that managers should take when handling a foodborne illness complaint.Identify the common causes of food spoilage in a food establishment.Define the three ranges of low-temperature food preservation and describe low-temperature food preservation techniques and their benefits.Describe high-temperature food preservation techniques and their benefits.Describe dehydration food preservation techniques and their benefits.
3 Microorganisms Causing Most Food Contamination BacteriaParasitic wormsFungiViruses
4 Factors Affecting Bacterial Reproduction MoistureOxygenpHTime and temperature
5 Salmonella spp. Food Sources Meat, poultry, and egg products Other foods via human carriersSymptomsAbdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, vomitingDehydration, headache, prostration(continued)
6 Salmonella spp. Incubation Time 5 to 72 hours; usually 12 to 48 hours (continued)Incubation Time5 to 72 hours; usually 12 to 48 hoursControlsCook thoroughlyChill rapidlyEnforce good personal hygiene rulesPrevent cross-contamination
8 Shigella spp. Incubation Time Usually less than 4 days Controls (continued)Incubation TimeUsually less than 4 daysControlsChill and heat foods rapidlyEnforce good personal hygiene rulesControl fliesPrepare foods safely
10 Vibrio parahaemolyticus (continued)Incubation TimeUsually 10 to 20 hoursControlsUse proper cooking and chilling proceduresSeparate raw from cooked foodsDo not use sea water to rinse food
11 Escherichia coli Food Sources Any food exposed to sewage-contaminated waterSymptomsSimilar to Shigellosis—abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever,Chills, blood in feces, nausea, dehydration, prostration(continued)
12 Escherichia coli Incubation Time About 11 hours Controls (continued)Incubation TimeAbout 11 hoursControlsChill and heat foods rapidlyEnforce good personal hygiene rulesControl fliesPrepare foods safely
13 Listeria monocytogenes Food SourcesVegetables fertilized with contaminated manureMilk contaminated after pasteurizationContaminated cheeses and meatSymptomsHeadache, vomiting, other flu-like symptomsIn pregnant women and people with compromised immune systems:Possible death, meningitis, abortion and/or prenatal septicemia(continued)
14 Listeria monocytogenes (continued)Incubation Time4 days to 3 weeksControlsPasteurize or heat-process foodsAvoid re-contaminating foodsRefrigerate or freeze all dairy productsUse proper equipment cleaning and food safety procedures
15 Yersinia enterocolitia Food SourcesContaminated raw pork or beefDrinking water, milk products, tofuSymptomsChildren and adolescents: digestive upset, severe abdominal pain resembling acute appendicitisAdults: acute abdominal disorders, diarrhea, fever, arthritisBoth groups: skin and eye infections(continued)
16 Yersinia enterocolitia (continued)Incubation Time3 to 7 daysControlsPasteurize or heat-process foodsEnforce good personal hygiene rulesSanitize equipment and utensilsAlways purchase foods from approved sources
17 Campylobacter jejuni Food Sources Raw or inadequately cooked or processed foods of animal originUnchlorinated waterSymptomsDiarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, a vague unhealthy feelingLess frequent: nausea, headache, urinary tract infection, reactive arthritis(continued)
18 Campylobacter jejuni Incubation Time 1 to 7 days or longer Controls (continued)Incubation Time1 to 7 days or longerControlsCook food thoroughlyHandle food properlyDry or freeze foodsAdd acids
19 Preventing Cross-Contamination Separate raw animal foods during storing, preparing, holding, and display from raw ready-to-eat food and cooked ready-to-eat food.Separate types of raw animal foods from each other.Clean and sanitizing equipment and utensils.Store food in packages, covered containers, or wrappers.(continued)
20 Preventing Cross-Contamination (continued)Clean hermetically sealed containers of food of visible soil before opening.Protect food containers that are received packaged together in a case or overwrap from cuts when the case or overwrap is opened.Store damaged, spoiled, or recalled food separately.Separate fruits and vegetables before they are washed.
21 Handwashing Before: Handling food Handling clean utensils Handling clean equipmentAfter:EatingDrinkingSmokingTouching the face or hairUsing the toiletHandling raw meat, poultry, or seafoodHandling soiled utensils or equipment
22 Handling a Foodborne Illness Complaint One person responsible for the investigationListen to complaintGet the factsEvaluate guest complaintNotify health officials if complaint appears validIsolate suspected food(continued)
23 Handling a Foodborne Illness Complaint (continued)Cooperate with heath officialsTake corrective actionClose the complaint with the guestIndex complaintFollow up
24 Common Causes of Food Spoilage Improper storage temperaturesIncorrect storage timesImproper ventilationFailure to separate foodsExcessive delays between receiving and storingInadequate food safety standards
25 Low-Temperature Food Preservation Chilled storage: 50˚F (10˚C) to 59˚F (15˚C)Refrigerated storage: 32˚F (0˚C) to 45˚F (7˚C)Freezer storage: 0˚F (–18˚C) or below
26 Pasteurization High-temperature food preservation Food product heated to 145˚F (63˚C) for 30 minutes or to 161˚F (72˚C) for 15 seconds then immediately cooled to 50˚F (10˚C) or less.
27 Sterilization High-temperature food preservation Virtually kills all microorganisms and their spores.Heating usually takes place in a large container which is pressurized according to the food product, its ability to withstand heat, and packaging.