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© 2004, Educational Institute Chapter 2 Food Contamination and Spoilage Food Safety: Managing the HACCP Process (245TXT or 245CIN)
© 2004, Educational Institute 1 Competencies for Food Contamination and Spoilage 1.Distinguish between pathogens and spoilage organisms, and list four types of microorganisms responsible for most food contamination. 2.Explain the four factors affecting bacterial reproduction. 3.Explain why the temperature danger zone (TDZ) is important to food safety. 4.Briefly describe food infections and intoxications. 5.Explain how to prevent cross-contamination. 6.List common chemical poisons and foodborne physical hazards, and briefly describe control measures. 7.Describe personal health and hygiene practices necessary in a food establishment. (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 2 Competencies for Food Contamination and Spoilage 8.Describe the steps that managers should take when handling a foodborne illness complaint. 9.Identify the common causes of food spoilage in a food establishment. 10.Define the three ranges of low-temperature food preservation and describe low-temperature food preservation techniques and their benefits. 11.Describe high-temperature food preservation techniques and their benefits. 12.Describe dehydration food preservation techniques and their benefits. (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 3 Microorganisms Causing Most Food Contamination Bacteria Parasitic worms Fungi Viruses
© 2004, Educational Institute 4 Factors Affecting Bacterial Reproduction Moisture Oxygen pH Time and temperature
© 2004, Educational Institute 5 Salmonella spp. Food Sources Meat, poultry, and egg products Other foods via human carriers Symptoms Abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, vomiting Dehydration, headache, prostration (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 6 Salmonella spp. Incubation Time 5 to 72 hours; usually 12 to 48 hours Controls Cook thoroughly Chill rapidly Enforce good personal hygiene rules Prevent cross-contamination (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 7 Shigella spp. Food Sources Moist mixed foods, liquids, contaminated produce Symptoms Abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, chills, blood in feces, Nausea, dehydration, prostration (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 8 Shigella spp. Incubation Time Usually less than 4 days Controls Chill and heat foods rapidly Enforce good personal hygiene rules Control flies Prepare foods safely (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 9 Vibrio parahaemolyticus Food Sources Raw seafood, sushi, saltwater fish, shellfish, Fish products, salty foods, cucumbers Symptoms Abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting Mild fever, chills, headache, prostration (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 10 Vibrio parahaemolyticus Incubation Time Usually 10 to 20 hours Controls Use proper cooking and chilling procedures Separate raw from cooked foods Do not use sea water to rinse food (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 11 Escherichia coli Food Sources Any food exposed to sewage-contaminated water Symptoms Similar to Shigellosisabdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, Chills, blood in feces, nausea, dehydration, prostration (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 12 Escherichia coli Incubation Time About 11 hours Controls Chill and heat foods rapidly Enforce good personal hygiene rules Control flies Prepare foods safely (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 13 Listeria monocytogenes Food Sources Vegetables fertilized with contaminated manure Milk contaminated after pasteurization Contaminated cheeses and meat Symptoms Headache, vomiting, other flu-like symptoms In pregnant women and people with compromised immune systems: Possible death, meningitis, abortion and/or prenatal septicemia (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 14 Listeria monocytogenes Incubation Time 4 days to 3 weeks Controls Pasteurize or heat-process foods Avoid re-contaminating foods Refrigerate or freeze all dairy products Use proper equipment cleaning and food safety procedures (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 15 Yersinia enterocolitia Food Sources Contaminated raw pork or beef Drinking water, milk products, tofu Symptoms Children and adolescents: digestive upset, severe abdominal pain resembling acute appendicitis Adults: acute abdominal disorders, diarrhea, fever, arthritis Both groups: skin and eye infections (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 16 Yersinia enterocolitia Incubation Time 3 to 7 days Controls Pasteurize or heat-process foods Enforce good personal hygiene rules Sanitize equipment and utensils Always purchase foods from approved sources (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 17 Campylobacter jejuni Food Sources Raw or inadequately cooked or processed foods of animal origin Unchlorinated water Symptoms Diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, a vague unhealthy feeling Less frequent: nausea, headache, urinary tract infection, reactive arthritis (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 18 Campylobacter jejuni Incubation Time 1 to 7 days or longer Controls Cook food thoroughly Handle food properly Dry or freeze foods Add acids (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 19 Preventing Cross-Contamination Separate raw animal foods during storing, preparing, holding, and display from raw ready-to-eat food and cooked ready-to-eat food. Separate types of raw animal foods from each other. Clean and sanitizing equipment and utensils. Store food in packages, covered containers, or wrappers. (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 20 Preventing Cross-Contamination Clean hermetically sealed containers of food of visible soil before opening. Protect food containers that are received packaged together in a case or overwrap from cuts when the case or overwrap is opened. Store damaged, spoiled, or recalled food separately. Separate fruits and vegetables before they are washed. (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 21 Handwashing Before: Handling food Handling clean utensils Handling clean equipment After: Eating Drinking Smoking Touching the face or hair Using the toilet Handling raw meat, poultry, or seafood Handling soiled utensils or equipment
© 2004, Educational Institute 22 Handling a Foodborne Illness Complaint 1.One person responsible for the investigation 2.Listen to complaint 3.Get the facts 4.Evaluate guest complaint 5.Notify health officials if complaint appears valid 6.Isolate suspected food (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 23 Handling a Foodborne Illness Complaint 7.Cooperate with heath officials 8.Take corrective action 9.Close the complaint with the guest 10.Index complaint 11.Follow up (continued)
© 2004, Educational Institute 24 Common Causes of Food Spoilage Improper storage temperatures Incorrect storage times Improper ventilation Failure to separate foods Excessive delays between receiving and storing Inadequate food safety standards
© 2004, Educational Institute 25 Low-Temperature Food Preservation Chilled storage: 50˚F (10˚C) to 59˚F (15˚C) Refrigerated storage: 32˚F (0˚C) to 45˚F (7˚C) Freezer storage: 0˚F (–18˚C) or below
© 2004, Educational Institute 26 Pasteurization High-temperature food preservation Food product heated to 145˚F (63˚C) for 30 minutes or to 161˚F (72˚C) for 15 seconds then immediately cooled to 50˚F (10˚C) or less.
© 2004, Educational Institute 27 Sterilization High-temperature food preservation Virtually kills all microorganisms and their spores. Heating usually takes place in a large container which is pressurized according to the food product, its ability to withstand heat, and packaging.
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