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The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion.

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Presentation on theme: "The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion.
Chapter 16 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion.

2 Mercantile Empires Spain, France, Great Britain
Trade conducted through nationalistic monopolies to benefit home country. Competition between countries led to wars around the world. Slavery Led to Imperialism of the 1800s

3 Mercantilism Colonies existed to provide natural resources and markets to home country. Whatever was best for home country No Free Trade, Colonies trade with home country Home Country protected and administered colonies.

4 Mercantilism Caused…

5 The Treaty of Utrecht (1713)
Outlined what countries controlled Spain: South America, Central America, Mexico, California Portugal: Brazil England: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Jamaica French: Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, West Africa, India Dutch: South Africa, Sri Lanka

6 French British Rivalry
West Indies produced tobacco, cotton, indigo, coffee and Sugar. Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys India, Africa

7 Spanish Colonial System
Viceroyalties Judicial councils: Audiencias Local officers: Corregsidores Casa de Contratacion: House of Trade: Regulated trade Bourbons replaced Habsburgs and Philip V tried to enforce laws and limit smuggling. This led to war with England in 1739.

8 Spanish Reforms Charles III (r. 1759-1788) Peninsulares Creoles
Emphasized ministers rather than councils, limiting the importance of Casa de Contracion. Allowed more trade between Americas, more ports Intendants: Tax collectors, copying French model Peninsulares Born in Europe, live in New World Creoles Europeans born in New World

9 Plantations and Slaves
Spanish and Portuguese faced severe shortage of labor in New World. Disease killed nearly all of the Native Americans. Not enough Indentured Servants Solution: Slaves from Africa West African coast had extensive slave market. More slaves were imported into Brazil and the West Indies than North America.


11 African American Slavery
By % of Jamaica was slaves Disease, overwork and malnutrition killed most Natives in the Caribbean, so number of slaves imported to New World was increased. Triangle Trade Columbian Exchange

12 Columbian Exchange


14 Experience of Slavery Over the generations, language, culture and religions were lost. Christianity: ‘The next world is better” Racism Slave Ships Forced marriages/breeding Broken families

15 Mid 1700’s Wars Trade, $, Rivalry, Power, Pirates of the Caribbean
War of Jenkins Ear 1738 1731 English Captain Robert Jenkins was captured by the Spanish. They cut his ear off. Jenkins went to Parliament, brought his severed ear. Walpole was forced to go to war. War was short, started wars that would last until 1815.


17 More War War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748
Prussia under Frederick II (The Great) broke the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Silesia. Maria Theresa was successful in keeping the rest of her empire together. Granted concessions to Magyars in Hungary. France supported Prussia, England supported Austria leading to larger war. Ended with Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle


19 Maria Theresa Became Queen of Austria through Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. Austria v. Prussia Had 16 Children! (Marie Antoinette) Forged alliance with France

20 Still more war Seven Years’ War 1756-1763
Frederick II (The Great) of Prussia invaded Saxony France, Austria and Saxony allied against Prussia Britain helped Prussia Treaty of Hubertusburg ended war btwn Austria and Prussia. Britain and France fought over North America William Pitt the Elder (English) gave Prussia $ to divert France. (Pittsburg!) Treaty of Paris 1763 ended war between B and F. Gave B Canada and land East of the Mississippi River.

21 Seven Years War = French and Indian War


23 America causes problems
After the War with France, the British owed money. They began to tax the colonies to pay for the cost of maintaining the empire. Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Tea Monopoly, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, Revolution. Spain and France joined in against England. Treaty of Paris 1783 ended war.

24 American Political Ideas
Thomas Paine: Common Sense, pamphlet arguing for independence. John Locke (English): Natural Rights Commonwealthmen: Writers who criticized the British govt. called parliament corrupt. John Trenchard Thomas Gordon

25 Politics in Britain King George III thought the Whigs were usurping his power. He appointed Lord North his first minister. John Wilkes was a member of parliament. He published a newspaper called The North Briton. He criticized Lord Bute’s handling of peace negotiations with France in 1763 and was arrested. He lost his seat in the House of Commons, became a hero of George III’s critics. Was reelected over and over, finally allowed to be lord Mayor of London in 1774.

26 Yorkshire Association Movement
British were unhappy with the mismanagement of the American War and Lord North. They wanted to reform Parliament, they thought the elections were corrupt. They wanted lower taxes. Movement collapsed in the 1780’s because they didn’t appeal for broad support.

27 William Pitt the Younger
In 1783 WPTY was chosen to manage the House of Commons for George III. He used patronage to construct a House of Commons that would be favorable to the King. George III did make the monarchy stronger, but at what price?

28 Importance of America Articles of Confederation, Constitution, showed that Government was possible without Kings, Divine Law, Tradition. Instead of Kings, popular sovereignty. Dangerous precedent for European nobility.

29 Chapter 16 Summary Social Political Intellectual Economics
The Slave Experience in Americas Spanish Colonial System Political Wars! Intellectual Freedom from Monarchy! Democracy! Economics Mercantilism Triangle Trade

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