Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 16 The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion.
Mercantile Empires Spain, France, Great Britain Trade conducted through nationalistic monopolies to benefit home country. Competition between countries led to wars around the world. Slavery Led to Imperialism of the 1800s
Mercantilism Colonies existed to provide natural resources and markets to home country. Whatever was best for home country No Free Trade, Colonies trade with home country Home Country protected and administered colonies.
The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) Outlined what countries controlled Spain: South America, Central America, Mexico, California Portugal: Brazil England: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Jamaica French: Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, West Africa, India Dutch: South Africa, Sri Lanka
French British Rivalry West Indies produced tobacco, cotton, indigo, coffee and Sugar. Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys India, Africa
Spanish Colonial System Viceroyalties Judicial councils: Audiencias Local officers: Corregsidores Casa de Contratacion: House of Trade: Regulated trade Bourbons replaced Habsburgs and Philip V tried to enforce laws and limit smuggling. This led to war with England in 1739.
Spanish Reforms Charles III (r. 1759-1788) –Emphasized ministers rather than councils, limiting the importance of Casa de Contracion. –Allowed more trade between Americas, more ports –Intendants: Tax collectors, copying French model Peninsulares –Born in Europe, live in New World Creoles –Europeans born in New World
Plantations and Slaves Spanish and Portuguese faced severe shortage of labor in New World. Disease killed nearly all of the Native Americans. Not enough Indentured Servants Solution: Slaves from Africa West African coast had extensive slave market. More slaves were imported into Brazil and the West Indies than North America.
African American Slavery By 1725 90% of Jamaica was slaves Disease, overwork and malnutrition killed most Natives in the Caribbean, so number of slaves imported to New World was increased. Triangle Trade Columbian Exchange
Experience of Slavery Over the generations, language, culture and religions were lost. Christianity: The next world is better Racism Slave Ships Forced marriages/breeding Broken families
Mid 1700s Wars Trade, $, Rivalry, Power, Pirates of the Caribbean War of Jenkins Ear 1738 –1731 English Captain Robert Jenkins was captured by the Spanish. They cut his ear off. –Jenkins went to Parliament, brought his severed ear. Walpole was forced to go to war. –War was short, started wars that would last until 1815.
More War War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 –Prussia under Frederick II (The Great) broke the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Silesia. –Maria Theresa was successful in keeping the rest of her empire together. Granted concessions to Magyars in Hungary. –France supported Prussia, England supported Austria leading to larger war. –Ended with Treaty of Aix-la- Chapelle
Maria Theresa Became Queen of Austria through Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. Austria v. Prussia Had 16 Children! (Marie Antoinette) Forged alliance with France
Still more war Seven Years War 1756-1763 –Frederick II (The Great) of Prussia invaded Saxony –France, Austria and Saxony allied against Prussia –Britain helped Prussia –Treaty of Hubertusburg ended war btwn Austria and Prussia. –Britain and France fought over North America –William Pitt the Elder (English) gave Prussia $ to divert France. (Pittsburg!) –Treaty of Paris 1763 ended war between B and F. Gave B Canada and land East of the Mississippi River.
America causes problems After the War with France, the British owed money. They began to tax the colonies to pay for the cost of maintaining the empire. Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Tea Monopoly, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, Revolution. Spain and France joined in against England. Treaty of Paris 1783 ended war.
American Political Ideas Thomas Paine: Common Sense, pamphlet arguing for independence. John Locke (English): Natural Rights Commonwealthmen: Writers who criticized the British govt. called parliament corrupt. –John Trenchard –Thomas Gordon
Politics in Britain King George III thought the Whigs were usurping his power. He appointed Lord North his first minister. John Wilkes was a member of parliament. He published a newspaper called The North Briton. He criticized Lord Butes handling of peace negotiations with France in 1763 and was arrested. He lost his seat in the House of Commons, became a hero of George IIIs critics. Was reelected over and over, finally allowed to be lord Mayor of London in 1774.
Yorkshire Association Movement British were unhappy with the mismanagement of the American War and Lord North. They wanted to reform Parliament, they thought the elections were corrupt. They wanted lower taxes. Movement collapsed in the 1780s because they didnt appeal for broad support.
William Pitt the Younger In 1783 WPTY was chosen to manage the House of Commons for George III. He used patronage to construct a House of Commons that would be favorable to the King. George III did make the monarchy stronger, but at what price?
Importance of America Articles of Confederation, Constitution, showed that Government was possible without Kings, Divine Law, Tradition. Instead of Kings, popular sovereignty. Dangerous precedent for European nobility.
Chapter 16 Summary Social –The Slave Experience in Americas –Spanish Colonial System Political –Wars! Intellectual –Freedom from Monarchy! Democracy! Economics –Mercantilism –Triangle Trade