Presentation on theme: "The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion."— Presentation transcript:
1The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion. Chapter 16The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars and Colonial Rebellion.
2Mercantile Empires Spain, France, Great Britain Trade conducted through nationalistic monopolies to benefit home country.Competition between countries led to wars around the world.SlaveryLed to Imperialism of the 1800s
3MercantilismColonies existed to provide natural resources and markets to home country.Whatever was best for home countryNo Free Trade, Colonies trade with home countryHome Country protected and administered colonies.
5The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) Outlined what countries controlledSpain: South America, Central America, Mexico, CaliforniaPortugal: BrazilEngland: Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, JamaicaFrench: Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, West Africa, IndiaDutch: South Africa, Sri Lanka
6French British Rivalry West Indies produced tobacco, cotton, indigo, coffee and Sugar.Ohio and Mississippi River ValleysIndia, Africa
7Spanish Colonial System ViceroyaltiesJudicial councils: AudienciasLocal officers: CorregsidoresCasa de Contratacion: House of Trade: Regulated tradeBourbons replaced Habsburgs and Philip V tried to enforce laws and limit smuggling.This led to war with England in 1739.
8Spanish Reforms Charles III (r. 1759-1788) Peninsulares Creoles Emphasized ministers rather than councils, limiting the importance of Casa de Contracion.Allowed more trade between Americas, more portsIntendants: Tax collectors, copying French modelPeninsularesBorn in Europe, live in New WorldCreolesEuropeans born in New World
9Plantations and Slaves Spanish and Portuguese faced severe shortage of labor in New World.Disease killed nearly all of the Native Americans. Not enough Indentured ServantsSolution: Slaves from AfricaWest African coast had extensive slave market.More slaves were imported into Brazil and the West Indies than North America.
11African American Slavery By % of Jamaica was slavesDisease, overwork and malnutrition killed most Natives in the Caribbean, so number of slaves imported to New World was increased.Triangle TradeColumbian Exchange
14Experience of SlaveryOver the generations, language, culture and religions were lost.Christianity: ‘The next world is better”RacismSlave ShipsForced marriages/breedingBroken families
15Mid 1700’s Wars Trade, $, Rivalry, Power, Pirates of the Caribbean War of Jenkins Ear 17381731 English Captain Robert Jenkins was captured by the Spanish. They cut his ear off.Jenkins went to Parliament, brought his severed ear. Walpole was forced to go to war.War was short, started wars that would last until 1815.
17More War War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 Prussia under Frederick II (The Great) broke the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Silesia.Maria Theresa was successful in keeping the rest of her empire together. Granted concessions to Magyars in Hungary.France supported Prussia, England supported Austria leading to larger war.Ended with Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
19Maria TheresaBecame Queen of Austria through Pragmatic Sanction of 1713.Austria v. PrussiaHad 16 Children!(Marie Antoinette)Forged alliance with France
20Still more war Seven Years’ War 1756-1763 Frederick II (The Great) of Prussia invaded SaxonyFrance, Austria and Saxony allied against PrussiaBritain helped PrussiaTreaty of Hubertusburg ended war btwn Austria and Prussia.Britain and France fought over North AmericaWilliam Pitt the Elder (English) gave Prussia $ to divert France. (Pittsburg!)Treaty of Paris 1763 ended war between B and F. Gave B Canada and land East of the Mississippi River.
23America causes problems After the War with France, the British owed money. They began to tax the colonies to pay for the cost of maintaining the empire.Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Tea Monopoly, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, Revolution.Spain and France joined in against England.Treaty of Paris 1783 ended war.
24American Political Ideas Thomas Paine: Common Sense, pamphlet arguing for independence.John Locke (English): Natural RightsCommonwealthmen: Writers who criticized the British govt. called parliament corrupt.John TrenchardThomas Gordon
25Politics in BritainKing George III thought the Whigs were usurping his power.He appointed Lord North his first minister.John Wilkes was a member of parliament. He published a newspaper called The North Briton. He criticized Lord Bute’s handling of peace negotiations with France in 1763 and was arrested.He lost his seat in the House of Commons, became a hero of George III’s critics.Was reelected over and over, finally allowed to be lord Mayor of London in 1774.
26Yorkshire Association Movement British were unhappy with the mismanagement of the American War and Lord North.They wanted to reform Parliament, they thought the elections were corrupt.They wanted lower taxes.Movement collapsed in the 1780’s because they didn’t appeal for broad support.
27William Pitt the Younger In 1783 WPTY was chosen to manage the House of Commons for George III.He used patronage to construct a House of Commons that would be favorable to the King.George III did make the monarchy stronger, but at what price?
28Importance of AmericaArticles of Confederation, Constitution, showed that Government was possible without Kings, Divine Law, Tradition.Instead of Kings, popular sovereignty.Dangerous precedent for European nobility.
29Chapter 16 Summary Social Political Intellectual Economics The Slave Experience in AmericasSpanish Colonial SystemPoliticalWars!IntellectualFreedom from Monarchy! Democracy!EconomicsMercantilismTriangle Trade