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E_English Grammar Course Unit 2 NOUN PHRASE. 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns Issues.

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Presentation on theme: "E_English Grammar Course Unit 2 NOUN PHRASE. 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns Issues."— Presentation transcript:

1 E_English Grammar Course Unit 2 NOUN PHRASE

2 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns Issues

3 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns 4. Pronouns Issues

4 Noun – Noun classes 1.1 Noun = a word used TO NAME … A person (E.g.: Tom, John, Bill Jones) A thing (E.g.: bed, chair, table, house) An animal (E.g.: cat, dog, tiger, lion) An abstract concept (E.g.: peace, war, independence) 1/1

5 Noun – Noun classes 1.2 1/2 Noun classes Proper nouns Common nouns

6 Noun – Noun classes 1.2 1/3 Noun classes Proper nouns Bill Clinton the Nile the UNICEF geographical names personal names names of institutions/ organizations calendar items Easter

7 Noun – Noun classes 1.2 1/4 car cars Noun classes Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Ns Singular Plural Singular salt

8 Noun – Noun classes 1.2 1/5 Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Ns ConcreteAbstract chair gold activit y beauty

9 Noun – Noun classes Noun classes Proper nouns Common nouns Count Ns Non-count Ns E.g. Tom, John Concrete Abstract 1.2 catfailurericepeace 1/6

10 Noun – Noun classes Lets check –To which classes does each of the following nouns belong to? Furniture Garden Victory Serenity Friday 1.2 1/7

11 Noun – Noun classes Lets check Furniture: Non-count, concrete Garden: Count, concrete Serenity: Non-count, abstract Friday: Proper (calendar item) Victory: Count, abstract 1.2 1/8

12 1. Noun and noun classesNoun noun classes 2. Reference and the articlesReferencethe articles 3. Grammatical categories of nounsGrammatical categories of nouns 4. PronounsPronounsIssues

13 Reference – The articles 2.1 2/1 Reference Generic Specific Unique

14 Reference – The articles 2.1 2/2 E.g.: - John loves Mary. Reference Unique proper noun

15 Reference – The articles 2.1 2/3 Reference Generic Specific vs. C/f. (1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. (2) Tigers are dangerous animals.

16 Reference – The articles 2.1 2/4 Specific or generic? (1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. (2) Tigers are dangerous animals. (1) = SPECIFIC (referring to particular specimens of the class tiger. (2) = GENERIC (referring to the class tiger without specific reference to particular tigers)

17 Reference – The articles 2.1 Generic Reference & the Articles 2/5 1.A German is a good musician. 2.Germans are good musicians. 3.The Germans are good musicians. 4.The German is a good musician (not common).

18 Reference – The articles 2.1 Specific Reference & the Articles 2/6 COUNTNONCOUNTCOUNTNONCOUNT SINGULARthe tigerthe furniturea tiger(some) furniture PLURALthe tigers(some) tigers DEFINITEINDEFINITE

19 Reference – The articles 2.2 2/7 The articles Definite Indefinite Zero (Ø) E.g.: - The earth goes around the sun. (definite) - He bought a new bike yesterday. (indefinite) - He has just arrived in Ø London. (zero)

20 Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article the Immediate situation Larger situation Anaphoric reference Cataphoric reference Sporadic reference Logical use of THE With body parts 2/8

21 Reference – The articles 2.2 Definite article the 2/9 Anaphoric reference Cataphoric referenceSporadic reference = the uniqueness of reference of some phrase (the X) is supplied by information given earlier in the discourse The modification of the noun phrase restricts the reference of the noun E.g. The wine that France produces Reference is made to an institution which may be observed recurrently at various places and times. E.g. the theatre, the cinema, the press, etc.

22 Reference – The articles 2.2 2/10 Definite article the Anaphoric reference Direct = The same head noun has occurred in the text and a relation of co- reference exists between two NPs E.g.: Susan bought a TV and a video recorder, but she returned the video recorder because it was defective.

23 Reference – The articles 2.2 2/11 Definite article the Anaphoric reference Indirect = A reference becomes part of the hearers knowledge indirectly E.g.: John bought a new bicycle, but found that one of the wheels was defective.

24 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles Definite Immediate situation = derived from the extra-linguistic situation. E.g.: - The roses are beautiful. (said in the garden) - Have you fed the dog? (said in the domestic context) 2/12

25 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles Definite = general knowledge which is shared or worldwide E.g.:the sunthe Equator the Republicthe North Pole the cosmosthe Renaissance Larger situation 2/13

26 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles Definite = the unique reference explained by the logical interpretation of certain words as post-determiners and adjectives Logical use of THE 2/14

27 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles Definite Ordinals (E.g.: first, second) General ordinals (E.g.: next, last, only) Superlative Adjs (E.g.: best, largest) E.g.: - When is the first flight to Chicago? - This is the only remaining copy. - Of the three newspapers we have in this city, this is the best. Logical use of THE 2/15

28 Reference – The articles 2.2 The articles Definite = when the possessor… is subject (1) may be implied rather than stated (2) is relevant or clear (3) With body parts E.g.: - My mother complains of a pain in the neck. (1) - The doctor diagnosed a fracture of the collarbone. (2) - Keep the back straight when serving and your tennis will be better. (3) 2/16

29 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an The referent: not mentioned before, and assumedly unfamiliar to the speaker or hearer. C/f: (1) A house on the corner is for sale. (2) The house on the corner is for sale. 2/17

30 Reference – The articles 2.2 2/18 Indefinite articles a/an Non-referring uses Substitution uses for ONE

31 Reference – The articles 2.2 2/19 Indefinite articles a/an Non-referring uses = with complement function, and a descriptive role rather than a referring role E.g.: - What a miserable day it is! = sometimes not referring to anything in reality E.g.: - Bob wants to marry a princess who speaks five languages.

32 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an Substitution uses for ONE substitute and generic function numerical or quantifying function 2/19

33 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an Substitution uses for ONE numerical or quantifying function 2/20 In expression: a dozen, a hundred… In quantifiers: a few, a great many… In measure phrase: ten dollars a day…

34 Reference – The articles 2.2 Indefinite articles a/an Substitution uses for ONE substitute and generic function 2/21 = any representative of the class E.g.: - A woman needs love and support from a man. = any representative of the class E.g.: - A woman needs love and support from a man.

35 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases in a copular relation Noun phrases with sporadic reference Parallel structures Fixed phrases 2/22

36 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases in a copular relation = where the complement means a unique role or task E.g.: - John F. Kennedy was (the) President of the United States in /23 = When the appositional N.P indicating a unique role or task is placed first = When the complement of turn is used (even when there is no implication of uniqueness) E.g.: - Chelsea centre-forward Milton Smith E.g.: - Jenny started out as a music student before she turned linguist.

37 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Means of transport and communication Institutions Times of day and night Seasons MealsIllnesses 2/24

38 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Institutions 2/25 = nouns do not refer to actual buildings or places, but to institutions associated with them E.g.: - to be in prison means to be a prisoner

39 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Means of transportation 2/26 E.g.:travel leave communicate by bicycle bus radio post

40 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Times of day and night 2/27 = take a zero article particularly after at, by, after and before E.g.:at/ before dawnby day and night when day breaksafter nightfall

41 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Meals 2/28 = as an institution recurring day by day (for specific meals: THE/ A(N)) E.g.: - Shes having lunch with her client. - That day, the lunch was served on the terrace.

42 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Seasons 2/29 = as seasons generally, or a particular part of a particular year (for a particular season: THE/ A(N)) E.g.: - Winter is coming. - The spring of last year was cold.

43 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Noun phrases with sporadic reference Illnesses 2/30 Note: for well-known infectious diseases such as: THE/ A(N) E.g.:diabetesinfluenza pneumonia (the) flu(the mumps) (the) meals a fevera temperature a cold

44 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Parallel structures one noun balanced against another noun of contrasting meaning the same noun repeated after a preposition E.g.: day by day eye to eye E.g.: from father to son husband and wife 2/31

45 Reference – The articles 2.2 Zero (Ø) article Fixed phrases Idioms = nouns with prepositions before/after E.g.: in turn on foot E.g.: set fire to get word of Idioms = verbs with nouns and prepositions 2/32

46 1. Noun and noun classesNoun noun classes 2. Reference and the articlesReferencethe articles 3. Grammatical categories of nounsGrammatical categories of nouns 4. PronounsPronounsIssues

47 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 2/33 Grammatical Categories Number Gender Case E.g.: mouse - mice box – boxes fish - fish E.g.: my sisters car a fall of 10% E.g.: she-wolf desk mother-in-law

48 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 2/34 Grammatical Categories Number Invariables Variables = nouns that do not vary = nouns that do vary

49 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 2/35 Invariables Singular onlyPlural only Non-count NsN-ending in s Substantive Adj Ns with plural meaning Pluralia tantums Collective Ns Substantive Adj material water, oil abstract freedom news physics (abstract) the true the ugly scissors pants arms customs people cattle (concrete) the poor the blind

50 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 2/36 Variables Regular pluralIrregular pluralZero plural (N + s) - /s/ books, stops - /z/ beds, stars - /iz/ boxes, brushes - voicing /f/ /vz/ leaf – leaves - en ending ox – oxen - change of the root vowel tooth - teeth - foreign plural medium - media (same form for both plural & singular) sheep, deer, tout

51 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 3/1 Case of genitive s genitive double genitive E.g.: her moms car E.g.: the paint of the room = of and s genitives used together E.g.: a friend of her fathers = with the nouns of lower gender class = with the nouns of higher gender class

52 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 3/2 Case – Genitive meaning Genitive meaningExamplesEquivalents PossessiveMy fathers hatMy father has a hat. Human relationHer sisters nephewHer sister has a nephew. Subjective (+ original) My fathers permission The arrival of the bus My father permits. The bus arrived. ObjectiveThe criminals arrestSomeone arrested the criminal. DescriptiveTwo days visitA visit lasts 2 days. AppositiveThe town of Vinh YenVinh Yen is a town.

53 Grammatical categories of Ns 3 3/3 Gender = In English, there is not any further morphological feature that helps distinguish gender (unlike Russian or French) GenderSex (semantic concept) Masculine: man(male) Feminine: woman(female) Common: teacher(both male and female) Neuter: table Ø

54 1. Noun and noun classesNoun noun classes 2. Reference and the articlesReferencethe articles 3. Grammatical categories of nounsGrammatical categories of nouns 4. PronounsPronounsIssues

55 4 3/4 Pronouns Features Types

56 Pronouns 4.1 4/1 Pronouns Features Person Case Gender Number Main features

57 Pronouns 4.1 4/2 Pronouns Features Main features without determiners with an objective case with person distinction (1 st – I/ we; 2 nd – you; 3 rd – he/she/it/they) with overt gender contrast (masculine, feminine & non- personal) singular and plural form: not often morphologically related

58 Pronouns 4.1 4/3 Pronouns Features Person Case Genitive Number Main features first person: the speaker (and one or more other) second person: the interlocutor(s) third person: one/more other persons other than the interlocutor(s)

59 Pronouns 4.1 4/4 Pronouns Features Person Case Genitive Number Main features Most pronouns: two-case system (objective & subjective) Other 6 pronouns: three- case system (subjective, objective, genitive) (I, we, he, she, they, who) (me, us, him, her, them, whom) (my, our, his, her, their, whose)

60 Pronouns 4.1 4/5 Pronouns Features Person Case Gender Number Main features with a distinction between masculine and feminine in 3rd person singulars: personal, reflexive, and possessive. (he - she; himself - herself; her - his )

61 Pronouns 4.1 4/6 Pronouns Features Person Case Genitive Number Main features The 2nd person: a common form for singular & plural in the personal & possessive series, but a separate form for plural in the reflexive (you – your but yourself - yourselves)

62 Pronouns 4.2 4/7 Pronouns Types Personal Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Reciprocal Pronouns Reciprocal Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Relative Pronouns Relative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns Quantifying Pronouns Quantifying Pronouns Universal ProNs & determiners Partitive Pronouns Partitive Pronouns

63 4.2 4/8 Pronouns Types Personal Pronouns Subjective forms: (I, you, we, they, he, she, it) as Subjects and Subject complements E.g.: He is a student at this university. Objective forms: (me, you, us, them, him, her, it) as Objects and prepositional complements E.g.: I saw him with her yesterday in the park.

64 Pronouns 4.2 4/9 Pronouns Types Reflexive Pronouns Include: myself, yourself(ves), ourselves, themselves, himself, herself, itself Objective function E.g.: He looked after himself after his wife left. Emphatic function E.g.: I myself would never love such a girl.

65 Pronouns 4.2 4/10 Pronouns Types Reciprocal Pronouns Reciprocal Pronouns include: each other, one another E.g.: - Mary likes Mike and Mike likes Mary. They like each other. - I have 3 friends. They dont like one another.

66 Pronouns 4.2 4/11 Pronouns Types Possessive Pronouns Determiner function (my, your, our, their, his, her, its) E.g.: This is my friend. Nominal function (mine, yours, ours, theirs, his, hers, its) E.g.: This friend is mine.

67 Pronouns 4.2 4/12 Pronouns Types Relative Pronouns Personal (who (ever), whom, whose, that) E.g.: Whoever comes here needs an ID card. Non-personal (which(ever), whose, that, what(ever)) E.g.: Whose is this book?

68 Pronouns 4.2 4/13 Pronouns Types Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative determiners - personal: whose - personal/non-personal: which, that Interrogative pronouns - personal: who, whom, whose - non-personal: what - personal/non-personal: which

69 Pronouns 4.2 4/14 Pronouns Types Demonstrative Pronouns Singular (this, that) Plural (these, those)

70 Pronouns 4.2 4/15 Pronouns Types Quantifying Pronouns Quantifying Pronouns Numeral one E.g.: One went this way, the other that way. Replacive one E.g.: Id like a drink, but just a small one. Indefinite one E.g.: One cant be too careful, can one/you? Cardinals/ordinals (one, two, three, etc.; first, second, third, etc.) E.g.: He has two wives. The first is so ugly.

71 Pronouns 4.2 4/16 Pronouns Types Universal ProNs & determiners Include: each, all, every, and every compounds (everything, everyone, etc.) E.g.: Each of the students should have his own books.

72 Pronouns 4.2 4/17 Pronouns Types Partitive Pronouns Partitive Pronouns Assertive ProNs: someone/body, something, somewhere, some (pronoun or determiner) E.g.: Somebody has turned on the light. Non-assertive ProNs: anyone, anybody, anything, anywhere, either, any (pronoun or determiner) E.g.: - Have you got anything to eat now? - Have you got any paper? I need some. Negative ProNs: no one/body, nowhere, neither, none, no (pronoun or determiner) E.g.: None of them were absent.

73 Homework Workbook exercises 45, 48-65


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