2Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns4. Pronouns
3Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns4. Pronouns
41.1 Noun – Noun classes Noun 1/1 = a word used TO NAME … A person (E.g.: Tom, John, Bill Jones)A thing(E.g.: bed, chair, table, house)An animal(E.g.: cat, dog, tiger, lion)An abstract concept(E.g.: peace, war, independence)
12Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns4. Pronouns
13Reference – The articles 2/12.1Reference – The articlesReferenceGenericSpecificUnique
14Reference – The articles 2/22.1Reference – The articlesReferenceUniqueproper nounE.g.: - John loves Mary.
15Reference – The articles 2/32.1Reference – The articlesReferenceGenericSpecificvs.C/f.(1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage.(2) Tigers are dangerous animals.
16Reference – The articles 2/42.1Reference – The articlesSpecific or generic?(1) A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage.(2) Tigers are dangerous animals.(1) = SPECIFIC (referring to particular specimens of the class ‘tiger’.(2) = GENERIC (referring to the class ‘tiger’ without specific reference to particular tigers)
17Reference – The articles 2/52.1Reference – The articlesGeneric Reference & the ArticlesA German is a good musician.Germans are good musicians.The Germans are good musicians.The German is a good musician (not common).
18Reference – The articles 2/62.1Reference – The articlesSpecific Reference & the ArticlesDEFINITEINDEFINITECOUNTNONCOUNTSINGULARthe tigerthe furniturea tiger(some) furniturePLURALthe tigers(some) tigers
19Reference – The articles 2/72.2Reference – The articlesThe articlesDefiniteIndefiniteZero (Ø)E.g.: - The earth goes around the sun. (definite)- He bought a new bike yesterday. (indefinite)- He has just arrived in Ø London. (zero)
20Reference – The articles 2/82.2Reference – The articlesDefinite article ‘the”Immediate situationLarger situationAnaphoric referenceCataphoric referenceSporadic referenceLogical use of THEWith body parts
21Reference – The articles 2/92.2Reference – The articlesDefinite article ‘the’Anaphoric referenceCataphoric referenceSporadic reference= the uniqueness of reference of some phrase (the X) is supplied by information given earlier in the discourseThe modification of the noun phrase restricts the reference of the nounE.g. The wine that France producesReference is made to an institution which may be observed recurrently at various places and times.E.g. the theatre, the cinema, the press, etc.
22Reference – The articles 2/102.2Reference – The articlesDefinite article ‘the’Anaphoric referenceDirect= The same head noun has occurred in the text and a relation of co-reference exists between two NPsE.g.: Susan bought a TV and a video recorder, but she returned the video recorder because it was defective.
23Reference – The articles 2/112.2Reference – The articlesDefinite article ‘the’Anaphoric referenceIndirect= A reference becomes part of the hearer’s knowledge indirectlyE.g.: John bought a new bicycle, but found that one of the wheels was defective.
24Reference – The articles 2/122.2Reference – The articlesThe articlesDefiniteImmediate situation= derived from theextra-linguisticsituation.E.g.: - The roses are beautiful. (said in the garden)- Have you fed the dog? (said in the domestic context)
25Reference – The articles 2/132.2Reference – The articlesThe articlesDefinite= general knowledgewhich is shared orworldwideLarger situationE.g.: the sun the Equatorthe Republic the North Polethe cosmos the Renaissance
26Reference – The articles 2/142.2Reference – The articlesThe articlesDefiniteLogical use of THE= the unique referenceexplained by thelogical interpretationof certain words aspost-determiners andadjectives
27Reference – The articles 2/152.2Reference – The articlesThe articlesDefiniteLogical use of THEOrdinals(E.g.: first, second)General ordinals(E.g.: next, last, only)Superlative Adjs(E.g.: best, largest)E.g.: - When is the first flight to Chicago?- This is the only remaining copy.- Of the three newspapers we have inthis city, this is the best.
28Reference – The articles 2/162.2Reference – The articlesThe articles= when the possessor…is subject (1)may be implied ratherthan stated (2)is relevant or clear (3)DefiniteWith body partsE.g.: - My mother complains of a painin the neck. (1)- The doctor diagnosed a fractureof the collarbone. (2)- Keep the back straight when servingand your tennis will be better. (3)
29Reference – The articles 2/172.2Reference – The articlesIndefinite articles a/anThe referent: not mentioned before, and assumedly unfamiliar to the speaker or hearer.C/f:(1) A house on the corner is for sale.(2) The house on the corner is for sale.
30Reference – The articles 2/182.2Reference – The articlesIndefinite articles a/anNon-referring usesSubstitution uses for ONE
31Reference – The articles 2/192.2Reference – The articlesIndefinite articles a/an= with complement function, and a descriptive role rather than a referring roleNon-referring usesE.g.: - What a miserable day it is!= sometimes not referring to anything in realityE.g.: - Bob wants to marry a princess who speaks five languages.
32Reference – The articles 2/192.2Reference – The articlesIndefinite articles a/anSubstitution uses for ONEsubstitute and generic functionnumerical or quantifying function
33Reference – The articles 2/202.2Reference – The articlesIndefinite articles a/anSubstitution uses for ONEnumerical or quantifying functionIn expression: a dozen, a hundred…In quantifiers: a few, a great many…In measure phrase: ten dollars a day…
34Reference – The articles 2/212.2Reference – The articlesIndefinite articles a/anSubstitution uses for ONEsubstitute and generic function= any representative of the classE.g.: - A woman needs love and support from a man.
35Reference – The articles 2/222.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases in a copular relationNoun phrases with sporadic referenceParallel structuresFixed phrases
36Reference – The articles 2/232.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases in a copular relationE.g.: - John F. Kennedy was (the) President of the United States in 1961.= where the complement means a unique role or task= When the appositional N.P indicating a unique role or task is placed firstE.g.: - Chelsea centre-forward Milton Smith= When the complement of turn is used (even when there is no implication of uniqueness)E.g.: - Jenny started out as a music student before she turned linguist.
37Reference – The articles 2/242.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases with sporadic referenceMeans of transportand communicationInstitutionsTimes of dayand nightSeasonsMealsIllnesses
38Reference – The articles 2/252.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases with sporadic referenceInstitutions= nouns do not refer to actual buildings or places, but to institutions associated with themE.g.: - “to be in prison” means to be a prisoner
39Reference – The articles 2/262.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases with sporadic referenceMeans of transportationE.g.:travelleavecommunicatebybicyclebusradiopost
40Reference – The articles 2/272.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases with sporadic reference= take a zero article particularly after at, by, after and beforeTimes of day and nightE.g.: at/ before dawn by day and nightwhen day breaks after nightfall
41Reference – The articles 2/282.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases with sporadic referenceMeals= as an institution recurring day by day(for specific meals: THE/ A(N))E.g.: - She’s having lunch with her client.- That day, the lunch was served on the terrace.
42Reference – The articles 2/292.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases with sporadic reference= as seasons generally, or a particular part of a particular year (for a particular season: THE/ A(N))SeasonsE.g.: - Winter is coming.- The spring of last year was cold.
43Reference – The articles 2/302.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleNoun phrases with sporadic referenceIllnessesNote: for well-known infectious diseases such as: THE/ A(N)E.g.: diabetes influenza pneumonia(the) flu (the mumps) (the) mealsa fever a temperature a cold
44Reference – The articles 2/312.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleParallel structuresthe same noun repeated after a prepositionone noun balanced against another noun of contrasting meaningE.g.: day by dayeye to eyeE.g.: from father to sonhusband and wife
45Reference – The articles 2/322.2Reference – The articlesZero (Ø) articleFixed phrasesIdioms = nouns withprepositionsbefore/afterIdioms = verbs withnouns andprepositionsE.g.: in turnon footE.g.: set fire toget word of
46Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns4. Pronouns
47Grammatical categories of Ns 2/333Grammatical categories of NsGrammatical CategoriesNumberCaseGenderE.g.: mouse - micebox – boxesfish - fishE.g.: my sister’s cara fall of 10%E.g.: she-wolfdeskmother-in-law
48Grammatical categories of Ns 2/343Grammatical categories of NsGrammatical CategoriesNumberInvariables= nouns that do not varyVariables= nouns that do vary
49Grammatical categories of Ns 2/353Grammatical categories of NsInvariablesSingular onlyPlural onlyNon-count NsN-endingin “s”SubstantiveAdjNs with plural meaningPluralia tantumsCollectiveNsmaterialwater, oilabstractfreedomnewsphysics(abstract)the truethe uglyscissorspantsarmscustomspeoplecattle(concrete)the poorthe blind
50Grammatical categories of Ns 2/363Grammatical categories of NsVariablesRegular pluralIrregular pluralZero plural(N + s)- /s/books, stops- /z/beds, stars- /iz/boxes, brushes- voicing /f/ /vz/leaf – leaves- “en” endingox – oxen- change of theroot voweltooth - teeth- foreign pluralmedium - media(same form for both plural & singular)sheep, deer, tout
51Grammatical categories of Ns 3/13Grammatical categories of NsCase“s” genitive“of” genitivedouble genitive= with the nouns ofhigher gender class= with the nouns oflower gender class= “of” and “’s” genitives used togetherE.g.: a friend of her father’sE.g.: her mom’s carE.g.: the paint of the room
52Grammatical categories of Ns 3/23Grammatical categories of NsCase – Genitive meaningGenitive meaningExamplesEquivalentsPossessiveMy father’s hatMy father has a hat.Human relationHer sister’s nephewHer sister has a nephew.Subjective(+ original)My father’s permissionThe arrival of the busMy father permits.The bus arrived.ObjectiveThe criminal’s arrestSomeone arrested the criminal.DescriptiveTwo days’ visitA visit lasts 2 days.AppositiveThe town of Vinh YenVinh Yen is a town.
53Grammatical categories of Ns 3/33Grammatical categories of NsGender= In English, there is not any further morphological feature that helps distinguish gender (unlike Russian or French)GenderSex (semantic concept)Masculine: man(male)Feminine: woman(female)Common: teacher(both male and female)Neuter: tableØ
54Issues 1. Noun and noun classes 2. Reference and the articles 3. Grammatical categories of nouns4. Pronouns
564.1 Pronouns 4/1 Pronouns Main features Features Person Case Gender NumberMain featuresFeatures
57Pronouns 4.1 4/2 Pronouns Features Main features with overt gender contrast (masculine, feminine & non-personal)singular and plural form:not often morphologicallyrelatedwithout determinerswith an objective casewith person distinction (1st – I/ we; 2nd – you; 3rd – he/she/it/they)
58Pronouns 4.1 4/3 Pronouns Main features first person: the speaker CaseGenitiveNumberMain featuresfirst person: the speaker(and one or more other)second person: theinterlocutor(s)third person: one/more otherpersons other than theFeatures
59Pronouns 4.1 4/4 Pronouns Main features Features Person Case Genitive NumberMain featuresMost pronouns: two-casesystem (objective & subjective)Other 6 pronouns: three-case system (subjective,objective, genitive)(I, we, he, she, they, who)(me, us, him, her, them, whom)(my, our, his, her, their, whose)Features
60Pronouns 4.1 4/5 Pronouns Main features with a distinction PersonCaseGenderNumberMain featureswith a distinctionbetween masculine andfeminine in 3rd personsingulars: personal,reflexive, and possessive.(he - she; himself - herself;her - his )Features
61Pronouns 4.1 4/6 Pronouns Main features Features Person Case Genitive NumberMain featuresThe 2nd person: a commonform for singular & plural inthe personal & possessiveseries, but a separate form forplural in the reflexive(you – your butyourself - yourselves)Features
63Pronouns 4.2 4/8 Pronouns Types Personal PronounsSubjective forms: (I, you, we, they, he, she, it) asSubjects and Subject complementsE.g.: He is a student at this university.Objective forms: (me, you, us, them, him, her, it)as Objects and prepositional complementsE.g.: I saw him with her yesterday in the park.
64Pronouns 4.2 4/9 Pronouns Types Reflexive PronounsInclude: myself, yourself(ves), ourselves,themselves, himself, herself, itselfObjective functionE.g.: He looked after himself after his wife left.Emphatic functionE.g.: I myself would never love such a girl.
65Pronouns 4.2 4/10 Pronouns Types include: each other, one another ReciprocalPronounsinclude: each other, one anotherE.g.: - Mary likes Mike and Mike likes Mary. They like each other.- I have 3 friends. They don’t like oneanother.
66Pronouns 4.2 4/11 Pronouns Types Determiner function Possessive PronounsDeterminer function(my, your, our, their, his, her, its)E.g.: This is my friend.Nominal function(mine, yours, ours, theirs, his, hers, its)E.g.: This friend is mine.
67Pronouns 4.2 4/12 Pronouns Types Personal Relative PronounsPersonal(who (ever), whom, whose, that)E.g.: Whoever comes here needs an ID card.Non-personal(which(ever), whose, that, what(ever))E.g.: Whose is this book?
70Pronouns 4.2 4/15 Pronouns Types Numeral “one” E.g.: One went this way, the other that way.Replacive “one”E.g.: I’d like a drink, but just a small one.Indefinite “one”E.g.: One can’t be too careful, can one/you?Cardinals/ordinals(one, two, three, etc.; first, second, third, etc.)E.g.: He has two wives. The first is so ugly.QuantifyingPronouns
71Universal ProNs & determiners 4/164.2PronounsPronounsTypesUniversal ProNs & determinersInclude: each, all, every, and “every”compounds (everything, everyone, etc.)E.g.: Each of the students should have hisown books.
724.2 Pronouns 4/17 Pronouns Assertive ProNs: someone/body, something, somewhere, some (pronoun or determiner)E.g.: Somebody has turned on the light.Non-assertive ProNs: anyone, anybody, anything,anywhere, either, any (pronoun or determiner)E.g.: - Have you got anything to eat now?- Have you got any paper? I need some.Negative ProNs: no one/body, nowhere, neither,none, no (pronoun or determiner)E.g.: None of them were absent.TypesPartitivePronouns