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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.4: The Civil War, 1860-1865 Two American Navies.

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Presentation on theme: "Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.4: The Civil War, 1860-1865 Two American Navies."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 5.4: The Civil War, Two American Navies

3 Enabling Objectives IDENTIFY the origins of the U.S. Civil War.IDENTIFY the origins of the U.S. Civil War. DESCRIBE the role of the Union Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Confederacy.DESCRIBE the role of the Union Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Confederacy. DESCRIBE the role of the Confederate Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Union.DESCRIBE the role of the Confederate Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Union. UNDERSTAND reasons for the vital importance of the acquisition of European allies in the Souths naval strategy.UNDERSTAND reasons for the vital importance of the acquisition of European allies in the Souths naval strategy. UNDERSTAND innovations of naval weapons and technology that emerged during the Civil War.UNDERSTAND innovations of naval weapons and technology that emerged during the Civil War.

4 A House Divided Dispute between slave and free states over status of western territories.Dispute between slave and free states over status of western territories. –Missouri Compromise –Kansas-Nebraska Act The problem of states rights vs federal government authorityThe problem of states rights vs federal government authority

5 A House Divided Southern states secede after Lincoln elected in 1860Southern states secede after Lincoln elected in 1860 Confederate States of America established Feb 1861Confederate States of America established Feb 1861 Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina:Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina: –Attacked by Confederate forces on April 12, –15 Apr: Lincoln calls 75K state militia to Federal service…

6 Fort Sumter Charleston, South Carolina

7 Confederate States of America (CSA) est. February 1861

8 Federal Territory Within the Confederacy in Question The CSA claimed eminent domain: Pensacola Navy Yard.Pensacola Navy Yard. 15 forts guarding harbors.15 forts guarding harbors. 6 Federal arsenals.6 Federal arsenals. 18 military posts in Texas.18 military posts in Texas. After Virginia joined the Confederacy: Norfolk Navy Yard.Norfolk Navy Yard. –Largest naval base and arsenal in the United States. –Captured by Confederate forces on 21 April. –USS Merrimack scuttled by retreating Union forces. –Large number of guns captured by Confederates.

9 A Navy Divided David Glasgow Farragut David Dixon Porter John Ericcson John Dahlgren Charles Wilkes Samuel F. DuPont Franklin Buchanan Matthew Maury Raphael Semmes

10 Balance of Naval Power NorthSouth – Naval Yards – Ship Builders – Industrial Base – Number of Ships – Leadership

11 Union SECNAV Gideon Welles Union Naval Strategy Rapid and massive ship building program.Rapid and massive ship building program. – Only 42 ships at the beginning of the war. – 264 commissioned by December, 1861 General Winfield Scotts Anaconda PlanGeneral Winfield Scotts Anaconda Plan –Blockade the entire Confederate Coast –Control the Mississippi River. –Sever vital lines of communication for Confederacy.

12 Confederate Naval Strategy Attrition WarfareAttrition Warfare –Confederacy issues letters of marque to privateers. –Attempt to continue commercial trade with Europe New technologyNew technology –Conversion of older ships to armored ironclads. –Coordinates construction of warships in Great Britain. –CSS Hunley Blockade-runningBlockade-running –Successful cruises divert Union ships from blockade duty. Confederate SECNAV Stephen Mallory

13 Diplomatic Strategies NORTH: Keep Great Britain truly neutralNORTH: Keep Great Britain truly neutral SOUTH: Win British recognition and naval aid.SOUTH: Win British recognition and naval aid. – Problems for the Confederacy: War is viewed as a rebellion - not a conflict between sovereign states. War is viewed as a rebellion - not a conflict between sovereign states. Outcome of the war is uncertain. Outcome of the war is uncertain. Diplomatic inexperience and a weak State Department. Diplomatic inexperience and a weak State Department. Fallacy of the "King Cotton" thesis. Fallacy of the "King Cotton" thesis The Trent Affair1861- The Trent Affair Union Navy violates neutral rights of British ship. Union Navy violates neutral rights of British ship. Battle of Antietam (September 1862) allows Lincoln to issue Emancipation ProclamationBattle of Antietam (September 1862) allows Lincoln to issue Emancipation Proclamation

14 Three Naval Theaters 1.Blue Water –CSS Alabama 2.Atlantic and Gulf Coasts –Port Royal –Hampton Roads –Fort Fisher 3.Great Inland Rivers –Vicksburg –Mobile Bay

15 Confederate Commerce Raiders Highly successful in the disruption of Union maritime commerce.Highly successful in the disruption of Union maritime commerce. Captain Raphael SemmesCaptain Raphael Semmes –CSS Sumter –CSS Alabama Captures 68 Union vessels. Captures 68 Union vessels. Sunk at Cherbourg, France in duel with USS Kearsarge. Sunk at Cherbourg, France in duel with USS Kearsarge.

16 Confederate Commerce Raiders

17 The Union Blockade Union blockade of the Confederacy:Union blockade of the Confederacy: –Paper Blockade needs to become real as soon as possible… –42 ships and 7,600 men to blockage a 3500 mile coastline… –Forward bases required for an effective blockade. –Amphibious operations launched to seize bases in the South.

18 Battle of Port Royal Attempt to establish first Union base on Confederate territory at Port Royal Sound -- 7 November 1861.Attempt to establish first Union base on Confederate territory at Port Royal Sound -- 7 November –Hilton Head Island, South Carolina Commodore Stephen F. DuPontCommodore Stephen F. DuPont –Commands Union fleet- 11 Warships & 13K troops Superior naval gunfire:Superior naval gunfire: –Directed against Confederate forts defending the Sound. –Confederates abandon forts- out gunned 5:1 Union soldiers and Marines land unopposed.Union soldiers and Marines land unopposed. Other Union amphibious operations will resemble Port Royal operation.Other Union amphibious operations will resemble Port Royal operation.

19 Battle of Hampton Roads 8 March 1862 First engagement between ironclad ships.First engagement between ironclad ships. CSS VirginiaCSS Virginia – USS Merrimack raised at Norfolk. – Iron armor and ram added by Confederate Navy. – Renamed Virginia and commanded by Franklin Buchanan. – Defeats conventional Union ships on 8 March USS Monitor moved to Norfolk area to engage Virginia.USS Monitor moved to Norfolk area to engage Virginia. – Designed by John Ericcson. Highly armored with low freeboard. Highly armored with low freeboard. Single turret mounting two Dahlgren guns. Single turret mounting two Dahlgren guns. Tactical draw but a strategic Union victory - Confederate Navy unable to break the blockade of Norfolk.Tactical draw but a strategic Union victory - Confederate Navy unable to break the blockade of Norfolk.

20 Battle of Hampton Roads

21 Fort Fisher Expeditions Defends the only remaining supply line through Wilmington, North Carolina for General Lees Army of Northern VirginiaDefends the only remaining supply line through Wilmington, North Carolina for General Lees Army of Northern Virginia Highly-defended by Confederate guns.Highly-defended by Confederate guns. Combined Union Army-Navy operation.Combined Union Army-Navy operation. –Union fleet commanded by David Dixon Porter. First assault fails – 7-27 December 1864.First assault fails – 7-27 December Second Assault – 15 January 1865Second Assault – 15 January 1865 –Sailors and Marines attack the fort with Army forces. Only successful amphibious assault against a heavily defended fort.Only successful amphibious assault against a heavily defended fort. –Heavy, constant, targeted naval gunfire necessary for success.

22 Inland River Campaigns Combined Union Army - Navy offensives.Combined Union Army - Navy offensives. – Goal: Control of the Mississippi River. Navy gunboats and transports used to support Army.Navy gunboats and transports used to support Army. –Union forces advance down Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers to the Mississippi. Battle of New OrleansBattle of New Orleans –David Dixon Porter -- Uses mortar boats to neutralize forts. –David Glasgow Farragut commands Union assault. Siege of VicksburgSiege of Vicksburg –General Ulysses S. Grant in command. –David Dixon Porter runs the Vicksburg batteries.

23 Inland River Vessels USS Conestoga ( ), a converted gunboat that served on the Mississippi River. Photographed on the Western Rivers during the Civil War.

24 19 May 1863 – 4 July May 1863 – 4 July 1863 Vicksburg the big obstacle to dominance of the MississippiVicksburg the big obstacle to dominance of the Mississippi Porter ferried Grants troops across to the east bank of the river, south of the fortPorter ferried Grants troops across to the east bank of the river, south of the fort Grant takes the fortGrant takes the fort Naval support: gunfire, troop transport, and logistical reinforcementNaval support: gunfire, troop transport, and logistical reinforcement Lincoln: The key to victory.Lincoln: The key to victory. Siege of Vicksburg

25 Battle of Vicksburg 19 May – 4 July 1863

26 Battle of Mobile Bay 5 Aug 1864 Union fleet commanded by David Glasgow Farragut.Union fleet commanded by David Glasgow Farragut. Entrance to Mobile Bay heavily defended by torpedoes.Entrance to Mobile Bay heavily defended by torpedoes. Brooklyns captain stops and blocks the channel.Brooklyns captain stops and blocks the channel. Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!

27 Civil War Naval Technological Innovations North Monitor ClassNorth Monitor Class – Combination of steam, screw, armor, and a gun turret. – Large numbers built. – Dahlgren Guns effective at close range. – Gives Union Navy the advantage on coastal and inland waterways. SouthSouth – CSS Virginia -- Steam power and iron armor. – CSS Hunley - submarine. – Torpedoes – Laird rams.

28 Conclusions Lee surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox Court House on 9 Apr 1865.Lee surrendered to Grant at the Appomattox Court House on 9 Apr North successfully applied offensive naval warfare.North successfully applied offensive naval warfare. South failed to use commerce raiding to win the war at sea.South failed to use commerce raiding to win the war at sea. Joint Navy-Army Operations reach an unprecedented level of high efficiency on the Mississippi River.Joint Navy-Army Operations reach an unprecedented level of high efficiency on the Mississippi River.

29 Battle History Video Chapter 1 "Born Into War", Time 12: :49Chapter 1 "Born Into War", Time 12: :49

30 Enabling Objectives IDENTIFY the origins of the U.S. Civil War.IDENTIFY the origins of the U.S. Civil War. DESCRIBE the role of the Union Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Confederacy.DESCRIBE the role of the Union Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Confederacy. DESCRIBE the role of the Confederate Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Union.DESCRIBE the role of the Confederate Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Union. UNDERSTAND reasons for the vital importance of the acquisition of European allies in the Souths naval strategy.UNDERSTAND reasons for the vital importance of the acquisition of European allies in the Souths naval strategy. UNDERSTAND innovations of naval weapons and technology that emerged during the Civil War.UNDERSTAND innovations of naval weapons and technology that emerged during the Civil War.

31 QUESTIONS? Next Time:Developments of Naval Technology and their Impact on Strategy


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