Presentation on theme: "Resp Wk2 05A Treatment of COPD TREATMENT OF COPD Stop smoking - prevents further damage Short acting bronchodilator - β2-agonist(e.g.. inhaled salbutamol)"— Presentation transcript:
Resp Wk2 05A Treatment of COPD TREATMENT OF COPD Stop smoking - prevents further damage Short acting bronchodilator - β2-agonist(e.g.. inhaled salbutamol) - anticholinergic (e.g.. inhaled ipratropium) Long acting bronchodilator - β2-agonist(e.g.. inhaled salmeterol) - anticholinergic(e.g.. inhaled tiotropium) Inhaled corticosteroids if FEV < 50 % predicted and frequent exacerbations. Oxygen therapy if hypoxic Theophyllines Vaccination against influenza and pneumococcus Optimize weight Pulmonary rehabilitation Palliative care – opiates, benzodiazepines COPD EXACERBATIONS History – increased shortness of breath with cough productive of more purulent sputum. Examination – Assess severity - Respiratory rate, cyanosis, tachycardia, blood pressure, breath sounds and oedema. Investigations – CXR, ABGs, FBC, U+E, ECG, sputum culture if purulent. Treatment – nebulized bronchodilators, controlled oxygen – aim for O 2 sat > 90 % (balance hypoxia against hypercarbia and acidosis), antibiotics if evidence of infection, systemic steroids, Consider non-invasive ventilation. Early assisted discharge Consider non infective causes of exacerbations e.g. pulmonary emboli, heart failure or pneumothorax. Facial Burns - Smoking while on Oxygen!!
Resp Wk2 05B Problem Solving – COPD 1 HISTORY: A 70 year old man with a long standing history of COPD and smokes 40 cigarettes/day calls 999 with worsening breathless and over the past few days. He arrives in hospital by ambulance. On examination he is drowsy and confused, respiratory rate is 10/min and there is a flapping tremor. He has markedly diminished breath sounds with wheezing. Arterial blood gases show: PaO kPa, SaO2 95%, PaCO2 9.2 KPa, pH 7.27, HCO3 37mmol/l (normal PaO2 > 12KPa, SaO2 > 98%, PaCO2 < 5KPa, pH , HCO mmol/l. Chest X-ray shows emphysematous lung fields with no consolidation. A. Describe the pattern of blood gases abnormality. B. What is the likely oxygen concentration that he is being given? C. Describe the pathophysiological process which resulted in the pattern of blood gases abnormality. D. What modification of his treatment is needed? E. What is the most important advice to give regarding his lifestyle on discharge? Problem Solving – COPD 2 HISTORY: A 65 year old smoker (40/day) is admitted to the accident and emergency department with a recent onset of increasing breathlessness. He had a cold and now has a cough productive of green phlegm. His lips are cyanosed, his respiratory rate is 20/minute and he has reduced breath sounds with wheezing but no crackles. A chest X-ray shows no evidence of consolidation or pneumothorax. Arterial blood gases (breathing air show: PaO2 5.7 kPa, PaCO2 6.8kPa, pH 7.35 O2 sat 86% (normal: Pa O2 > 12, PaCO2 < 5, pH 7.35). A. Describe the abnormality of his blood gases. B. What has tipped him into decompensation? C. What is the initial management? D. He has not improved 1 hour after initial drug therapy and his repeat blood gasses are: PaO2 5.8KPa, PaC 8.2KPa, pH What form of ventilatory support should be considered? E. Despite all treatment he has continued to deteriorate and is now tiring. What factors will determine whether he should be referred to ITU?
Pathogenesis Of Asthma Laminates beside board Resp Wk2 06A
Symptomology Of Asthma Resp Wk2 06B
DIAGNOSIS OF ASTHMA History and examination Diurnal variation of peak flow rate > 20% Spirometry may be normal Reversibility to inhaled salbutamol ( FEV1 > 15%) Provocation testing hyperrsponsiveness - exercise - histamine inhalation Diagnosis of Asthma Resp Wk2 08A
Resp Wk2 08B ACUTE ASTHMA - PROBLEM SOLVING HISTORY: A 20 year old man is admitted to the accident and emergency department with an onset of worsening breathlessness and wheeze following a recent cold. He has a history of mild episodic asthma and normally only requires his salbutamol inhaler prior to exercise. On presentation he has difficulty completing his sentences and is feeling increasingly exhausted with the effort of breathing. His pulse rate is 125/min, respiratory rate 40/min, PEFR 100 l/min. He has reduced breath sounds and widespread wheezing. Arterial blood gases (breathing air) show: PaO 2 7.0KPa, PaCO 2 4.1KPa, pH 7.41 (normal: PaO 2 > 12, PaCO 2 < 5, pH 7.35). A.Describe the pattern of his blood gas derangement. What happens to PaCO 2 with increasingly severe acute asthma? B.What immediate drug therapy would you give? C.Which of the two O 2 masks is most appropriate (24% or 60%)? D.What clinical observations might suggest he is responding to clinical treatment? E.If he does not respond to initial treatment what other test should you think of doing? F.Repeat blood gases after 1 hour show (on 60% O 2 ) PaO2 5.5K-Pa (from 7.0) PaCO 2 7.2KPa (from 4.1) pH 7.20 (from 7.41). Respiratory rate is now 20/minute (from 40/minute), and he is unable to speak or record a peak flow. What is happening and what management do you need to instigate as soon as possible?
Resp Wk2 09A TREATMENT OF ASTHMA Non-pharamacological treatment Stop smoking Allergen avoidance Breastfeeding Breathing exercises Weight reduction if obese Maintenance Treatment of Asthma A. Anti-inflammatory (Preventers) Corticosteroid (e.g. beclomethasone) - given by inhaled route (low doses) high local effect in airway minimal systemic side-effects Cromoglycate - mast cell stabiliser B. Bronchodilators (Relievers) 2 -agonists e.g. salbutamol - used for acute relief of bronchospasm sameterol - used for long duration (e.g. at night) - given by inhaled route C. Leukotriene receptor antagonist A3 made from pdf
Resp wk2 09B Effects of three months inhaled corticosteroids Asthmatic Steroid-treated Asthmatic Inhaler devices