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Japanese knotweed biocontrol Progress to date Lindsey Norgrove, Dick Shaw, René Eschen, Ghislaine Cortat, Alex Brook.

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Presentation on theme: "Japanese knotweed biocontrol Progress to date Lindsey Norgrove, Dick Shaw, René Eschen, Ghislaine Cortat, Alex Brook."— Presentation transcript:

1 Japanese knotweed biocontrol Progress to date Lindsey Norgrove, Dick Shaw, René Eschen, Ghislaine Cortat, Alex Brook

2 CBC activity in Europe CountryRecipientSource Austria048 Finland05 France0111 Germany046 Greece029 Italy071 Portugal018 Spain09 Sweden03 UK141 Total1381 Weed BCA history In Europe for Insects there have been more than 300 releases of more than 150 predators and parasitoids with very little regulation Insect BCA history

3 Weed CBC - Long and extensive history Over the past 100 years, more than 400 different biocontrol agents have been used against around 150 target plants, totalling over 1,300 introductions around the globe.



6 Cost of Japanese knotweed to GB 92% of the £166 million annual costs are experienced by the construction and development industry.

7 A consortium of Sponsors came together in 2003 to sponsor the programme


9 186 species of phytophagous arthropod recorded from Japanese knotweed in Japan. Many insects feeding on most parts

10 Collaboration was essential

11 A process of elimination



14 Aphalara itadori


16 Test Plant List 90 species and varieties representatives from 19 families. 37 plants natives including all native Polygonaceae 23 species introduced to the UK, 3 species native to Europe, 13 ornamental 10 economically important UK species No means of agreeing the test plant list in advance!

17 Aphalara adult survival

18 Bar chart showing mean egg count on those plants that did receive eggs in multiple choice oviposition tests. (+/- 1SE). Development only successful to the left of red line The 78 spp. that did not receive eggs are excluded

19 Nymph %survival over time


21 R2= Dev Rate per day = Temp DD from egg to adult


23 Licensing: The two processes (England) Licence to release into the wild under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 Licence to free it from a Plant Health Quarantine license as an organism likely to be injurious to plants in the UK - EU Standing Committee on Plant Health were kept informed See also: Hunt et al (2010) An international comparison of invertebrate biological control agent regulation: what can Europe learn? REBECA.

24 Pest Risk AnalysisW&C Act application for release Based on Eppo templateBrand new version for Wales & England Internal Govt iterative review ACRE Committee review External Peer review Public consultation (3 months) Chief Scientist advice Ministerial decision for Sec. of State Release from PH quarantine licenceW&C license to release

25 2 o & 3 o and community level effects? Choice tests with commercially available generalists showed no feeding preference Native coccinellids fed exclusively on psyllids fared worse than when fed on aphids


27 Caged no-choice & Choice experiment Oviposition and development of A. itadori and non-target impact on F. dumetorum

28 Caged no-choice experiment Many eggs, some nymphs, limited development Grey bars eggs, black bars nymphs F. dumetorum

29 Comparison with pre-release quarantine multiple-choice tests Patterns in oviposition similar No complete development on any non-target species Very similar to published studies 1.9% 0.2% 1.6% 0.4% 0 (2)% 0 (1)% Quarantine Caged Open field Redrawn from Shaw (2009) Eggs two (four) weeks after start

30 Host-specificity testing Artificial Natural Realised host range Fundamental host range CagedOpen field No-choice Multiple choice Quarantine Host-range tests reliably predict non-target attack (Pemberton 2000; Fowler et al. 2000; Barton 2004; Briese 2005) Non-target attack either predicted or ephemeral

31 Summary Caged and open-field studies confirm the host-specificity of Aphalara itadori No impact of the psyllid on non-target plant species No impact of A. itadori on native vegetation or invertebrate community Risk of non-target impact on native vegetation and invertebrates very low

32 No A. itadori found in winter sampling Typical sample from evergreens contained 100s native psyllids, but no A. itadori Species sampled included: yew, Pinus spp., Leyland cypress, etc. Low abundance of A. itadori at release sites larger releases required for establishment

33 Successful overwintering!!

34 Two production cycles: First in cages inside Controlled environment Mass-producing psyllids

35 Data loggers allow checks on development Insects to be ready for releases in last two weeks in May Mass-producing psyllids

36 What can we expect? If successful: Establishment of the agent Spread to JK Reduced plant vigour Reduced control costs Recovery of native species Control not eradication!

37 EU opportunities Sheppard, Shaw & Sforza - Weed Research 2006 SpeciesFormOriginEU distributionGenus native?ConflictBC history Buddleja davidii PhChinaTemperateNo b OYes Fallopia japonica GeJapanTemperateYesNoYes Acacia dealbata PhAustraliaMediterraneanNo b OYes d Azolla filiculoides HyN AmericaTemp/MedNo b NoYes d Ailanthus altissima PhChinaTemp/MedNo b NoYes Impatiens glandulifera HeIndiaTemperateYesONo Rhododendron ponticum PhS EuropeTemp/MedYesO Robinia pseudoacacia PhN AmericaTemperateNoF Senecio inaequidens HeS AfricaTemp/MedYesNoYes Ambrosia artemisiifolia ThC AmericaTemp/MedYesNoYes d Carpobrotus edulis ChS AfricaTemp/MedNo b No Heracleum mantegazzianum HeW AsiaTemperateYesNoYes Solanum elaeagnifolium HeS AmericaTem/MedYesNoYes d Baccharis halimifolia PhN AmericaMediterraneanNo Yes d Hydrocotyle ranunculoides HyN AmericaTemp/MedYesNoYes Ludwigia peploides HeS AmericaTemp/MedYesNoYes Crassula helmsii HyAustralasiaTemperateYesNo Elodea canadensis HyN AmericaTemperateNo Myriophyllum aquaticum HyS AmericaTemp/MedYesNoYes Solidago canadensis GeN AmericaTemperateYesNo

38 Photo – T. Renals Hydrocotyle ranunculoides


40 Impatiens glandulifera

41 Puccinia rust

42 Thank you to all involved Dr Harry Evans (CABI), Dr Marion Seier & Dr Rob Reeder Rob Tanner (CABI) Djamila Djeddour (CABI) Dr Carol Ellison Drs Murphy, Cock and Holderness (CABI) Ghislaine Cortat (CABI) Dr Rene Eschen Anna Harris Sonal Varia Corin Pratt Alex Brook Dr Esther Gerber Valérie Coudrain & Sarah Bryner (CABI tudents) Sasha White Dr Paul Cannon and Dr Alan Buddie (CABI) Linda Birken (Imperial College student) Gareth Martin (Imperial College student) James Broom (Imperial College student) Dr John Bailey and Kat Pashley (Leicester University) Dr Lois Child (Loughborough University) Dr Andy Polaszek & others (NHM) Professor Masami Takagi (Kyushu University) Dr Daisuke Kurose (Kyushu University) Dr Narutu Furuya (Kyushu University) Dr Naoki Takahashi (Kyushu University) Yuko Inoue (Kyushu University) Dr Fritzi Grevstad (University of Washington) Dr Bernd Blossey (Cornell University) Dr Rob Bouchier (AAFC Canada) Dr Brian Van Hezelwink (AAFC Canada) Victoria Nuzzo (Independent Consultant) Mic Julien (CSIRO) Dr Andy Sheppard (CSIRO) Dr Simon Fowler (Landcare Research NZ) Drs Ted Centre & Gary Buckingham (Florida Uni) Profs Mick Crawley &Tim Coulson (Imperial College) Dr Willie Cabrera Walsh (SABCL) Dr Jonathan Newman (CEH) Dr Usha Dev (NBPGR) Dr Ravi Kheterpal (NBPGR) Dr Robin Adair (DPI Queensland) Drs John Ireson & Richard Holloway (Utas) Lindsay Smith (Landcare Research) ACRE FERA – many especially Dr Claire Sansford Pesticide Safety Directorate The Non Native Species Secretariat The Project Board and sponsors for funding and guidance

43 Thank You Any Questions?

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