Presentation on theme: "Aerospace Science II st Semester Final Exam Prep"— Presentation transcript:
1Aerospace Science II 2012-2013 1st Semester Final Exam Prep
2Chapter 1, Lesson 1: Principles of Flight - Quiz What mechanism was first used to aid a human being in successfully flying?KiteWhere did flight by balloon first occur?FranceWhat do you need for an object to fly?a force to lift itWhat types of force can an airfoil exert?either a lifting force, or a force that pushes or pullsWhich edge of an airfoil cuts through the air ahead?leading
3Chapter 1, Lesson 1: Principles of Flight - Quiz How many wing shapes did the Wright brothers test in designing their successful 1902 glider?200What laws are fundamental to our understanding of flight today?Newton’s laws of motionAccording to Newton’s second law of motion, an object’s acceleration is proportional to the sum of all forces exerted on it. How can you write this law?force(f) = mass(m) x acceleration(a) or F=maSuppose you first attached a bottle rocket to a toy boat and lit the fuse. Which would accelerate more rapidly: a small boat or a heavy boat?small toy boatWhat does Newton’s third law state?For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
4Chapter 1, Lesson 1: Principles of Flight - Quiz According to Bernoulli’s principle, when air flows over the curved upper surface of a wing, it ___________.speeds upWhat does the difference in air pressure above and below the wing depend on?wing shapeWhat changes the angle of attack on a plane’s wings?pitchWho built the first hot-air balloon?Montgolfier BrothersWho used wind tunnels?Wright Brothers
5Chapter 1, Lesson 1: Principles of Flight - Quiz Who formulated important laws of motion?Sir Isaac NewtonFormulated an important principle regarding air pressure?Daniel BernoulliTrue/FalseWhile riding in a car that suddenly brakes, you would slam into the windshield if you weren’t wearing your seatbelt. This is sometimes called the law of inertia.True
6Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight What do you need to do to maintain lift on a humid day in the middle of summer compared with a dry day in the middle of winter?fly at a greater velocityWhat would cause an aircraft to decelerate until its airspeed no longer provides enough lift to support the plane in the air?Thrust is less than drag.What do you need to do to maintain a constant altitude?Maintain equal lift and weight.Why does a pilot need to keep his or her angle of attack fairly high during low-speed flights? A greater angle of attack: ___________________________.generates a lift force equal to the aircraft’s weight
7Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight What does the magnitude or size of an aircraft’s weight depend on?The aircraft’s massWhat are the three types of parasite drag?form, interference, and skin friction dragWhat does it mean to “trim” the aircraft?balanceWhat forces must you understand in order to safely fly an aircraft?lift, weight, thrust, and dragWhy is weight always directed toward the center of Earth?because of the force of gravity
8Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight What happens when a pilot decreases the angle of attack during high speed flights?The aircraft remains in level flight.What is the type of force that deals with an object moving through the air or air moving around an object?AerodynamicWhat factors determine the magnitude of the drag?an aircraft’s shape, speed, and air viscosityWhat do you need to do to maintain a constant airspeed?Maintain equal thrust and drag.Thrust’s opposite force is ____________.Drag
9Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight Lift, weight, thrust, and drag all have a ______________.magnitudeTrue/FalseAirfoils generate most of an airplane’s lift.TrueGravitational forces are mechanical forces.FalseThe engine’s job is to provide thrust and lift for the aircraft.If you reduce your engine power while in level flight, your thrust increases.
10Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight Induced drag results from an airfoil developing lift.TrueQuiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane PartsWhat is a characteristic of an accelerating aircraft?Thrust produced must exceed the drag.What do gas turbines depend on for combustion?oxygenThe ___________ stabilizers keep the aircraft from bobbing up and down.horizontal
11Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts What do the aircraft’s weight, speed, and purpose determine about the wing?the wing’s shapeWhat type of engine turns a propeller?TurbopropWhat two airplane parts vary greatly, depending on the mission?fuselage and wingsWhere is the aircraft’s center of gravity?inside the fuselageWhich aircraft tail part keeps an aircraft stable so it can maintain a straight flight path?stabilizers
12Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts An airplane’s main fixed wings have moving parts. At what time during flight do these parts play a major role?during takeoff and landingWhich moving parts of the aircraft’s main fixed wings produces lift?flapA glider, which travels at slow speeds, has high-aspect-ratio wings with __________ wingspans.longA ___________ allows supersonic combustion, improving the efficiency of the engine at high supersonic speeds.scramjet
13Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts What other part of the aircraft do propeller blades most look and act like?WingsWhy are propeller blades twisted from hub to tip?to produce uniform liftAn airfoil’s _____________ is the maximum distance between the upper and lower wing surfaces.thicknessWhat is the working fluid for propellers, turbines, and ramjets?airMoves the tail left and rightRudder
14Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane PartsMovable, hinged part of wing that pivots down to generate more force.SlatTrue/FalseA flap moves in one direction only.FalseNo one airfoil has been found that satisfies every flight requirement.TrueQuiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and ControlHow does sliding the flaps aft assist with landing?by increasing wing area and drag
15Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control What is the purpose of elevators?to control pitchWhat does raising spoilers on both wings do to an aircraft in any phase of flight?slow the aircraft downWhich flap is most commonly used?SlottedWhat is the aircraft’s orientation, or angle, in relation to the horizon?attitudeWhat stage in flight requires high lift and high drag?landing
16Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control What are the phases of flight?takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, and landingTo reduce wear on brakes and tires, what does an aircraft take advantage of to slow down during a landing?aerodynamic dragTakeoffs call for high lift and low _________.DragThe ___________ continue to slow the plane while rolling to a stop on the ground.SpoilersIf sufficient airspeed is not maintained in flight to produce enough lift to support the airplane, the airplane will _____________.Stall
17Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control During the takeoff phase of flight, engines provide the ___________ that gets the aircraft from zero to a speed sufficient for takeoff.thrustHow does a spoiler “spoil” the airflow?by increasing drag and decreasing liftHow do spoilers improve the efficiency of the brakes?by shifting the aircraft’s weight from the wings to the wheelsWhat happens when a pilot raises spoilers on one wing?The aircraft banks.What is “roll”?the up-and-down motion of an aircraft’s wings
18Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control In the picture above, slats are identified by which letter?AIn the picture above, the flaps are identified by which letter?CIn the picture above, the spoilers are identified by which letter?FIn the picture above, ailerons are identified by which letter?B
19Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Flight Power Which parts of a reciprocating engine ignite the fuel-air mixture?spark plugsAccording to Charles’s law, what is the relationship between the volume of gas and its temperature?inversely proportionalHow are most general aviation or private airplanes powered today?internal combustion enginesWhat is chemical energy converted to during the combustion process of an internal combustion engine?mechanical energyAirflow through this engine remains supersonic.Scramjet
20Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Flight Power What is the purpose of the chevron, or teeth cut into an engine nozzle’s edge?reduce jet exhaust noiseWhat are the four strokes (movements), in order, of a four-stroke engine?intake, compression, power (or ignition), exhaustWhat is the name of the part that changes airflow direction?baffleWhat type of air flows through a ramjet engine?subsonicWhich engine cooling system design requires additional weight?liquid-cooled
21Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Flight Power What are the four properties of gas?mass, pressure, temperature, volumeWhy do most aircraft engines have two magnetos?to improve combustion of the fuel-air mix, provide slightly more power, and ensure the engine will continue to work if one failsWhich type of engine offers a much better power-to-weight ratio than the piston engine?turbine engineWhat is the relationship between the pressure of a gas and its absolute temperature, when the volume is constant, proposed by Gay-Lussac?directly proportionalWhat engine is a hybrid of a turbojet and propeller engine?turboprop
22Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Flight Power What is a reaction engine?an engine that ejects a jet or stream of gases created by the burning of a fuel within the engineWhich gas is a harmful emission of jet engines?carbon dioxideWhat is the aim of the thrust vector engine?maneuverabilityAll the thrust comes through the turbine and nozzle, which are the core of this engine.TurbojetAirflow through this type of engine is subsonic.Ramjet
23Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation How are unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) primarily used?for reconnaissance and combatWhat problem(s) does the HyperSoar’s trajectory along the top of Earth’s atmosphere address?heat issuesWhat is a hydrogen fuel cell?an electrochemical device that converts hydrogen into electricity and heatWhat problem does metallic foam solve when installed around an aircraft’s engine?It won’t catch fire from engine heat.
24Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation What should the technology in the NextGen plan provide?information to pilots and air traffic control on the ground in real timeHow might the NextGen plan benefit air travel?It would allow aircraft to safely fly closer together and take more direct routes.Why will NASA’s continuous descent approach idea save fuel?It allows airplanes to coast during their final flight stages, which uses less power.What type of midair refueling will let UASs take on longer missions?autonomous refuelingWhy is a pilot in a cockpit better able to avoid midair collisions than RPAs?The cockpit pilot can see a building or aircraft in his or her flight path.
25Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation What is the central technology behind NextGen, the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) plan to improve air traffic efficiency and safety?satellite technologyWhat is a disadvantage of carbon fiber composite?It is more expensive then fiberglass.What do hydrogen fuel cells exhaust?heat and waterWhich aircraft would travel at Mach 10 and run on liquid hydrogen?HyperSoarWhat is biofuel made from?plants
26Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation This aircraft has a passenger capacity greater than any other commercial airliner.Airbus A380True/FalseOne of the trickiest aspects to inventing new technologies is making sure they don’t improve flight in one way while damaging it in another.TrueRocket engines, which launch missiles and spacecraft, are reaction engines.Composite engine materials are tough, and less heat resistant than metals.False
27LE and 1-2 2True/FalseCommunication always needs more than three people.FalseNonverbal communication cues may include facial expressions.TrueListening is not a focused activity.Listening and hearing are the same thing.Framing gives you a chance to find areas of agreement on which to focus.
28LE and 1-2 2Putting an encoded message into a medium of delivery is called ____________.Channeling.Feedback may indicate that the receiver needs more ___________.Information.When you are listening to understand the speaker's meaning you are _______.Actively listening.The receiver's response to the sender's message.FeedbackThe person who originates and sends a message.Sender
29LE 2 1-1 and 1-2 2 The person who receives the sender's message. ReceiverThe unconscious ways in which people communicate their true intentions and meaning, regardless of what they are actually saying.Nonverbal communicationTurning a message into symbols that will have meaning for the receiver.EncodingHappens outside your own head. A siren, a phone ringing, a dog barking.External noiseAnything that interferes with communication.Noise
30LE and 1-2 2Inside the receiver. Daydreaming, worrying, hunger, reminiscing, and strong emotions are examples.Internal noiseWhen you listen one way and offer no feedback you are ________.Passively listening.If you fail to listen in class you couldReceive poor grades.You ask specific questions to ensure you have understood the message.Clarifying
31LE II - 1-3 Critical Thinking True/FalseOne step you can take to make a good decision is to rush it.FalseWhen solving problems you should ask probing questions.TrueCritical thinking involves using irrational thought to produce the best outcome.The process of breaking down an issue to figure out its nature and how it works is called _________.Analysis
32LE II - 1-3 Critical Thinking That "sixth sense" that some people have about other people and events.IntuitionThe process of making choices and selecting appropriate options based on thinking.Decision makingA function of your mind that makes sense of your life's events and helps you figure out what is going on around you.ThinkingThe ability to explore an issue, problem, decision, or option from many angles.Critical thinking
33LE II - 1-3 Critical Thinking The ability to think carefully about what you read, to ask questions, and to develop your own understanding of the writer's sense.Critical readingPutting your thinking to work on the things you need to accomplish.Problem solvingA personal way of thinking that makes it impossible to use logic.BiasA way of thinking that seeks to form solid connections and support for the way you think about how the world works.Logic
34LE II - 1-3 Critical Thinking Because thinking and reflection take time, it’s usually best to do it in places where there are few _______________.DistractionsThe brains three major functions are _______________.Thinking, feeling, wantingLE II 2-1 The Basic ChecklistTrue/FalseThere are seven steps on the basic checklist for writing.FalseThe internet is a convenient source of information.True
35LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist True/FalseAn explanation provides a summary of data in a numerical formatFalseWhen you edit, you shift from creator to critic.TrueIt may be useful to know your audience, but it doesn’t really matter, because a good piece of writing should make sense to anyone.Outlining a paper may take some time, but in the end it’s likely to save time.What you want your audience to think, do, say, or believe after they’ve read what you’ve written is your ______.Purpose
36LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist The process of digging up information that supports your purpose.ResearchThe people to whom you are writing.AudienceNot what you say; it's how you say it.ToneA set of guidelines that can help you tackle a writing and speaking project with confidence and competence.The basic checklistA specific instance chosen to represent a larger fact to clarify an idea or support a claim.Example
37LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist Makes a point plain or understandable or creates a relationship between cause and effect.ExplanationThe comments of authorities that you use to support a claim.TestimonyThe precise meaning or significance of a word or phrase.DefinitionContains your main points and supporting ideas arranged in a logical order.OutlineThe slow, careful examination of a piece of writing to correct and clarify ideas and to ensure the proper form.Editing
38LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist A series of statements intended to persuade others.ArgumentA quick first writing of a paper, focused on ideas and not style.DraftingOne sentence that captures the central idea of a paragraph.Topic SentenceLE II 2-2 Writing Effectively QuizTrue/FalseThere are six rules of protocol.True
39LE II 2-2 Writing Effectively Quiz True/FalseEffective writing has no power at all.FalseA sentence that announces your intent for a single paragraph is called your _________.Topic sentenceA word that has nearly the same meaning as another word does.SynonymYou should never give out personal information on the Internet without _______.Supervision of a parent or guardian
40LE II 2-2 Writing Effectively Quiz A condition in which the subject and the verb in a sentence are the same number.AgreementWhen the reader understands your meaning quickly, they have __________.ClarityThe overly specific or technical language used by people within a speciality or cultural area.JargonThe subject is the actor, or doer, of the action.Active voice
41LE II 2-2 Writing Effectively Quiz The subject receives the action of is acted upon.Passive voiceWords, phrases, or sentences that bridge gaps and help move the reader from one idea to another.TransitionsA message sent electronically over a computer network or the Internet.