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Aerospace Science II st Semester Final Exam Prep

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1 Aerospace Science II 2012-2013 1st Semester Final Exam Prep

2 Chapter 1, Lesson 1: Principles of Flight - Quiz
What mechanism was first used to aid a human being in successfully flying? Kite Where did flight by balloon first occur? France What do you need for an object to fly? a force to lift it What types of force can an airfoil exert? either a lifting force, or a force that pushes or pulls Which edge of an airfoil cuts through the air ahead? leading

3 Chapter 1, Lesson 1: Principles of Flight - Quiz
How many wing shapes did the Wright brothers test in designing their successful 1902 glider? 200 What laws are fundamental to our understanding of flight today? Newton’s laws of motion According to Newton’s second law of motion, an object’s acceleration is proportional to the sum of all forces exerted on it. How can you write this law? force(f) = mass(m) x acceleration(a) or F=ma Suppose you first attached a bottle rocket to a toy boat and lit the fuse. Which would accelerate more rapidly: a small boat or a heavy boat? small toy boat What does Newton’s third law state? For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

4 Chapter 1, Lesson 1: Principles of Flight - Quiz
According to Bernoulli’s principle, when air flows over the curved upper surface of a wing, it ___________. speeds up What does the difference in air pressure above and below the wing depend on? wing shape What changes the angle of attack on a plane’s wings? pitch Who built the first hot-air balloon? Montgolfier Brothers Who used wind tunnels? Wright Brothers

5 Chapter 1, Lesson 1: Principles of Flight - Quiz
Who formulated important laws of motion? Sir Isaac Newton Formulated an important principle regarding air pressure? Daniel Bernoulli True/False While riding in a car that suddenly brakes, you would slam into the windshield if you weren’t wearing your seatbelt. This is sometimes called the law of inertia. True

6 Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight
What do you need to do to maintain lift on a humid day in the middle of summer compared with a dry day in the middle of winter? fly at a greater velocity What would cause an aircraft to decelerate until its airspeed no longer provides enough lift to support the plane in the air? Thrust is less than drag. What do you need to do to maintain a constant altitude? Maintain equal lift and weight. Why does a pilot need to keep his or her angle of attack fairly high during low-speed flights? A greater angle of attack: ___________________________. generates a lift force equal to the aircraft’s weight

7 Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight
What does the magnitude or size of an aircraft’s weight depend on? The aircraft’s mass What are the three types of parasite drag? form, interference, and skin friction drag What does it mean to “trim” the aircraft? balance What forces must you understand in order to safely fly an aircraft? lift, weight, thrust, and drag Why is weight always directed toward the center of Earth? because of the force of gravity

8 Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight
What happens when a pilot decreases the angle of attack during high speed flights? The aircraft remains in level flight. What is the type of force that deals with an object moving through the air or air moving around an object? Aerodynamic What factors determine the magnitude of the drag? an aircraft’s shape, speed, and air viscosity What do you need to do to maintain a constant airspeed? Maintain equal thrust and drag. Thrust’s opposite force is ____________. Drag

9 Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight
Lift, weight, thrust, and drag all have a ______________. magnitude True/False Airfoils generate most of an airplane’s lift. True Gravitational forces are mechanical forces. False The engine’s job is to provide thrust and lift for the aircraft. If you reduce your engine power while in level flight, your thrust increases.

10 Quiz - Chapter 1, Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight
Induced drag results from an airfoil developing lift. True Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts What is a characteristic of an accelerating aircraft? Thrust produced must exceed the drag. What do gas turbines depend on for combustion? oxygen The ___________ stabilizers keep the aircraft from bobbing up and down. horizontal

11 Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts
What do the aircraft’s weight, speed, and purpose determine about the wing? the wing’s shape What type of engine turns a propeller? Turboprop What two airplane parts vary greatly, depending on the mission? fuselage and wings Where is the aircraft’s center of gravity? inside the fuselage Which aircraft tail part keeps an aircraft stable so it can maintain a straight flight path? stabilizers

12 Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts
An airplane’s main fixed wings have moving parts. At what time during flight do these parts play a major role? during takeoff and landing Which moving parts of the aircraft’s main fixed wings produces lift? flap A glider, which travels at slow speeds, has high-aspect-ratio wings with __________ wingspans. long A ___________ allows supersonic combustion, improving the efficiency of the engine at high supersonic speeds. scramjet

13 Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts
What other part of the aircraft do propeller blades most look and act like? Wings Why are propeller blades twisted from hub to tip? to produce uniform lift An airfoil’s _____________ is the maximum distance between the upper and lower wing surfaces. thickness What is the working fluid for propellers, turbines, and ramjets? air Moves the tail left and right Rudder

14 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control
Quiz AS-2 Chapter 1, Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts Movable, hinged part of wing that pivots down to generate more force. Slat True/False A flap moves in one direction only. False No one airfoil has been found that satisfies every flight requirement. True Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control How does sliding the flaps aft assist with landing? by increasing wing area and drag

15 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control
What is the purpose of elevators? to control pitch What does raising spoilers on both wings do to an aircraft in any phase of flight? slow the aircraft down Which flap is most commonly used? Slotted What is the aircraft’s orientation, or angle, in relation to the horizon? attitude What stage in flight requires high lift and high drag? landing

16 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control
What are the phases of flight? takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, and landing To reduce wear on brakes and tires, what does an aircraft take advantage of to slow down during a landing? aerodynamic drag Takeoffs call for high lift and low _________. Drag The ___________ continue to slow the plane while rolling to a stop on the ground. Spoilers If sufficient airspeed is not maintained in flight to produce enough lift to support the airplane, the airplane will _____________. Stall

17 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control
During the takeoff phase of flight, engines provide the ___________ that gets the aircraft from zero to a speed sufficient for takeoff. thrust How does a spoiler “spoil” the airflow? by increasing drag and decreasing lift How do spoilers improve the efficiency of the brakes? by shifting the aircraft’s weight from the wings to the wheels What happens when a pilot raises spoilers on one wing? The aircraft banks. What is “roll”? the up-and-down motion of an aircraft’s wings

18 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control
In the picture above, slats are identified by which letter? A In the picture above, the flaps are identified by which letter? C In the picture above, the spoilers are identified by which letter? F In the picture above, ailerons are identified by which letter? B

19 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Flight Power
Which parts of a reciprocating engine ignite the fuel-air mixture? spark plugs According to Charles’s law, what is the relationship between the volume of gas and its temperature? inversely proportional How are most general aviation or private airplanes powered today? internal combustion engines What is chemical energy converted to during the combustion process of an internal combustion engine? mechanical energy Airflow through this engine remains supersonic. Scramjet

20 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Flight Power
What is the purpose of the chevron, or teeth cut into an engine nozzle’s edge? reduce jet exhaust noise What are the four strokes (movements), in order, of a four-stroke engine? intake, compression, power (or ignition), exhaust What is the name of the part that changes airflow direction? baffle What type of air flows through a ramjet engine? subsonic Which engine cooling system design requires additional weight? liquid-cooled

21 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Flight Power
What are the four properties of gas? mass, pressure, temperature, volume Why do most aircraft engines have two magnetos? to improve combustion of the fuel-air mix, provide slightly more power, and ensure the engine will continue to work if one fails Which type of engine offers a much better power-to-weight ratio than the piston engine? turbine engine What is the relationship between the pressure of a gas and its absolute temperature, when the volume is constant, proposed by Gay-Lussac? directly proportional What engine is a hybrid of a turbojet and propeller engine? turboprop

22 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 5: Flight Power
What is a reaction engine? an engine that ejects a jet or stream of gases created by the burning of a fuel within the engine Which gas is a harmful emission of jet engines? carbon dioxide What is the aim of the thrust vector engine? maneuverability All the thrust comes through the turbine and nozzle, which are the core of this engine. Turbojet Airflow through this type of engine is subsonic. Ramjet

23 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation
How are unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) primarily used? for reconnaissance and combat What problem(s) does the HyperSoar’s trajectory along the top of Earth’s atmosphere address? heat issues What is a hydrogen fuel cell? an electrochemical device that converts hydrogen into electricity and heat What problem does metallic foam solve when installed around an aircraft’s engine? It won’t catch fire from engine heat.

24 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation
What should the technology in the NextGen plan provide? information to pilots and air traffic control on the ground in real time How might the NextGen plan benefit air travel? It would allow aircraft to safely fly closer together and take more direct routes. Why will NASA’s continuous descent approach idea save fuel? It allows airplanes to coast during their final flight stages, which uses less power. What type of midair refueling will let UASs take on longer missions? autonomous refueling Why is a pilot in a cockpit better able to avoid midair collisions than RPAs? The cockpit pilot can see a building or aircraft in his or her flight path.

25 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation
What is the central technology behind NextGen, the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) plan to improve air traffic efficiency and safety? satellite technology What is a disadvantage of carbon fiber composite? It is more expensive then fiberglass. What do hydrogen fuel cells exhaust? heat and water Which aircraft would travel at Mach 10 and run on liquid hydrogen? HyperSoar What is biofuel made from? plants

26 Quiz Chapter 1, Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation
This aircraft has a passenger capacity greater than any other commercial airliner. Airbus A380 True/False One of the trickiest aspects to inventing new technologies is making sure they don’t improve flight in one way while damaging it in another. True Rocket engines, which launch missiles and spacecraft, are reaction engines. Composite engine materials are tough, and less heat resistant than metals. False

27 LE and 1-2 2 True/False Communication always needs more than three people. False Nonverbal communication cues may include facial expressions. True Listening is not a focused activity. Listening and hearing are the same thing. Framing gives you a chance to find areas of agreement on which to focus.

28 LE and 1-2 2 Putting an encoded message into a medium of delivery is called ____________. Channeling. Feedback may indicate that the receiver needs more ___________. Information. When you are listening to understand the speaker's meaning you are _______. Actively listening. The receiver's response to the sender's message. Feedback The person who originates and sends a message. Sender

29 LE 2 1-1 and 1-2 2 The person who receives the sender's message.
Receiver The unconscious ways in which people communicate their true intentions and meaning, regardless of what they are actually saying. Nonverbal communication Turning a message into symbols that will have meaning for the receiver. Encoding Happens outside your own head. A siren, a phone ringing, a dog barking. External noise Anything that interferes with communication. Noise

30 LE and 1-2 2 Inside the receiver. Daydreaming, worrying, hunger, reminiscing, and strong emotions are examples. Internal noise When you listen one way and offer no feedback you are ________. Passively listening. If you fail to listen in class you could Receive poor grades. You ask specific questions to ensure you have understood the message. Clarifying

31 LE II - 1-3 Critical Thinking
True/False One step you can take to make a good decision is to rush it. False When solving problems you should ask probing questions. True Critical thinking involves using irrational thought to produce the best outcome. The process of breaking down an issue to figure out its nature and how it works is called _________. Analysis

32 LE II - 1-3 Critical Thinking
That "sixth sense" that some people have about other people and events. Intuition The process of making choices and selecting appropriate options based on thinking. Decision making A function of your mind that makes sense of your life's events and helps you figure out what is going on around you. Thinking The ability to explore an issue, problem, decision, or option from many angles. Critical thinking

33 LE II - 1-3 Critical Thinking
The ability to think carefully about what you read, to ask questions, and to develop your own understanding of the writer's sense. Critical reading Putting your thinking to work on the things you need to accomplish. Problem solving A personal way of thinking that makes it impossible to use logic. Bias A way of thinking that seeks to form solid connections and support for the way you think about how the world works. Logic

34 LE II - 1-3 Critical Thinking
Because thinking and reflection take time, it’s usually best to do it in places where there are few _______________. Distractions The brains three major functions are _______________. Thinking, feeling, wanting LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist True/False There are seven steps on the basic checklist for writing. False The internet is a convenient source of information. True

35 LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist
True/False An explanation provides a summary of data in a numerical format False When you edit, you shift from creator to critic. True It may be useful to know your audience, but it doesn’t really matter, because a good piece of writing should make sense to anyone. Outlining a paper may take some time, but in the end it’s likely to save time. What you want your audience to think, do, say, or believe after they’ve read what you’ve written is your ______. Purpose

36 LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist
The process of digging up information that supports your purpose. Research The people to whom you are writing. Audience Not what you say; it's how you say it. Tone A set of guidelines that can help you tackle a writing and speaking project with confidence and competence. The basic checklist A specific instance chosen to represent a larger fact to clarify an idea or support a claim. Example

37 LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist
Makes a point plain or understandable or creates a relationship between cause and effect. Explanation The comments of authorities that you use to support a claim. Testimony The precise meaning or significance of a word or phrase. Definition Contains your main points and supporting ideas arranged in a logical order. Outline The slow, careful examination of a piece of writing to correct and clarify ideas and to ensure the proper form. Editing

38 LE II 2-1 The Basic Checklist
A series of statements intended to persuade others. Argument A quick first writing of a paper, focused on ideas and not style. Drafting One sentence that captures the central idea of a paragraph. Topic Sentence LE II 2-2 Writing Effectively Quiz True/False There are six rules of protocol. True

39 LE II 2-2 Writing Effectively Quiz
True/False Effective writing has no power at all. False A sentence that announces your intent for a single paragraph is called your _________. Topic sentence A word that has nearly the same meaning as another word does. Synonym You should never give out personal information on the Internet without _______. Supervision of a parent or guardian

40 LE II 2-2 Writing Effectively Quiz
A condition in which the subject and the verb in a sentence are the same number. Agreement When the reader understands your meaning quickly, they have __________. Clarity The overly specific or technical language used by people within a speciality or cultural area. Jargon The subject is the actor, or doer, of the action. Active voice

41 LE II 2-2 Writing Effectively Quiz
The subject receives the action of is acted upon. Passive voice Words, phrases, or sentences that bridge gaps and help move the reader from one idea to another. Transitions A message sent electronically over a computer network or the Internet.

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