3INTRODUCTION LOCATION J&K is the top most state of India. It is surrounded by Himalayas, with China on one side & Pakistan &POK on the other.It basically comprises of three districts:Jammu: mainly a plain area.Kashmir: mainly a valley area.Ladakh: mainly a hilly area (hill desert).Kashmir, also known as the paradise on land and is famous for its hillsides, excellent water bodies , its rich culture, Mughal gardens, Shikaras, House boats, Handloom Industry, its mouth watering cuisine.
5Terrain mapThe Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from Ladakh while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India.KASHMIR VALLEYGREAT HIMALAYAS RANGEPIR PANJAL MOUNTAIN RANGE
6GEOGRAPHY DENSITY ALTITUDE The main settlement(Srinagar) is located on both the sides of the Jhelum river. The river passes through the Srinagar city and ends in the Dal Lake.Jhelum river and Dal Lake are two main water bodies. The main Kashmir valley is 100 km wide and 15,520.3 km2 in area.Latitude.Longitude.DENSITYThe population in Srinagar is 556 inhabitants /km2 while the overall population density of the valley is 99 inhabitants /km2.ALTITUDEAverage altitude of the valley is 1730 m above the sea level.
7CLIMATE Srinagar has a humid subtropical climate. It is much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due to its moderately high elevation and northerly position.Winters are cool, with a January daily mean of 10.0 °C, and temperature remains below freezing at night.Moderate to heavy snowfall is expected in winters.Summers are warm with a July daily mean of 30.1 °C.The average annual rainfall is around 710 millimetres.Spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest.Highest temperature: 37 °C Lowest:14 °C
8Occupation VEGETATION The main occupation of the people of Kashmir is Tourism followed by Handloom industry, public sector & private sector.VEGETATIONForest cover spreads over 2,236 sq. kms.It is 20% of the total geographical area of the state on this side of the Line of Control.More than 99% of forest area is confined to the province of Jammu & Kashmir only.Over 19,236 sq. kms. is under coniferous softwood (Pine) and 946 sq. kms. under non-coniferous softwood. In the coniferous category.Fir accounts for 3355 sq. kms., Kail for 1874 sq. kms., Chir for 1773 sq. kms. and Deodar for 1122 sq. kms.The valley of Kashmir has deciduous vegetation. The Chinar, Poplar, Deodar, Fir, Pine, Kail, Partal, Mulbery, Walnut and other fruit trees grow throughout the valley. Baramulla and Anantnag districts have respectively 71% and 60% of their areas under forests.
9JHELUM WATERFRONTThe river Jhelum played a very important role in the formation and development of the city of Srinagar.The city has developed at a number of sites on the banks of the river and canals formed by it. A network of canals extends through the city structure inward from the river’s edge to the edge of Dal lake.Dal LakeSrinagarRiver JhelumSOURCE :ARCHITECTURE OF THE JHELUM WATERFRONT-SRINAGAR: IMAGES AND IMPRESSIONS - by NEERJA TIKU Himalayan and Central Asian Studies, Vol.1, No.1 (Jan-March 1997) ; GOOGLE.
10Narrow cross lanes run perpendicular to the river. The spatial structure of the city has evolved in harmony with the water bodies and the topography.The river’s edge is defined by the buildings standing on retaining walls rising out of the water.The main movement spine is formed by the river and parallel streets on both banks, connected across by a series of bridges.Narrow cross lanes run perpendicular to the river.SOURCE :ARCHITECTURE OF THE JHELUM WATERFRONT-SRINAGAR: IMAGES AND IMPRESSIONS - by NEERJA TIKU Himalayan and Central Asian Studies, Vol.1, No.1 (Jan-March 1997) ; GOOGLE.
11TYPICAL DWELLINGThe buildings were generally three to four storey high, with basements contained within the retaining walls along the river side.The plans were generally square so that a minimum of external walls were exposed and heat was conserved in the cold winter.Bay windows(dub) are present overlooking the river or main street.The dub is generally located on the southern side so that the sun was available in winter.SOURCE :ARCHITECTURE OF THE JHELUM WATERFRONT-SRINAGAR: IMAGES AND IMPRESSIONS - by NEERJA TIKU Himalayan and Central Asian Studies, Vol.1, No.1 (Jan-March 1997) ; GOOGLE.
12ARCHITECTURE STYLEThe oldest surviving examples of traditional vernacular architecture in the city of Srinagar dates back to early 19th Century.This architectural style is solely represented by the residences of the city and broadly falls into two distinct categories; based on the structural system involved. These two systems are:• Taq Construction• Dhajji-Dewari or Timber Braced (patch-quilt) System
13TAQ CONSTRUCTIONIn this system of construction 2- 3 ft. thick brick masonry piers supporting wooden floor beams formed the basic structural system of the building.The distance between two brick piers used to be normally around 3-4 ft and was known as a taq.The gap in between each taq would be filled in with either a window opening or brick masonry.The roof comprised a layer of earth covering over birch bark and wooden planks resting on wooden rafters.SOURCE World Housing Encyclopedia;an Encyclopedia of Housing Construction in Seismically Active Areas of the World by Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) and International Association for Earthquake Engineering (IAEE)
14DHAJJI-DEWARI CONSTRUCTION The dhajji-dewari construction is based on a braced timber framed structural system, in which normally 4-9 inch thick brick or stone masonry is used to infill the gaps.Normally this system is limited to upper floor levels or attics ( kani ) of the building.Timber frameTimber bracings used in upper floors , ground floor is made of just stone masonary.SOURCE World Housing Encyclopedia;an Encyclopedia of Housing Construction in Seismically Active Areas of the World by Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) and International Association for Earthquake Engineering (IAEE)
15Walls are plastered in mud mortar. Dhajji buildings are typically 1-4 storeys tall and the roof may be a flat timber and mud roof, or a pitched roof with timber/metal sheeting.The floors of these houses are made with timber beams that span between walls.Timber floor boards, which span over the floor beams, would traditionally be overlain by a layer of clay (or mud).SOURCE World Housing Encyclopedia;an Encyclopedia of Housing Construction in Seismically Active Areas of the World by Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) and International Association for Earthquake Engineering (IAEE)
16SPATIAL ORGANISATION AND PLANNING Most of the buildings constructed on the above mentioned structural systems show a common spatial arrangement and decorative elements. The buildings can thus be subdivided into two categories on the basis of plan form:• Square Plan• Linear Plan
17Many of the traditional buildings are based on a square plan with the main entrance opening into a centrally located staircase lobby.The lobby is flanked by one or two rooms on either side, in ground as well as first floor.The space above entrance in first floor in some cases also encloses a projecting wooden bay window (dub).The second floor (kani) normally comprises a single large hall which can be subdivided into three smaller rooms whenever required with the help of partition screens.
18The entrance to these buildings was from a staircase lobby located near one of the corners of the house.Many of the larger and more aristocratic houses, also known as havelis comprise a linear, two or in certain cases three storey buildings.Lattice work screens and window shutters, profusely carved wooden brackets, eaves board (morakh patt), pendants (dour) are some of the main architectural elements associated with them.
19The second floor is surmounted by a cruciform shaped attic space. ROOFThe second floor is surmounted by a cruciform shaped attic space.
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