2TCP/IPOSI Reference Model (application layer,presentation lyr.,session lyr.,transport lyr.,network lyr. and physical lyr.)TCP :connection oriented and reliable protocol,IP : connectionless and unreliable,In TCP/IP ;flow control,error control and routing are handled in the transport(TCP) and network(IP) layersRouting table information(static,dynamic)Dynamic routing protocols(distance-vector protocols,link-state protocols)
3Introduction Proposal:let CPs handle these functions... Cognitive Packets(CP)Intelligence constructed into the packets rather than at the nodes or in the protocolsCognitive Packet Networks(CPN)CPs route themselves,learn to avoid congestion and to avoid being lost or destroyed
4cont.’d...CPs learn from their own observations and from the experience of other packetsCPs rely minimally on routers,so that network nodes only serve as buffers,mailboxes and processorsCPs that share the same goals and use similar sets of rules can be grouped
5CPs and CPNs CP fields identifier data field unique identifier for the CPinformation about the class of packets it may belong to(QoS etc.)data fieldordinary data to be transmitted
6cognitive map executable code source and destination(S-D) information information showing where the packet thinks it ispacket’s view of the state of the networkwhere it wants to go nextexecutable codeneural networks algorithmslearning algorithms for updating the CMdecision algorithms which use the CM
7CPs and CPNs CPs Code store information in their Cognitive Map(CM) update the CMmake routing decisions using the code stored in the packetplaces where they can read their mailboxesmailboxes may be filled bythe nodeother packets which pass through the nodeMailbox(MB)CognitiveMap (CM)CodeUpdatedCognitive Map
8CPs and CPNs Nodes in a CPN carry out the following functions: receive packets via a set of ports and store them in an input buffertransmit packets to other nodes via a set of output buffersreceive information from CPs and store them in MBsexecute the code for each CP in the input bufferduring the execution of the CP’s code ,the CP may ask the node to declare its identity and to provide information about its local connectivity“This is node A,and I am connected to nodes B,C,D”as a result of this executionthe CMs of the packets in the input buffers are updatedcertain information is moved from CPs to certain MBsa CP which has made the decision to be moved to an output buffer is transferred there
9CPNTodayflow control and error control are performed at the protocol levelrouting performed at the node levelCPNall are performed at the packet levelpackets use the nodes asbuffer spaces to hold the incoming packets until switched,processors to execute the code stored in the packets ,mailboxes that CPs use to exchange information,bypasses the usage of routing protocolsto make a routing decision, the packet needsnumber of connections the node hasdelay,loss,cost,etc. values related to each of the connections
10CPNFlow controlhandled on a node-by-node basis rather than end-to-endthe mailboxes in the nodes can contain the load of the node on the other side of the connection besides other informationCP decision algorithms can take this information into consideration when choosing the direction to goas a resultCPs can stay away from overloaded nodesthe upstream flow of Cognitive Packets’ original senders will reduce the number of packets flowing to overloaded nodes
11Addressing and Error Control in CPNs Both a TCP/IP address and an address private to that particular CPN networkCPs communicate with each other via the nodes’ MBIn future networks,CP’s may inhabit a packet switching network at the same time as conventional packets.This may be needed,for instance ,for certain applications which require a very high level of robustness,or for packets which would have to travel through a particuliarly unreliable part of the network.
12...error controlDespite the changes in netw. connectivity,failures and errors,as well as congestion,may lead to packets spending excessive time in the network without reaching their destination.CP will carry a counter which will be decremented each time the packet visits a node.
13Adaptation by CPs Each CP Goal examples starts with a given representation of the networkprogressively constructs its own cognitive map of network stateuses it to make routing decisionsassigned a goal before entering the networkacts according to this goalGoal examplesvoice packets“Go from S to D in minimum time ”“Go from S to D in minimum time ,without violating sequences ”data packets“Go from S to D without getting lost or destroyed ”