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Presentation on theme: "COGNITIVE PACKET NETWORKS"— Presentation transcript:


2 TCP/IP OSI Reference Model (application layer,presentation lyr.,session lyr.,transport lyr.,network lyr. and physical lyr.) TCP :connection oriented and reliable protocol, IP : connectionless and unreliable, In TCP/IP ;flow control,error control and routing are handled in the transport(TCP) and network(IP) layers Routing table information(static,dynamic) Dynamic routing protocols(distance-vector protocols,link-state protocols)

3 Introduction Proposal:let CPs handle these functions...
Cognitive Packets(CP) Intelligence constructed into the packets rather than at the nodes or in the protocols Cognitive Packet Networks(CPN) CPs route themselves,learn to avoid congestion and to avoid being lost or destroyed

4 cont.’d... CPs learn from their own observations and from the experience of other packets CPs rely minimally on routers,so that network nodes only serve as buffers,mailboxes and processors CPs that share the same goals and use similar sets of rules can be grouped

5 CPs and CPNs CP fields identifier data field
unique identifier for the CP information about the class of packets it may belong to(QoS etc.) data field ordinary data to be transmitted

6 cognitive map executable code source and destination(S-D) information
information showing where the packet thinks it is packet’s view of the state of the network where it wants to go next executable code neural networks algorithms learning algorithms for updating the CM decision algorithms which use the CM

7 CPs and CPNs CPs Code store information in their Cognitive Map(CM)
update the CM make routing decisions using the code stored in the packet places where they can read their mailboxes mailboxes may be filled by the node other packets which pass through the node Mailbox(MB) Cognitive Map (CM) Code Updated Cognitive Map

8 CPs and CPNs Nodes in a CPN carry out the following functions:
receive packets via a set of ports and store them in an input buffer transmit packets to other nodes via a set of output buffers receive information from CPs and store them in MBs execute the code for each CP in the input buffer during the execution of the CP’s code ,the CP may ask the node to declare its identity and to provide information about its local connectivity “This is node A,and I am connected to nodes B,C,D” as a result of this execution the CMs of the packets in the input buffers are updated certain information is moved from CPs to certain MBs a CP which has made the decision to be moved to an output buffer is transferred there

9 CPN Today flow control and error control are performed at the protocol level routing performed at the node level CPN all are performed at the packet level packets use the nodes as buffer spaces to hold the incoming packets until switched, processors to execute the code stored in the packets , mailboxes that CPs use to exchange information, bypasses the usage of routing protocols to make a routing decision, the packet needs number of connections the node has delay,loss,cost,etc. values related to each of the connections

10 CPN Flow control handled on a node-by-node basis rather than end-to-end the mailboxes in the nodes can contain the load of the node on the other side of the connection besides other information CP decision algorithms can take this information into consideration when choosing the direction to go as a result CPs can stay away from overloaded nodes the upstream flow of Cognitive Packets’ original senders will reduce the number of packets flowing to overloaded nodes

11 Addressing and Error Control in CPNs
Both a TCP/IP address and an address private to that particular CPN network CPs communicate with each other via the nodes’ MB In future networks,CP’s may inhabit a packet switching network at the same time as conventional packets.This may be needed,for instance ,for certain applications which require a very high level of robustness,or for packets which would have to travel through a particuliarly unreliable part of the network.

12 ...error control Despite the changes in netw. connectivity,failures and errors,as well as congestion,may lead to packets spending excessive time in the network without reaching their destination. CP will carry a counter which will be decremented each time the packet visits a node.

13 Adaptation by CPs Each CP Goal examples
starts with a given representation of the network progressively constructs its own cognitive map of network state uses it to make routing decisions assigned a goal before entering the network acts according to this goal Goal examples voice packets “Go from S to D in minimum time ” “Go from S to D in minimum time ,without violating sequences ” data packets “Go from S to D without getting lost or destroyed ”

14 Thanks...


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