Learning should be fun and any motivation problems that may appear should be ascribed to the teachers attempt to convert an enjoyable activity to drudgery. Think Pair Share 1. individually think about the topic 2. pair with another student to discuss it 3. share their thoughts with the class
School activities are inherently boring and unrewarding, so that we must rely on extrinsic rewards and punishment with a view to forcing students to engage in these unpleasant tasks. Think Pair Share 1. individually think about the topic 2. pair with another student to discuss it 3. share their thoughts with the class
Establish rapport with your students Show interest in each student as a person Give feedback on each persons progress Elicit students ideas and feelings Value and respect what students think and say Laugh with them and not at them Balance praise and criticism Increase student motivation
Make learning meaningful Appeal to students interest, academic, and career goals Attempt to anchor a new topic or concept in students' existing knowledge and background so that it becomes associated with something they already know. Avoid pitfalls of rote learning – too much grammar explanation, too many abstract principles and theories, too much drilling and/or memorization, activities whose purposes are not clear
A: Is there a chair in your bedroom? B: Yes, there is. Is there a table in your bedroom? A: No, there isnt. Is there a TV in your bedroom? B: No, there isnt. Is there a mirror in your bedroom? Are students exchanging real information that is meaningful about their home? Is this an authentic situation or only in the English classroom?
The Chipotle Story – How it all started 2 minute video http://www.chipotle.com/en- US/fwi/videos/videos.aspx?v=5
Not because you wish to become bilingual or love English, but knowing English is like possessing the fabled Aladdins lamp, which permits one to open the linguistic gates to international business, technology, science, travel, and higher education. (Kachru, 1986)
Instrumental motivation – a real need for the language for study or work Intrinsic motivation – enjoyment in learning the language Integrative motivation – a desire to be involved with native speakers of the language and their culture
Students vie for the teachers attention and praise OR (drop their heads as if the teacher had asked a difficult question?)
StructureQuestionResponseFeedback The teacher provides information, provides directions, & introduces the topic The teacher asks a question Students who wish to respond raise their hands. T calls on one student. The S attempts to state the correct answer. The teacher reacts to the students answer and provides feedback.
StructureQuestionResponseFeedback For good health it is important to be active, eat healthy food, and exercise daily." Do you agree? But what else do we need for good health? Yes, I agree, but I also think we need a good nights sleep.. Terrific, can anyone else add to Anias response?
What is the important information I am trying to convey? What must the students know if they are to complete this activity successfully? What information do they need first? Next? Keep them as simple and clear as possible They must be standardized Check for understanding/comprehension Ask a student to explain, demonstrate, paraphrase Ask a student to translate to the L1
Pre-Task: T outlines situation and gives instructions, followed by a comprehension check and demonstration. Students break into groups. Task: LLs work in pairs or groups. T monitors, notes problems and helps where necessary. Post-task: T signals to end the task and does a post-task check. Follow-up: T deals with error-correction if necessary. (Davies, 2000. p. 126)
Students dont want to use English in class when they can say the same thing faster in their own language. What do teachers do if students dont want to speak? How is translation used in the classroom? Numbered heads together Groups of 4 – T numbers each student: 1,2,3,4 T asks the question above T tells students to put their heads together to make sure that everyone on the team knows the answer. T calls a number 1,2,3,4, an students with that number can raise their hands to respond
SituationMetaphor Traditional Classroom ALM – memorizing Communicative Classes Require unplanned and spontaneous management skills Should the teacher answer, postpone, or dismiss a question? Jug filling mug with grammar rules & vocabulary Conductor Chessboard – teacher is the most powerful single piece on the board Responding to students spontaneous questions Its okay to say I dont know Let me look that up
Approach 1: Teachers… 1. Are expected to have all the answers. 2. Are expected to suppress emotions. 3. Reward students for accurate problem solving. (teacher-centered) Approach 2: Teachers… 1. Are allowed to say I dont know. 2. Are allowed to express emotions. 3. Reward students for innovative approaches to problem solving. (learner-centered)
Teacher behavior is a powerful motivational tool (Dornyei, 2001) An enthusiastic teacher conveys commitment to and interest in subject matter Students adopt cues on how to behave Establish a relationship of mutual trust and respect with the learners. How? talk with them on a personal level
Awareness of what students are doing and feeling the teachers primary responsibility is response-ability! Self-awareness to gain an understanding of how our students see us. Teaching style (personality style) Formal, reserved, open, dramatic, emotional, moody, serious, permissive, humorous, shy
Shy-----------------------gregarious Formal-------------------- informal Reserved----------------open, transparent Understated-----------------dramatic Rational-------------------- emotional Steady--------------------- moody Serious---------------------humorous Restrictive------------------permissive Where do you place yourself on this continua? (Brown, 2007, p. 251)
Rate yourself on the continua of teacher styles Shy 1 2 3 4 gregarious 1= very much 2= somewhat 3 = somewhat 4= very much
Approach 1, Students… 1. should speak in class only when called on by the teacher. 1. expect the teacher to show them the way. (teacher-centered) Approach 2, Students… 1. are encouraged by teachers to volunteer their thoughts. 1. are expected by teachers to find their own way. (learner-centered)
1. Participate and cooperate with others in classroom activities; interact in each class. 2. Risk making mistakes. Try out, experiment, and be creative with the language. 3. Use classroom language appropriate for interaction in pairs, small groups, and whole group interaction. 4. Ask for help and correction.
Visual Learner - learns best by seeing things. For example, he learns better by reading text than from listening to lectures. Auditory Learner - learns best when he hears. When memorizing, this learner is better able to memorize passages from listening to them, than by looking at them. Kinesthetic Learner - learns by doing. (Typically involving physical, bodily movement) Sensory Learning Styles are most commonly referred to regarding discussion of learning styles
Its not how smart you are but how you are smart - Gardner
StudentsTeachers Be involved Feel comfortable while involved in intellectual activity Listen to one another as well as to the teacher Be in general control Allow and encourage originality in students Look relaxed and matter-of-fact…giving information about…appropriateness or correctness… rather than criticizing or praising. (Stevick in Lewis 2002)
Powerful curriculum all planned and ready to go - meaningful, useful, relevant, with opportunities to be creative and emotional Prerequisites are in place - teacher and students are in relationship with each other, as are students with students Parameters are clear at all times - general and specific ground rules, procedures, and directions Participation is expected and nurtured - students are actively engaged and on task; direct instruction provides for student involvement Positive attitude - teacher models a positive mental attitude towards students and classroom activities
The aura of creativity sparked by the interaction of students Teacher is key and can accomplish this by overtly manifesting this through Solid preparation, confidence in your ability to teach, a genuinely positive believe in your students ability to learn, and a sense of joy in doing what you are doing.
Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. Longman. Bilash, O. (2010). Classroom language. In Improving second language education. Retrieved from http://www2.education.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.bilash/Best% 20of%20Bilash/ classroom%20language.html http://www2.education.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.bilash/Best% 20of%20Bilash/ Davies, P. (2000). Success in English Teaching. Oxford. Farrell, T. (2006). Succeeding with English Language Learners. Corwin Press. Or, J. (1999). Growing Up with English. Office of English Language Programs, U.S. Dept. of State. Thanasoulas, D. (2002). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, VII (11). Thaine, C. (2010). Teacher Training Essentials. Cambridge. Ur. P. (1996). A course in language teaching practice and theory. Cambridge.