2Skeleton System Infant Skeleton about 300 bones Adult about 206 bones When humans are born they have around 3oo bones.As the infant grows, some bones fuse together over timeto form a single bone. As a result, adults have only206 bones.
3The Skeletal System Supports Protects Supports, so you can stand and do activities- Imagine if God didn’t create us with bones. We would be like puppets. Pretend you have a puppet. Just sitting there on the table. It’s like a blob, until you put the bone structured support into it. See your hand, is the foundation that holds the puppet, just like your body. Your bones are the structure that holds everything together.Your skull- it protects your brain. Around your brain is fluid. This fluid helps to protect your brain. (can do egg experiment)Your ribs play a special part too. They protect your important organs, like your heart, & lungs. If you didn’t have the protection of the bones, you could easily damage them. God designed us perfectly.
4Bones make (produce) blood Bone marrow produces blood cells-Blood cells must be reproducedThe production of blood is a vital part of your body. Blood cells don’t last that long in our body’s, God designed our bodies so that they would continually make new blood cells.
5What do you mean….are you saying they store stuff? BonesImportant for storage:Stores minerals that are important for your entire body to function, such as:PhosphorusCalciumPotassium, magnesium, zinc and more.What do you mean….are you saying they store stuff?The bones of a skeleton store minerals such as phospherous, calcium, potassium, magnesium, silica, iron, zinc, selenium, boron, sulfur and chromium.(This is important so that you don’t develop osteoporosis) This is a disease that makes your bones weak. Did you know that while you are young, it’s your job to keep up with your calcium intake?Where do you think you get calcium from? Dairy products, spinach and some other veggies, soy & some nutsCheck out what each of the minerals do, and why they are important, if you want to dig deeper.
6What else will help to make bones strong? Vitamin DExerciseWhere do you get vitamin D, well the main thing is plenty of sunlight , fish , soy and milk. Lack of Vit. D can cause Rickets- this happens in areas where the children don’t get enough food. By not getting the right amount of vita D, the bones don’t form properly.Exercise is vital at every age for healthy bones, exercise is important for treating and preventing osteoporosis. Not only does exercise improve your bone health, it also increases muscle strength, coordination, and balance.
7Bone Structure Outside: periosteum The outer surface of bone is called the periosteum (say: pare-ee-os-tee-um). It's a thin, dense membrane that contains nerves and blood vessels that nourish the bone.
8Compact bone & Spongy Bone The next layer is made up of compact bone. This part is smooth and very hard. It's the part you can see when you look at a skeleton.Spongy bone is not exactly spongy. Towards the center of the bone, the bone gets more hollow. This is why it is called spongy. This part of the bone is actually very strong and resilient (able to bounce back) God designed our bones to withstand a certain amount of pressure.
9Spongy BoneSpongy bone helps your body to bounce back to help prevent breaks
10Bone Marrow Human Bone Marrow Beef Bone Marrow the bone marrow (say: mair-oh). Bone marrow is sort of like a thick jelly, and its job is to make blood cells.Bone marrow makes millions of blood cells every second to replace old, worn-out blood cells, which the body destroys. RBC live about 120 days.There are two types of marrow: red and yellow. Red marrow makes blood cells.Yellow marrow is mainly a fat store, but it can turn into red marrow if the body needs extra blood cells
11Why do infants have more bones then adults anyway Why do infants have more bones then adults anyway? Osteoblast- Osteo=Bone, blast=immature Osteoclast osteo=bone, clast= to breakThere are important cells in your bones, which do a lot of work. One cell is called Osteoblast: A cell that makes bone and becomes mineralized. During the growth phase of our life, osteoblasts add to the spongy boneOsteoclast- breaks away (eats away) the spongy layer on the inside of the bone.God designed the osteoblasts and osteoclasts to work in harmony. While you are growing bones grow longer and wider
12Still Growing- Babies are born with more cartilage A growth plate is an area of growing tissue located near the end of the long bones of the body. These bones include the fingers, forearm, and lower leg bones (tibia and fibula). When you are born, the growth plates are actually cartilage, which is a soft, rubbery material. As you grow, the cartilage of the growth plates slowly hardens into regular bone. Can you imagine what we would look like if God didn’t design us with growth plates, imagine being an adult with infant arm and legsBoys typically reach skeletal maturity between 16 and 17 years old, and girls typically reach skeletal maturity between 14 and 15 years old.
13Bones are placed into two groups The axial skeleton forms the central axis of the body. It consists of the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum or breastboneThe bones of the skeleton can be placed into twogroups. The first group is called the axial skeleton,the bones that form our center. The bones of theaxial skeleton support and protect the organs of thehead, neck and trunk, including the skull, sternum,ribs, and vertebrae..
14Appendicular skeleton The Upper ExtremitiesThe Lower ExtremitiesThe Shoulder GirdleThe Pelvic GirdleThe appendicular skeleton is composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton.appendicular skeleton. It is made up of all the bonesrelated to our arms and legs (or appendages), includingthe bones of the arms, hands, legs, feet, shoulder,and hip.Pelvic girdle- God designed these to bear a lot of weight. The pelvic girdle connects your vertebrae, hips or coxae, tailbone and sacrum.
15Your vertebrae column or spinal Column – is divided up into 5 parts- Your Cervical (Neck) has 7—Your Thoracic which has 12-Lumbar -5 lumbar-Sacrum- Coccyx (cocks-its)- Your spinal column is an important part of your body- this is where your nervous system is located. Your nervous systems allows you to feel, move, talk- it attaches to your brain. The spinal column has many ligaments, which keep your column together.Vertebra Column
16Rib Bits Called Thoracic Cage- Protects vital organs The rib cage flexes when we breatheThe rib cage, (otherwise known as the thoracic cage), protects our vital organs within the thorax - the chest. It consists of the thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and their costal cartilages, and the sternum, or breastbone. We have 12 pairs of ribs, and there are two types. The top seven pairs are the true ribs and attach ‘directly’ to the sternum.The bottom 5 pairs are called false ribs. These ribs do not attach ‘directly’ to the sternum. The pairs of ribs numbered 8 to 10 are attached to the sternum by a common cartilage (of rib number 7). Ribs 11 and 12 are called floating ribs, as they do not attach to the sternum at all; they just come out from the spinal cord at the back of the body but never form a cage by closing in and joining onto the sternum at the front. The costal cartilage that is in our rib cage flexes as we breathe, and functions to keep our breathing system as elastic as possible. If this cartilage was to be replaced by bone, it would be very difficult for out ribs to move to provide for our breathing, because bones are a rigid material, and don’t give much when a pressure is applied.
17The skull is the bony framework of the head The skull is the bony framework of the head. It is comprised of the eight cranial and fourteen facial bonesSkull
18Smallest bones in the body Malleus- called the hammerIncus- called the anvilStapes- called the stirrupEar
19Sizes and Shapes Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid BonesLong BonesLong bones are some of the longest bones in the body, such as the Femur, Humerus and Tibia but are also some of the smallest including the Metacarpals, Metatarsals and Phalanges.Short BonesShort bones are defined as being approximately as wide as they are long and have a primary function of providing support and stability with little movement. Examples of short bones are the ankles and wrists.Flat BonesFlat bones are as they sound, strong, flat plates of bone with the main function of providing protection to the bodies vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment. The classic example of a flat bone is the Scapula (shoulder blade). The Sternum (breast bone), Cranium (skull), Pelvis and Ribs are also classified as flat bones. In adults, the highest number of red blood cells are formed in flat bones.Irregular BonesThese are bones which do not fall into any other category, due to their non-uniform shape. Good examples of these are the Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw).Sesamoid BonesSesamoid bones are usually short or irregular bones, imbedded in a tendon. The most obvious example of this is the Patella (knee cap) which sits within the Patella or Quadriceps tendon.
20Arm & HandsThe arm, or brachium, is technically only the region between the shoulder and elbow. It consists of a single long bone called the humerus. The humerus is the longest bone in the upper extremityShort bone in wrist- CarpalMetacarples- Hand bonesYour fingers are called - Phalanges
21Legs & Feet The Femur is the longest bone in the body. You calcaneus- Cal cay nee us- is your heel boneYour toes are called phalanges, just like your fingers.
22Male and Female Skeletons are a bit different Males- slightly thicker, longer legs and armsFemales- wider pelvis and larger space, so they can deliver childrenDifferences between males and females: Males and females have slightly different skeletons, including a different elbow angle. Males have slightly thicker and longer legs and arms; females have a wider pelvis and a larger space within the pelvis, through which babies travel when they are born.
23Joints 6 kinds of joints in your body There is special fluid in the joints called synovialHingeElbow/KneeShi-no-vee-ul-This fluid prevents the joints from rubbing together. Many times elderly people get arthritis, this is when the fluid is thin and weak, and causes them to rub together.As I was studying I found that there are over 30 joints in the body. We are just going to cover a few.Ist one-Hinge allows for flexing and extending
24Pivot JointPivot allows Rotation of one bone around another – Your neck
25Ball and socket joint Shoulder/Hip Ball and socket allow a wide range of motion
26Saddle JointsSaddle joints are found in the thumb it allows for the thumb to cross over to the palm of the hand
27CondyloidCon-de-loid- - This joint allows you to move up and down- As in your wrist, you can’t move it sideways
28Quick TriviaWhat mineral is important for bone growth and protects from osteoporosis?