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The impact of citizens opinions on Dutch police participation in the deportation of the Jews 1942- 1943 Guus Meershoek.

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Presentation on theme: "The impact of citizens opinions on Dutch police participation in the deportation of the Jews 1942- 1943 Guus Meershoek."— Presentation transcript:

1 The impact of citizens opinions on Dutch police participation in the deportation of the Jews Guus Meershoek

2 Dutch police in 1940 Civilian: Cities: Gemeentepolitie Smaller towns: Gemeenteveldwacht Villages: Rijksveldwacht Military: Border regions: Koninklijke Marechaussee Riot police Politietroepen

3 Jordaan-riot, Amsterdam 1934

4 German interferences and strategy Merging forces into state-police National recruitment and training centre Putting reliable Dutch officers at the top of main forces Relying on local, trusted institution (Jewish council, local police forces) Territorial scissors movement

5 Scissors movement in rounding up

6 Four crucial moments in deportation August 1942: chiefs of city police in A. and TH offer assistance October 1942: too much hidden resistance in A. and TH, start rounding up in countryside February 1943: ordinary policemen refuse after call of conscience archbishop May 1943: end of almost all assistance

7 Citizens opinions & impact on police Population well-informed, anti-semitism not socially accepted: February-strike, tolerated by local police Summer 1942: rumours of mass-murder in Poland Local authorities loyal, patrolmen comply Inner emigration population, covered resistance in police February 1943: call of conscience archbishop

8 Conclusion German authorities took the lead Well-functioning polity stimulates compliance Police enforced estranged Police and population well-informed Some reports of genocide in summer of 1942 Population went into inner emigration Call to conscience came too late


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