German interferences and strategy Merging forces into state-police National recruitment and training centre Putting reliable Dutch officers at the top of main forces Relying on local, trusted institution (Jewish council, local police forces) Territorial scissors movement
Four crucial moments in deportation August 1942: chiefs of city police in A. and TH offer assistance October 1942: too much hidden resistance in A. and TH, start rounding up in countryside February 1943: ordinary policemen refuse after call of conscience archbishop May 1943: end of almost all assistance
Citizens opinions & impact on police Population well-informed, anti-semitism not socially accepted: February-strike, tolerated by local police Summer 1942: rumours of mass-murder in Poland Local authorities loyal, patrolmen comply Inner emigration population, covered resistance in police February 1943: call of conscience archbishop
Conclusion German authorities took the lead Well-functioning polity stimulates compliance Police enforced estranged Police and population well-informed Some reports of genocide in summer of 1942 Population went into inner emigration Call to conscience came too late
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