# Mix and Match: A Simple Approach to General Secure Multiparty Computation + Markus Jakobsson Bell Laboratories Ari Juels RSA Laboratories.

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Mix and Match: A Simple Approach to General Secure Multiparty Computation
+ Markus Jakobsson Bell Laboratories Ari Juels RSA Laboratories

What is secure multiparty computation?

The problem f(a,b) Alice Bob a b

The problem f(a,b) b a Alice Bob f Black Box a b

Millionaires’ Problem
Richie Rich is richer Who’s richer? > Scrooge McDuck Worth \$a Worth \$b

Auctions Special Edition Furby Special Edition f Furby Bob \$810 Alice
Cate f Bob Edgar

What’s in the black box?

Trusted third party? Trusted Party We want to do without!

Tamper-resistant hardware
f(a,b) Alice Bob b a But we don’t want to rely on hardware!

Secure multiparty computation
f(a,b) Alice Bob b a Alice and Bob simulate circuit

Other methods Simulate full field operations
gate involves local computation gate requires rounds of verifiable secret sharing Complex Recently becoming somewhat practical

Our method: Mix and match
Conceptually simple Simulates only boolean gates directly Very efficient for bitwise operations, not so for others Some pre-computation possible

Some previous work Yao Chaum, Damgård, van de Graaf
Use of logical tables (two-player) Chaum, Damgård, van de Graaf Multi-party use of logical tables (for passive adversaries)

Mix and Match (Non-private)

Non-private simulation: OR gate
b 1

Non-private simulation: OR gate
Alice Bob a b a b a b 1 = ? 1 1 1 = ? 1 1 1 = ? 1 1 a b = 1 1 1 1 1

Alice and Bob simulate circuit
Mix and Match f(a,b) Alice Bob b a Alice and Bob simulate circuit

Mix and Match (Private)

First tool: Mix network (MN)
plaintext 1 plaintext 2 plaintext 3 plaintext 4 Randomly permutes and encrypts inputs

Second tool: Matching or Plaintext equivalence decision (PED)
= ? Ciphertext 1 Ciphertext 2 Reveals no information other than equality

Mix and Match Step 1: Key sharing between Alice and Bob -- public key y Step 2: Alice and Bob encrypt individual bits under y a Alice a Bob b b

Step 3: Alice and Bob mix tables
1 a b Mix network (MN) Permute and encrypt rows

= = Step 4: Matching using PED, i.e., Table lookup b a b a
? b a = ? b a a b = Find matching row

Repeat matching on each table for entire circuit
f(a,b) =

Decrypting f(a,b) Step 5: Decrypt f(a,b) Alice f(a,b) f(a,b) Bob

Some extensions Easy to have multiple parties participate
“Mixing” and “matching” can be performed by different coalitions We can get XOR for “free” using Franklin-Haber cryptosystem

Privacy and Robustness
As long as more than half of participants are honest… Computation will be performed correctly No information other than output is revealed Security in random oracle model reducible to Decision Diffie-Hellman problem

Low cost Very low overall broadcast complexity: O(Nn) group elements
N is number of gates n is number of players Equal to that of best competitive methods O(n+d) broadcast rounds d is circuit depth Computation: O(Nn) exponentiations for each player

Questions? + ?

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