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Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update Demand Technology Software, Inc. Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update.

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Presentation on theme: "Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update Demand Technology Software, Inc. Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update Demand Technology Software, Inc. Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update Demand Technology Windows Symposium CMG – 12/05/2005 Phil Henninge Demand Technology Software 1020 Eighth Avenue South, Suite 6, Naples, FL phone: (239) fax: (239)

2 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 2 Cape Coral Naples Charley August 13, 2004

3 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 3 Cape Coral Naples Wilma - October 24, 2005

4 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 4 Agenda Review Whats New Virtual Machine Timing What Lies Ahead Sessions Available at CMG Questions

5 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 5 Introduction What is a virtual machine? An abstract machine for which an interpreter exists. Virtual machines are often used in the implementation of portable executors for high- level languages. - Melinda Varian, Princeton University n Java VM n SAS n Visual Basic for Applications – VBA A software emulation of a physical computing environment See e.g., VM/CMS

6 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 6 Physical Hardware Host Operating System Virtual System Software Virtual Machine Operating System and Applications Virtual Hardware Guest Virtual Machine Virtual Machine Operating System and Applications Virtual Hardware Guest Virtual Machine Virtual System Overview

7 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 7 Introduction Who Are the Major Players? VMWare (wholly owned subsidiary of EMC) Workstation - powerful virtual machine software for developers and system administrators GSX Server -enterprise-class virtual infrastructure for departmental server consolidation and streamlining development and testing operations ESX Server -virtual infrastructure software for partitioning, consolidating and managing systems in mission-critical environments Microsoft (formerly Connectix). Virtual PC - a software virtualization solution that allows you to run multiple PC- based operating systems simultaneously on one workstation. Virtual Server Standard Edition – run on one server with up to 4 processors. Virtual Server Enterprise Edition – run on one server with up to 32 processors.

8 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 8 Introduction – VMWare Virtualization

9 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 9 Introduction - Microsoft Virtualization From the bottom of the stack: The host operating system Windows Server 2003 manages the host system. Virtual Server 2005 provides a VM virtualization layer that manages virtual machines, providing the software infrastructure for hardware emulation. Each virtual machine consists of a set of virtualized devices, the virtual hardware for each virtual machine.

10 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 10 Roles of Virtual Systems in an Enterprise Consolidate multiple server workloads. Underutilized Servers Disaster Recovery Environmental and TCO (total cost of ownership) Re-host legacy applications on newer hardware. NT 4.0 W2K Linux under Windows/Windows under Linux Enterprise software test and development. Technology arose for ISV test and development. Technology demos.

11 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 11 Performance Monitoring of VSs At the system level we look at the system resources CPU Utilization Memory Utilization (memory consumption and paging) Disk Utilization Network Utilization (NIC traffic and topology) At the software level we look at specific objects. Process (what are the VMWare and Microsoft specific processes) Network Interface (what virtual network adapters are defined) Other Performance Objects

12 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 12 Monitoring VMware VMWare object One instance for each Virtual Machine Virtual Disk (8 Counters) – D isk operations (R-W-Total) performed by the guest OS Guest Locked Memory Bytes – The number of bytes of simulated physical memory that is locked by the guest OS Guest Virtual Physical Memory Bytes – The number of bytes of simulated physical memory in the virtual machine Percent Guest Physical Memory Touched – The percentage of simulated physical memory recently used by the guest OS

13 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 13 Monitoring VMware VMWare object (Continuted) Network Counters (9 Counters) Network Transfers/sec Network Bytes Transferred/sec Network Transfer Errors/sec Network Packets Sent/sec Network Bytes Sent/sec Network Send Errors/sec Network Packets Received/sec Network Bytes Received/sec Network Receive Errors/sec

14 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 14 Monitoring VMware Host OS Processes Vmnat, vmnetdhcp,vmware,vmware-authd,vmware-vmx Network Interface Vmware virtual Ethernet adapter VMNet1,.. Adapter VMNet8 VMWare object One instance for each Virtual Machine Guest OS Processes VMWareService, VMWareTray, VMWareUser Network Interface AMD PCNET Family Ethernet Adapter

15 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 15 Monitoring Virtual Server Virtual Processors Object (Virtual PC) One instance for each Virtual Machine Guest External Interrupts Number of virtual interrupts delivered to guest OS. Host-to-VMM Context Switches Number of context switches between Windows and the guest (VMM) context. Cumulative Guest Run Time The guest run time represents the number of microseconds the guest processor has run on a host processor. With the default scaling, the graph represents guest run time percentage. VMM Exceptions Number of processor exceptions handled by the VMM.

16 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 16 Monitoring Virtual Server The Virtual Server WMI Class contains two objects VirtualMachine - CPU, disk, and network usage counters – an instance for each virtual machine VirtualNetwork - monitor the usage of each virtual network (must be attached to a physical NIC – an instance for each virtual network For detailed information on these objects: erver/2005/proddocs/vs_tr_tools_WMI.mspx

17 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 17 Monitoring Virtual Server Host OS Processes Vssrvc (one for each guest machine) Virtual Processors Object (Virtual PC) One instance for each Virtual Machine WMI Objects (Virtual Server) VirtualMachine One instance for each virtual machine VirtualNetwork One instance for each virtual network

18 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 18 Monitoring Virtual Server Guest OS Processes (after Virtual Machine Additions) VMSrvc, VMUSrvc, VMPCMap, Interface Network Interface Virtual Server - Intel Based PCI Fast Ethernet Adapter (Generic) Packet Scheduler Miniport Virtual PC – Intel DC21140 PCI Fast Ethernet Adapter

19 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 19 Performance Monitoring of VSs HALT/Idle Loop Measurement Anomaly When a machine is idle, its operating system will either issue a HALT instruction or repeatedly execute an idle loop of NOP instructions Idle loop is the default for most server machines Idle loop is a function contained in hal.dll When a virtual machine executes an idle loop, it is actively executing instructions which run on the host machines physical processor. Thus performance tools in the guest machine will show inactivity, while the host machine will appear fully utilized. Virtual machines running Windows operating systems having the wrong HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) installed will make the guest operating system spin in its idle loop, instead of HALTing when there is nothing else to do.

20 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 20 Performance Monitoring of VSs Halt/Idle Anomaly Even when the correct HAL is installed, some guest operating systems HALT more aggressively than others. The multiprocessing HAL favors using the Idle loop, instead of HALTing a processor. VMWare reports that W2K frequently spins, whereas Windows 2003 HALTs whenever it is idle. See AnswerID 1077 in WMWares KB: p_faqid=1077

21 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 21 Virtual Systems Sizing VMWare Planning Tools VMware P2V Assistant atures.html atures.html VMWare Virtual Infrastructure Methodology n

22 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 22 Virtual Systems Sizing Microsoft Planning Tools Microsoft Virtual Server Migration Toolkit n rtualserver/overview/vsmtdatasheet.mspx rtualserver/overview/vsmtdatasheet.mspx Solution Accelerator for Consolidating and Migrating LOB Applications n solacc/lobsa/default.mspx solacc/lobsa/default.mspx

23 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 23 Virtual Systems Sizing Sizing destination servers requires first understanding the performance of the applications running on the source servers. The VM Host machine must contain sufficient capacity (Processor, Memory, Disk and Network) to handle the peak loads of guest machines accumulate measurement data over long term periods that include seasonal peaks compute Peak:Average ratios and understand when peak periods occur to ensure they do not overlap on the same host compute th percentiles

24 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 24 Virtual Systems Sizing

25 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 25 CPU Capacity The processor requirements of a source server should not exceed the processor capacity available to a virtual machine on the destination server. Normalize based on MHz CPU requirements = number of CPUs x CPU speed x CPU utilization The % Processor Time for all virtual machines running on a destination server should be < 90 % of the available CPU capacity 10% reserved for the host OS and I/O for virtual machine threads. CPU capacity = number of processors x CPU speed

26 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 26 Memory Capacity The total amount configured for all virtual machines cannot exceed the size of physical RAM Guest Memory = sizeof(RAM) – Available Bytes (95 th percentile) Every virtual machine requires an additional 32 MB of physical memory The host operating system requires exclusive use of at least 384 MB of memory. Host Memory Capacity > (SizeofVM 1 +32MB)+(SizeofVM 2 +32MB)+…+(SizeofVM n +32MB)

27 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 27 Disk Capacity The disk must be sized to support Physical Disk\Transfers/sec for all guests I/Os. A single drive can sustain random I/Os per second. Faster disks with 15,000 RPMs and 6 ms seek time may be able to do better. See Friedmans A simplified approach to Windows disk tuning on Tuesday.

28 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 28 Disk Capacity The following are best practices for performance optimization on virtual hard disks: Use a hard disk solution that allows fast access, such as a locally-attached SCSI hard disk, RAID, or SAN. Put each virtual hard disk on a dedicated volume, SCSI hard disk, RAID, or SAN disk. It is easiest to put virtual hard disks together with their associated virtual machine configuration files on a RAID or SAN because this keeps everything in one place. Reduce disk fragmentation. As a dynamically expanding virtual hard disk increases in size, it becomes increasingly fragmented. You can defragment the host operating system to make the virtual hard disk more contiguous. If disk performance is important, consider doing this. Fixed size virtual hard disks are allocated a contiguous block of reserved space on the physical hard disk. Therefore, there is no overhead created by the growing disk. Compact the virtual hard disks to create more physical disk space.

29 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 29 Network Capacity Provide a dedicated network adapter in the destination server for each network adapter that existed in the source server. Configure at least one additional network adapter for managing Virtual Server itself and remote access to virtual machine consoles.

30 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 30 Network Capacity Load balance. You can load-balance virtual machines for networking. To do this, run a mix of network-intensive and non-network-intensive applications on a single physical computer. Add network adapters. For best performance, you should allocate a physical network adapter to each virtual machine. Note: Virtual machines cannot take advantage of software-based network load balancing (NLB) The Virtual Server network driver runs below the network load balancing driver in the host operating system network stack. This isolates each host & guest operating systems.

31 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 31 Questions? Resources VM and the VM Community: Past, Present, and Future Melinda Varian, Princeton University: Microsoft Virtual Server VMWare Planning Guide for the Virtual Server 2005 Solution VMWare Capacity Planning

32 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 32 Agenda Review Whats New Virtual Machine Timing What Lies Ahead Sessions Available at CMG Questions

33 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 33 Whats New with VMWare ESX Server 3 and VirtualCenter 2 Distributed Availability Services Distributed Resource Scheduling VMware Workstation bit Guest Support for AMD64 and EM64T Systems with VT Support Two-way Virtual SMP (experimental) VMware Player Enables Anyone to Easily Run, Share or Evaluate Software in a Virtual Machine on a Windows or Linux PC

34 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 34 Whats New with Microsoft Virtual Server 2005 R2 High Availability Clustering virtual machines across hosts Host clustering support Greater Scalability 64-bit (x64) host support Improved Performance Up to 50% drop in CPU utilization Improved Manageability PXE network boot support Better Interoperability Linux guest support

35 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 35 Agenda Review Whats New Virtual Machine Timing What Lies Ahead Sessions Available at CMG Questions

36 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 36 Virtual Machine Timing Whitepaper that discusses timing mechanisms between operating systems and hardware. Processes within a virtual machine interact with the virtual machine monitor instead of the hardware:

37 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 37 Virtual Machine Timing Windows keeps track of time by counting timer interrupts or timer ticks. When the operating system starts up, it reads the current time to the nearest second from the computer's battery-backed (CMOS) real time clock or queries a network time server to obtain a more precise time. To update the time from that point on, the operating system sets up one of the computer's hardware timekeeping devices to interrupt periodically at a known rate (say, times per second). This is timekeeping mechanism is known either as the periodic interrupt or the quantum in Windows.

38 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 38 Virtual Machine Timing Types of Hardware Timers PIT - Programmable Interval Timer CMOS RTC - Real Time Clock Local APIC - Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller ACPI - Advanced Configuration and Power Interface or Chipset TSC - Time Stamp Counter HPET - High Precision Event Timer

39 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 39 Virtual Machine Timing Using a hardware interrupt to track time leads to problems in the guest virtual machine: At the moment a virtual machine should generate a timer interrupt, it may not actually be running. In fact, the virtual machine may not get a chance to run again until it has accumulated a backlog of many timer interrupts. Timer interrupts queued up for a single timer device cause a scalability issue as more and more virtual machines are run on the same physical machine.

40 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 40 Virtual Machine Timing What does this mean for Windows analysts? Microsoft Windows has an additional time measurement feature accessed through the QueryPerformanceCounter system call. This name is a misnomer, since the call never accesses the CPU's performance counter registers. Instead, it reads one of the timer devices that have a counter, allowing time measurement with a finer granularity than the interrupt-counting system time of day clock.

41 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 41 Virtual Machine Timing Lets look at the counter PERF_100NSEC_TIMER Description - This counter type shows the active time of a component as a percentage of the total elapsed time of the sample interval. It measures time in units of 100 nanoseconds. Counters of this type are designed to measure the activity of one component at a time. Formula - (N1 - N0) / (D1 - D0) x 100, where the denominator (D) represents the total elapsed time of the sample interval, and the numerator (N) represents the portions of the sample interval during which the monitored components were active. Example - Processor\ % User Time

42 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 42 Virtual Machine Timing Lets Look at another counter PERF_PRECISION_100NS_TIMER Description - This counter type shows a value that consists of two counter values: the count of the elapsed time of the event being monitored, and the "clock" time from a private timer in the same units. It measures time in 100 nanosecond units. This counter type differs from other counter timers in that the clock tick value accompanies the counter value eliminating any possible difference due to latency from the function call. Precision counter types are used when standard system timers are not precise enough for accurate readings. Formula - Nx - N0 / D1 - D0, where the numerator (N) represents the counter value, and the denominator (D) is the value of the private timer. The private timer has the same frequency as the 100 nanosecond timer. Example - PhysicalDisk\% Disk Time

43 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 43 Virtual Machine Timing Counter types and example counters in Windows Server 2003 using timers: PERF_100NSEC_TIMER – Processor\ % User Time PERF_100NSEC_TIMER_INV – Processor\ % Processor Time PERF_AVERAGE_TIMER - PhysicalDisk\ Avg. Disk sec/Transfer PERF_ELAPSED_TIME - System\System Up Time PERF_PRECISION_100NS_TIMER - PhysicalDisk\% Disk Time

44 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 44 What Lies Ahead? Hardware enabled virtualization Intel - VT: Virtualization Technology formerly Vanderpool Now shipping in desktops – server support in 2006 AMD - Pacifica – first half of 2006 Software VMWare – ESX will most likely be modified to support hardware virtualization Microsoft – Longhorn Server will have extensions after it is released XenSource – Open source consortium targeting VT and Pacifica Virtuozzo – from SWSoft – uses a customized HAL to virtualize OS

45 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 45 Agenda Review Whats New Virtual Machine Timing What Lies Ahead Virtual Machine Sessions at CMG 2005 Questions

46 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 46 Virtual Machine Sessions at CMG 314 Virtualization: Concepts, Applications, and Performance Modeling TUESDAY 9:15 AM - 10:15 AM OSCEOLA 3&4 324 To V or not to V: A Practical Guide to Virtualization TUESDAY 10:30 AM - 12:00 PM OSCEOLA 3&4 334 Measuring Up for Server Virtualization TUESDAY 2:00 PM - 3:00 PM OSCEOLA 3&4 344 Virtual Performance Wont Do: Capacity Planning for Virtual Systems TUESDAY 3:45 PM - 4:45 PM OSCEOLA 3&4 546 Modeling VMware ESX Performance THURSDAY 3:45 PM - 4:45 PM OSCEOLA 1&2

47 © Demand Technology Software, Inc.Virtual Systems Monitoring and Capacity Planning – An Update 47 Questions? Resources Timekeeping in VMware Virtual Machines: n Microsoft Virtual Server: n VMWare: n Others:


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