2 1 ST Amendment“Congress shall make no law...abridging...the right of the people peaceably...to petition the Government for a redress of grievance”
3 * * LOBBYING IN OUR MOVEMENT Information and Analysis Data and Assessment
4 Introduction to the Legislative process Imagine that you are watching the full House of Representatives consider H.R.1402 a top priority for Rep. Steve King. You watch on C-SPAN as the house goes into the “Committee of the Whole” and passes a “motion to recommit” with specific instructions that are read quickly by the House clerk. It happens so quickly that you are not sure what just took place.Did the bill pass?
5 Congress Explained Structure Congressional office structure Basic House andsenate differencesCongressExplainedCongressionaloffice structureStructurePASSING ABILL & PRocedure
6 Lawmaking power in Congress StructureU.S. CONSTITUTIONArt. 1, §. 1Lawmaking power in Congress
7 Congress Senate : 2 Senators for each state House: # of Representatives depends on the population of each statetotal : delegates.
8 Montana ONLY 1 Representative! District of Columbia, Guam , & US Virgin Islands send non-voting delegates to the House. Puerto Rico sends a non - voting Resident Commissioner who serves a year term. The North Mariana Islands are not represented.
9 Congress organized on 2 principles PARTY ORGANIZATIONRepublican ConferenceDemocratic Caucus.LEADERSHIP ORGANIZATIONHouse Leadership:Majority Party- 1) Speaker of the House; 2) Majority Leader; 4) Majority WhipMinority Party- 1) Minority Leader; 2) Assistant Minority Leader; 3) Minority WhipSenate Leadership:President of the Senate: Vice President of U.S (Joe Biden; only votes if there is a tie);President Pro Tempore-Senator of the Majority Party;Senate Majority Leader;Assistant Senate Majority Leader/Senate Majority Whip.Minority Leadership: 1) Senate Minority Leader ; 2) Assistant Senate Minority Leader/Senate Minority Whip
10 VS Senate House Less procedural flexibility and more Larger (435 members)Smaller (100 members)Shorter term (2 years)Longer terms (6 years)All members of the HR serves a two-year termand are elected every two years.Every two years, only approximately 1/3 of the Senate is elected.Less procedural flexibility and morerestraints on each representativeMore Procedural Flexibility and fewer restraints on each SenatorStronger LeadershipWeaker LeadershipScheduling by Speaker and party leadershipwith less consultation among RepresentativesScheduling by majority leader but with moreconsultation among ALL SenatorsLess debate.Unlimited Debate (cloture)More partisan and less individualisticLess partisan and more individualisticNarrower constituencyBroader constituencyRules favor Majority RuleRules favor Minority Rule
12 Forms of Legislative Proposals Bills: “H.R. or S.”Joint Resolution: “H.J. Resor S.J. Res”Concurrent Resolution: “H. Con. Res or S. Con. Res”Resolution: “H. Res or S. Res.”
13 Critical Role of Committees Committees play a huge role in shaping legislation,even though the public gives more attention to floor action.Standing.SubcommitteesSelectJoint Committee
14 THE mark upSession at which committee members debate and propose changes to a bill before it is “reported out”.Committee and its chair may either: a) consider and “report its finding” (approve) the bill with or without amendments or recommendations; b) rewrite the bill entire, reject it, or simply refuse to consider it.
15 House ProcedureRULE: a simple resolution, which must be passed by the House, that sets out the guidelines of a specific bill—how much time will be allowed for debate, whether amendments can be offered, and other matters.committee of the whole: a parliamentary device used to expedite the work of the House during debate and amendments to bills.motion to recommit: procedure to return a bill to committee for further review or markup. If the attempt to recommit fails, a vote on final passage is ordered.
16 Senate ProcedureAfter a Senate committee refers a bill to the fullSenate, it can take one of two main roads:With emergency or other non-controversial bills, a simple voice vote is taken of the Senate, and the bill either passes or fails.FILIBUSTER: If objection was offered, then each Senator has the opportunity to speak on the bill for as long as he or she wishes.Motion for Cloture can stop a filibuster (requires 60 votes)If 60 votes, then the bill goes to a final vote requiring only 51 votes.
17 ConferenceIf anything in the two versions of the bill differ, in any way, the bills must be reconciled.# of Representatives & Senators meet to work out the differences in the two versions of the billFollowing negotiations, managers report back to their houses that: 1) they were able to agree on the bill; 2) able to agree only on some parts of the bill; 3) or were unable to agree at all on the bill
21 TITLE DESCRIPTION Chief of staff Runs office and is Member's top political advisor.Legislative director, counsel, assistant.Monitors legislative schedule and makes recommendations regarding the pros and cons of particular legislation. Responsibility to an issue is assigned to the counsel or legislative assistants who have particular expertise in specific areas such as immigrationPress secretary/Communications directorResponsible for Member's relationship with media; is the liaison for the local and national press; issues press releases.Staff DirectorManages and implements agenda of all committee work for the Representative or Senator’s committee duties.Office ManagerSupervises support staff; manages official accounts; buys/maintains equipment.SchedulerResponsible for apportioning member’s time among the many demands of congressional responsibilities and constituent requests; arranging speaking engagements and visits to the district, etc.District DirectorDetermine constituents’s opinion and helps them solve problems. Liaison to local community and district offices.Campaign DirectorFocuses on election and political activities including fundraising, prepares member for public appearances and debates, updates on strategies.
23 Understand Factors that Shape Public Policy 7P’sThe seven P’sPrioritiesPersonal ExperiencePress/Public OpinionPrevious ExperiencePromotersProfilePositions
24 Understand Factors that Shape Public Policy Understanding this Factors will provide the following benefits:Building Stronger and Deeper RelationshipsSetting PrioritiesSelecting LegislatorsPredicting Legislative ScenariosLessens the likelihood of making irrelevant, or even offensive, points or comments.
25 PROFILE of Constituents The following Questions should guide your Research:DemographicsEconomicsAttractionsHistoryYour Issue
26 PREVIOUS ExperienceChildhood and SchoolCareerPositions
27 POSITIONSResponsivenessFamiliarityPrivate or Public statements
28 PRESS & PUBLIC OPINION Current and anticipated public opinion Press coverageLegislator’s press release section of his or her website
29 PROMOTERS Electoral Supporters Financially Supporters or legislative allies.
30 PRIORITIES PRIORITIES PRIORITIES The following Questions should guide your Research:Big-picture PrioritiesRe-electionPolicymaker Consistent LocationPRIORITIES
31 PERSONAL EXPERIENCEHas the policymaker had a personal experience on the issue?
33 U.S.GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: Congressional Directory Contains biographies of members of Congress;Committee membership rosters;Directory information for congressional offices;CONGRESSIONAL RECORD: edited transcript of House & Senate proceedings.THOMAS Library of Congress: 1) Bills, Resolutions; 2) Activity in Congress; 3) Congressional Record; 4) Schedules, Calendars; 5) Committee Information; 6) Presidential Nominations; 7) Treaties; 8) Senate and House Rules.
35 STRATEGYKEY steps to building and maintaining an effective legislative action plan are as follows:1) evaluate political & legislative landscape;2) Consider your organization’s capabilities;3) prepare for planning;4); establish short term priorities with checkpoints to measure achievement;5) Emphasize long term goals;6) regularly update the plan;7) communicate your successes.
36 Political & Legislative Landscape POLITICAL: identify factors such as economic upturns and downturns, natural disasters, wars, international politics, new and existing supporters and opponents on the issue;LEGISLATIVE: identify the make up Congress, leadership, and committee chairs, Congressional Agenda and priorities, new bills and legislation introduced.
37 Consider your Organization’s History & Capabilities Your organization PositionsYour Organization’s Capacity
38 Prepare for PlanningDetermine whether you have clearly defined-time specific and measurable goals?
39 Establish Short Term Priorities with Check points It is important to identify short term achievements or1) publicity of the issue;2) meeting with key staffers;3) meeting with key legislative or executive officials.progress in order that your members can follow the campaign.For example:
40 Emphasize Long Term Goals Remember the main goal of the campaign to keep your organization informed and inspired.
41 Regularly Update the Plan Political winds shift quickly.Unexpected development can instantly kill the opportunity to advance your issue. Thus, continually update your approach as situations evolve but establish specific reporting deadlines.
42 Communicate Your Successes Generates more political recognition at all levels of a campaign internally and externally;Credit members whenever possible.CAN YOU HEREUS NOW
44 Meeting with Policy makers Lobbying is NOT about status and influence. It is about changing the hearts and minds of government and legislators. HOW TO DO THIS?Effective lobbying uses information, communication, public pressure and engagement to bring policy change.Educate Members of CongressGive them the tools, arguments, and research to make your caseMakes them passionate about your issueKeep them updated on your issues--especially when you aren’t asking for something
45 Face to Face Concise: Have a One-Pager Focused: Talk about your goals in numbers where possibleKnow your IssueBe assertive but not offensive