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1 Who was Jesus?. 2 Using the Historical Method - The Bible as a source.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Who was Jesus?. 2 Using the Historical Method - The Bible as a source."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Who was Jesus?

2 2 Using the Historical Method - The Bible as a source.

3 3 Is the Bible biased? The Bible is biased. Show me sources that arent biased towards Jesus! - All writings/authors are biased - Doesnt make them wrong - Accurately record other historical events - To take out the Bible is biased...ironic - Those closest to Jesus will have the best info - Look at sources outside of the Bible

4 4 Historical Criteria A.) Multiple Attestation B.) Embarrassment C.) Historical Coherence - Makes sense given Jesus' time and location. D.) Dissimilarity - Teaching not emphasized in Jewish circles prior to Jesus or in Christian circles after Jesus

5 5 Did Jesus Exist?

6 6

7 7 - Affirmed in all the books of the New Testament - If we doubt Jesus existed, we have to doubt all ancient history - Sources within 30 years - A.N. Sherwin-White Did Jesus Exist? Biblical Evidence

8 8 Josephus, Jewish historian (37-97 A.D.) Arabic version of Antiquities At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. And his conduct was good and was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. And those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after this crucifixion and that he was alive; accordingly, he was perhaps the messiah concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders. Did Jesus Exist? External Evidence

9 9 The Gospel of Truth ( A.D.) A heretic writing about Jesus. For when they had seen him and had heard him, he granted them to taste him and to smell him and to touch the beloved Son. When he had appeared instructing them about the Father.... For he came by means of fleshly appearance. Did Jesus Exist? External Evidence

10 10 What Did Jesus Do? WDJD

11 11 - Jesus is almost universally acknowledged to be a Jewish religious teacher (rabbi) - Was He a miracle worker? What Did Jesus Do? Biblical Evidence

12 12 Jesus as a Miracle Worker - Multiple Attestation - Historical Coherence - Explains his influence - Historical details in the accounts - Jesus opponents What Did Jesus Do? Biblical Evidence

13 13 Mark 3:22 And the teachers of the law who came down from Jerusalem said, He is possessed by Beelzebul! By the prince of demons he is driving out demons. What Did Jesus Do? Biblical Evidence

14 14 John Dominic Crossan Throughout his life Jesus performed hearings and exorcisms for ordinary people." What Did Jesus Do? Biblical Evidence

15 15 Marcus Borg "Despite the difficulty which miracles pose for the modern mind, on historical grounds it is virtually indisputable that Jesus was a healer and exorcist." What Did Jesus Do? Biblical Evidence

16 16 Lucian 2nd century Greek satirist who wrote derisively against Christianity. The Christians, you know, worship a man to this day- the distinguished personage who introduced their novel rites, and was crucified on that account....You see, these misguided creatures start with the general conviction that they are immortal for all time which explains the contempt of death and voluntary self-devotion which are so common among them, and then it was impressed on them by their original lawgiver that they are all brothers, from the moment that they are converted and deny the gods of Greece, and worship the crucified sage, and live after his laws. All this they take quite on faith, with the result that they despise all worldly goods alike, regarding them merely as common property. What Did Jesus Do? External Evidence

17 17 Pliny the Younger. Roman author and government official (112A.D.) They (the Christians) were in habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it was light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a god, and bound themselves by a solemn oath, not to any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of food - but of an ordinary kind. What Did Jesus Do? External Evidence

18 18 Who Did Jesus Think He Was?

19 19

20 20 Jesus as a Prophet Jesus said to them, A prophet is not without honor except in his own town, among his relatives and in his own home. He could not do any miracles there, except lay his hands on a few sick people and heal them. He was amazed at their lack of faith. [Mark 6:4-6] Who Did Jesus Think He Was? Biblical Evidence

21 21 Jesus as a Prophet When the Pharisee who had invited him saw this, he said to himself, If this man were a prophet, he would know who is touching him and what kind of woman she isthat she is a sinner. [Luke 7:39] Who Did Jesus Think He Was? Biblical Evidence

22 22 Jesus as Messiah Jesus and his disciples went on to the villages around Caesarea Philippi. On the way he asked them, Who do people say I am? They replied, Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets. But what about you? he asked. Who do you say I am? Peter answered, You are the Messiah. Jesus warned them not to tell anyone about him. (Mark 8:29) Who Did Jesus Think He Was? Biblical Evidence

23 23 Jesus as Divine? - Son of God vs. Son of Man - Son of Man: Daniel 7 Who Did Jesus Think He Was? Biblical Evidence

24 24 Jesus as Divine? - Mark 10:35-45 Who Did Jesus Think He Was? Biblical Evidence

25 25 Jesus as Divine? Then the high priest stood up and said to Jesus, Are you not going to answer? What is this testimony that these men are bringing against you? But Jesus remained silent. The high priest said to him, I charge you under oath by the living God: Tell us if you are the Messiah, the Son of God. You have said so, Jesus replied. But I say to all of you: From now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven. Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, He has spoken blasphemy! Why do we need any more witnesses? Look, now you have heard the blasphemy. What do you think? He is worthy of death, they answered. [Matthew 26:62-66] Who Did Jesus Think He Was? Biblical Evidence

26 26

27 27 Jesus as Divine? - Jesus forgives sins: When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralyzed man, Son, your sins are forgiven. Now some teachers of the law were sitting there, thinking to themselves, Why does this fellow talk like that? Hes blaspheming! Who can forgive sins but God alone? [Mark 2:1-12] - Claims of blasphemy make sense in light of Jesus radical claims and actions. Who Did Jesus Think He Was? Biblical Evidence

28 28 Who did his followers think he was? Lives and deaths of the apostles Preached Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

29 29 Cornelius Tacitus ( A.D.) Roman Historian Annals Consequently, to get rid of the report Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judea, the first source of evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their center and become popular. Accordingly, many arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired. Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

30 30 Deaths of the apostles Simon Peter crucified upside down Andrew crucified Bartholomew beaten then crucified Philip crucified Simon crucified Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

31 31 Josephus, Jewish historian (37-97 A.D.) Arabic version of Antiquities Reference made to Jesus brother James: So he assembled a council of judges, and brought before it the brother of Jesus the so-called Christ, whose name was James, together with some others, and having accused them as law- breakers, he delivered them over to be stoned. Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

32 32 Deaths of the apostles James stoned to death Thaddaeus stoned to death Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

33 33 Suetonius. Roman historian 49 A.D. Because of the Jews at Rome caused continuous disturbance at the instigation of Chrestus (Christ), he ( Roman emperor Claudius) expelled them from the city. After the great fire at Rome....Punishment were also inflicted on the Christians, a sect professing a new and mischievous religious belief. Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

34 34 Deaths of the apostles John exiled Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

35 35 Emperor Trajan. (112 A.D.) In response to the Plinys inquiry regarding how to deal with the Christians, Trajan replied: No search should be made for these people; when they are denounced and found guilty they must be punished; with the restriction, however, that when the party denies himself to be a Christian, and shall give proof that he is not( that is, by adoring our Gods) he shall be pardoned on the ground of repentance, even though he may have formerly incurred suspicion. Who Did Jesus Think He Was? Eternal Evidence

36 36 Emperor Hadrian ( A.D.) I do not wish, therefore, that the matter should be passed by without examination, so that these men may neither be harassed, nor opportunity of malicious proceedings be offered to informers. If therefore, the provincials can clearly evince their charges against the Christians, so as to answer before the tribunal, let him pursue this course only, but not by mere petitions, and mere outcries against the Christians. For it is far more proper, if any one would bring an accusation, that you should examine it. Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

37 37 Deaths of the apostles Thomas speared to death James beheaded Matthew speared to death Judas Iscariot suicide by hanging Who Did Jesus Think He Was? External Evidence

38 38 What Happened to Jesus?

39 39

40 40 - All 4 Gospels claim Jesus was crucified, and Paul as well - 1 Corinthians 15:3-4 (early creed) For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures What Happened to Jesus? Biblical Evidence

41 41 Dishonor of the Cross Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree [Galatians 3:13] What Happened to Jesus? Biblical Evidence

42 42 Acts of Pontius Pilate And the expression. They pierced my hands and my feet, was used in reference to the nails of the cross which were fixed in His hands and feet. And after he was crucified, they cast lots upon his vesture, and they that crucified Him parted it among them. And that these things did happen you can ascertain the Acts of Pontius Pilate. What Happened to Jesus? External Evidence

43 43 The Apocryphon of John ( A.D.) It happened one day John, the brother of James, who are the sons of Zebedee- went up and came to the temple, that a Pharisee named Arimanius approached him and said to him Where is your master whom you followed? And he said to him He has gone to the place from which he came... What Happened to Jesus? External Evidence

44 44 The Talmud A.D An important Jewish religious record. On the eve of the Passover Yeshu (Jesus) was hanged. For forty days before the execution tool place, a herald went forth and cried, He is going forth to be stoned because he has practiced sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy. Any one who can say anything in his favor, let him come forward and plead on his behalf. But since nothing was brought forward in his favor he was hanged on the eve of the Passover. What Happened to Jesus? External Evidence

45 45 Mara bar-Serapion (Pagan) Late 1st century to 3rd century writing, speaking of Jesus: What advantage did the Jews gain from executing their wise King? It was just after that their kingdom was abolished......God justly avenged these men (the Jews)....; the Jews, ruined and driven from their land and live in complete dispersion. Nor did the King die for good; he lived on in the teaching which he had given. What Happened to Jesus? External Evidence

46 46 Conclusion - Through biblical and external evidence – - Jesus existed – - Believed he was the son of God – - Followers believed he was the son of God

47 47 Conclusion Is Crucifixion the End of the Story? – - Ministry ended with brutal death by crucifixion – - Disciples fled and abandoned Him – - All of Jesus honor wiped out


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