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1 Responsible Tourism 2. The market for responsible tourism © Anna Spenceley, 2007Tibet University module development supported by Columbia University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Responsible Tourism 2. The market for responsible tourism © Anna Spenceley, 2007Tibet University module development supported by Columbia University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Responsible Tourism 2. The market for responsible tourism © Anna Spenceley, 2007Tibet University module development supported by Columbia University

2 2 Contents A. Global demand and trends in originating markets for responsible tourism B. The four Ps: Products, Price, Promotion, Place C. Products: Global and international responsible tourism products D. Price: The market demand for responsible tourism E. Promotion: What tour operators are doing to promote responsible tourism; where tourists obtain information about responsible tourism products to plan their holidays; F. Place: Responsible tourism in Tibet and China. G. Responsible marketing H. Discussion questions I. Assignment J. Sources of information

3 3 A.Global demand and trends for RT © Anna Spenceley, 2007 General increase in demand for holidays that are: Good for the environment Benefit local people Conserve local culture and traditions International award schemes include: Responsible Tourism Awards Tourism for Tomorrow Awards

4 4 Marketing considers the 4 Ps Products Price Promotion Place

5 5 Marketing considers the 4 Ps Products Price Promotion Place

6 6 B. Products - Operators Globally: UNEPs Tour Operators' Initiative KEL 12 (Italy) REWE-Touristik GmbH (Germany) Premier Tours (USA) Sahara Tours International (Morocco) Settemari (Italy) Studiosus (Germany) Thomas Cook (France) Travel Waljis PVT (Pakistan) TUI Group (Germany) VASCO Travel (Turkey) Viaggi del Ventaglio (Italy) Accor (France) Atlas Voyages (Morocco) Aurinkomatkat-Suntours (Finland) DiscoveryInitiatives (UK) Dynamic Tours (Morocco) Exodus (UK) First Choice Holidays PLC Mainstream Sector Mainstream Sector (UK) FreeWayAdventures (Brazil) Hotelplan (Switzerland) © Anna Spenceley, 2007

7 7 B. Products - Operators Globally - Commitment of UNEPs Tour Operators Initiative Statement of Commitment to Sustainable Tourism Development. 1. Commitment to sustainable development and management of Tourism 1.1 We regard Sustainable Tourism Development as a guiding concept for the sound management of our business. 1.2 We define Sustainable Development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 1.3 We are committed to developing, operating and marketing tourism in a sustainable manner; that is, all forms of tourism which make a positive contribution to the natural and cultural environment, which generate benefits for the host communities, and which do not put at risk the future livelihood of local people. 1.4 As Tour Operators we believe that we can be important contributors to Sustainable Tourism Development. We will strive to anticipate and prevent economic, environmental, social and cultural degradation. We will work towards integrating these considerations into our operations and activities. 1.5 We are entering into a partnership with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), to improve our performance in order to achieve sustainable development and management of tourism. © Anna Spenceley, 2007

8 8 B. Products - Operators Globally: Members of UNEPs Tour Operators' Initiative 2. Principles of sustainable development and management of tourism 2.1 We recognise that tourism can contribute to the viability of local economies. We also recognise that tourism can have negative impacts on the economy, environment, nature, social structures and local cultures. In the long-term interest of host communities and of our industry, we will endeavour to prevent or minimise these impacts. 2.2 We are committed to complying with local, national and international laws and regulations applicable to our business activities. 2.3 We oppose and actively discourage illegal, abusive or exploitative forms of tourism. 2.4 We are committed to a continual attempt to improve our performance in the context of sustainable development and management of tourism. 2.5 We will manage and monitor the environmental, cultural and social impacts of our activities. 2.6 We will strive to pursue the best practices in all our activities - internally and when forming business relationships with partners, suppliers and sub-contractors - especially with regard to: responsible use of natural resources (e.g. land, soil, energy, water); reducing, minimizing and preventing pollution and waste (e.g. solid and liquid waste, emissions to air); conserving plants, animals, ecosystems and protected areas (biodiversity); conserving landscapes, cultural and natural heritage; respecting the integrity of local cultures and avoiding negative effects on social structures; involving, and co-operating with, local communities and people ; using local products and skills © Anna Spenceley, 2007

9 9 B. Products - Operators Globally: Members of UNEPs Tour Operators' Initiative 3. Public awareness and communication 3.1 We wish to create awareness and active involvement among our customers towards the natural, social and cultural environment of the places they visit. We further wish to encourage host communities and our customers to develop a better understanding and mutual respect for one another. 3.2 We will endeavour in our public communication and advertising to promote behaviour and activities compatible with the principles of sustainable development and management of tourism. 3.3 We will encourage other tour operators to support this Statement. © Anna Spenceley, 2007

10 10 B. Products - Green Market: Hotel Ucliva Switzerland Europes most environmental hotel Booked full months ahead All local cuisine Solar and wood heating All produce bought locally All staff are from the village Walk the trails, see the wildlife, visit the villagers, and get a discount if you chop wood © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

11 11 Marketing usually considers the 4 Ps Products Price Promotion Place

12 12 Consumer attitudes to environment and sustainable tourism IssueProportion of sample Source and sample size* Importance of environmentally sensitive policies and practices More likely to book hotels with a good environmental attitude 87% British 60% Australians 54% Americans IHEI study, cited in Anon (2002) (n=300 travellers at airports in UK, Australia and US) Important that their holiday does not damage the environment 71%Stueve, Cook and Drew (2002) (n=4300 adults in the USA) Importance that the holiday should not damage the environment 2000 – 85% 2002 – 87% MORI study for ABTA, cited by Goodwin and Francis (2003) (n=963 British public in 2000; n=713 in 2002) At least fairly important to use a company that accounts for environmental issues when arranging holidays and business trips 1995 – 52% 1997 – 61% Martin and Stubbs (1999) (British Public) Importance of socially responsible policies and practices More likely to book holiday using company with a written code guaranteeing good working conditions, protection of the environment and support of local charities in the tourist destination 1999 – 45% 2001 – 52% Tearfund (2001; 2002) (1999: nationally and regionally representative sample of n=2032 adults in the UK; 2001 n=927) Knowing that they had booked with a company with good ethical practice made their holiday enjoyable 24%Mintel (2001) (n=2028; UK holiday makers=1636) July 2001 Important that holidays benefit people in the destination (e.g. through jobs and business opportunities) 2000 – 71% 2002 – 76% MORI study for ABTA, cited by Goodwin and Francis (2003) (n=963 British public in 2000; n=713 in 2002) Respect towards the ways of living and the traditions of the local host population is the most important criteria when booking a holiday 95%Forschungsinstitut für Freizeit und Tourismus (FIF), Müller and Landes (2000) (German tourists) * The sample size is indicated where known Source: Spenceley (2003)

13 13 IssueProportion survey (%) Source and sample size* Willing to pay more... in general Would be willing to pay more pay more to ensure environmental preservation 40%MORI (Martin, 2001) (n=693 Package Holiday Takers in September 2000) Prepared to accept a higher price in support of environment protection 74%Forschungsinstitut für Freizeit und Tourismus (FIF) (2002), Muller and Landes, Willing to pay more if money goes towards preservation of the local environment and reversal of some of the negative environmental effects associated with tourism 35%Tearfund, 2000 Willing to pay more if workers in the destination are guaranteed good wages and working conditions 29%Tearfund, 2000 Willing to pay more... specifically Would pay to offset the carbon-dioxide emission of air travel (at a cost of £7 a flight) 77%MORI study cited in Anon 2002b Would pay to offset the carbon-dioxide emission of car rental (at £1 for a one-week rental) 79%MORI study cited in Anon 2002b Would pay to offset the carbon-dioxide emission of a hotel room (at a cost of £1 per night) 86%MORI study cited in Anon 2002b Prepared to pay between £30 and £70 extra on a 2-week holiday for a hotel that protected the environment MostAnon, 2002 (n=300 travellers at airports in UK, Australia and US) Would pay extra, on average just over 3% (which equates to around £15 on a holiday costing £500) 81%MORI (Martin, 2001) (n=693 Package Holiday Takers in September 2000) Would pay extra 2% (which equates to around £10 on a holiday costing £500) 22%Tearfund, 2000 (UK package tourists) * The sample size is indicated where known Source: Spenceley (2003) What consumers would be willing to pay for environmental and social benefits

14 14 © Wolfgang Strasdus, 2002 C. Price: Responsible tourism demand segments

15 15 Marketing usually considers the 4 Ps Products Price Promotion Place

16 16 Using Market Interest to Sell D. Promotion: Eco-exploitation - Using Market Interest to Sell Detrimental effects of environmental opportunitism Detrimental effects of environmental opportunitism Major problems are indicated in these questions: Do consumers know what they are buying and the related impact on the environment? Do consumers know how the product differs from others, if, indeed, is there any difference? Are there any problems for selling green products in the market which is becoming increasingly greening? Are there any problems for a term prefixed with eco to increase consumers interests and the related sales as well? © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

17 17 D. Promotion: What tour operators do to promote responsible tourism © Anna Spenceley, Operators in Tibet and China 2. Operators globally

18 18 D. Promotion: What tour operators do to promote responsible tourism © Anna Spenceley, Operators in Tibet and China 2. Operators globally * Wind Horse Adventures – Case study * Other responsible holidays from responsibletravel.com -look at the How this holiday makes a difference sections

19 19 D. Promotion: Where tourists get information on RT © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Guidebooks: e.g. Lonely Planet, Rough guide

20 20 The Environmental Action Model (below), illustrates the fact that tour companies may be Inactive Active Proactive towards environmental marketing or environmental improvements © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc D. Promotion: Responsible marketing Environmentally responsible actions

21 21 The degree to which any company takes environmentally responsible action or engages in environmental marketing can be shown in the positions (below) eco-exploitation positions 1 - eco-exploitation neglect marketing position 2 - neglect marketing balance between position 3 - balance between commitment to commitment to environmentally environmentally responsible action responsible action and to environmental and to environmental marketing marketing © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc Environmentally responsible actions

22 22 D. Promotion: Code of conduct Codes from Associations Codes from NGOs

23 23 Marketing usually considers the 4 Ps Products Price Promotion Place

24 24 E. Place: The market for responsible tourism in Tibet and China © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Some products on responsibletravel.com Current lack of market research on regional demand Windhorse market – case study extract on commercial issues Jiuzhaigou Niangregou

25 25 F. Discussion questions What institutions (e.g. government, NGOs, private sector etc) are promoting responsible tourism in Tibet, China and the Himalaya region? What activities are they doing in practice? (environmental, social and economic) Is there a market demand for responsible tourism in Tibet? What part of the market is demanding responsible holidays? (e.g. type of tourists/tours) Is this a growth area? What could Tibet do to promote more responsible tourism activities, and attract more responsible tourists? © Anna Spenceley, 2007

26 26 G. Assignment Speak to a tour operator based in Tibet. Ask them: 1. What they understand by responsible tourism 2. Whether they think they are a responsible tourism enterprise 3. Whether their customers are interested in conservation, Tibetan culture and local benefits from their holidays 4. How their company contributes to conservation and host communities 5. How they communicate their responsible activities to their clients Write a short report on your findings to present to the class. © Anna Spenceley, 2007

27 27 H. Sources of information Gordon, G. (ed) (2001) Tourism: putting ethics into practice, Tearfund. Available at actice.pdf Goodwin, H. and Francis, J. (2003) Ethical and responsible tourism: Consumer trends in the UK, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9 (3), 271–284. Guitierrez, E., Lamoureux, K., Matus, S., and Sebunya, K. (2005) Linking communities, tourism and conservation : A Tourism assessment process, Conservation International and The George Washington University: Market demand analysis (pp44) and Supply and Competitiveness (pp 54). Available at web.conservation.org/xp/CIWEB/downloads/TAPManual.pdf Spenceley, A. (2007) Responsible tourism practices by South African tour operators, Survey results from participants at the 2006 Tourism Indaba, International Centre for Responsible Tourism South Africa. Available at: Stueve, A.M., Cook, S.D. and Drew, D. (2002) The Geotourism Study: Excerpts from the Phase 1, Executive Summary. National Geographic Traveller and the Travel Industry Association of America, Washington. Available at: rogharris.org/GeotourismPhaseFinal.pdf Weblinks: Responsibletravel.com – including products in Tibet World Hotel Link - - which has sustainability ratingshttp://www.chinahotel-link.com/ The Travel Foundation - Irresponsible travel.com © Anna Spenceley, 2007


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