6Early Predictors for Passing (or Failing) the CAHSEE Grade Point AverageAbsencesClassroom BehaviorThese are present as early as fourth gradeZau, A. C., & Betts, J. R. (2008). Predicting success, preventing failure: An investigation of the California High School Exit Exam. Sacramento, CA: Public Policy Institute of California.
22.214.171.124.30.70.2Medium0.80.1High0.9Low0.01.0Teacher effects1.1-0.1Developmental effectsNegative1.2-0.2Reverse effectsZone of desired effectsStandard error = n/aRank: 136/136Number of meta-analyses: 7Number of studies: 207Number of participants: 13,938Retention: d =Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.New York: Routledge.
126.96.36.199.30.70.2Medium0.80.1High0.9Low0.01.0Teacher effects1.1-0.1Developmental effectsNegative1.2-0.2Reverse effectsZone of desired effectsStd. error = (low)Rank: 88/136Number of meta-analyses: 5Number of studies: 161Number of effects: 295Number of participants: 105,282Homework: d = .29Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.New York: Routledge.
11Small group learning: d = 0.49 0.50.40.60.30.70.2Medium0.80.1High0.9Low0.01.0Teacher effects1.1-0.1Developmental effectsNegative1.2-0.2Reverse effectsZone of desired effectsStandard error = n/aRank: 48/136Number of meta-analyses: 2Number of studies: 78Number of participants: 3,472Small group learning: d = 0.49Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.New York: Routledge.
12Meta-cognitive Strategies: d = 0.69 0.50.40.60.30.70.2Medium0.80.1High0.9Low0.01.0Teacher effects1.1-0.1Developmental effectsNegative1.2-0.2Reverse effectsZone of desired effectsStandard error = 0.18Rank: 13/136Number of meta-analyses: 2Number of studies: 63Number of participants: 5,028Meta-cognitive Strategies: d = 0.69Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.New York: Routledge.
13Skill is theability to applyconceptswhen notpromptedto do so.
14Reciprocal Teaching: d = 0.74 0.50.40.60.30.70.2Medium0.80.1High0.9Low0.01.0Teacher effects1.1-0.1Developmental effectsNegative1.2-0.2Reverse effectsZone of desired effectsStandard error = n/aRank: 9 /136Number of meta-analyses: 2Number of studies: 38Number of participants: 677Reciprocal Teaching: d = 0.74Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.New York: Routledge.
15Disciplinary Literacy The Case forDisciplinary Literacy
17“Fewer, Clearer, Higher” Purpose of the newly designed standards“Fewer, Clearer, Higher”
18CCSS calls for 6 shifts More informational texts Shared responsibility for Literacy with Science, History/Social Studies, and Technical SubjectsIncreased text complexityText-dependent questionsArgumentation with text-based evidenceFocus on academic vocabulary6 significant changes in ELA (coleman)
20Learning in a New Century requires all of these Partnership for 21st Century Learning@Life and Career SkillsLearning and Innovation SkillsInformation, Media, and Technology SkillsCore Subject KnowledgeLearning in a New Century requires all of these
22Argumentation and Discussion Close ReadingArgumentation and DiscussionExtended Writing
23Why Can’t the English Teachers Teach This Stuff? Reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewingLiteracy is utilized in all content areasLanguage is specialized in each areaAll learning occurs through language
25Standards 6-12: Disciplines Dominate 25ScienceHistoryMathEnglishReadingScience articlesPrimary source documentsExtended word problemsNovels, speeches, essaysWritingLab reportsEssaysExplaining one’s thinkingResearch papersLanguageDisciplinary vocabularyDiffering points of viewPublic defense and rationalesAuthor’s word choice for mood, tone, motif25
26Increasing Specialization of Literacy This pyramid illustrates the development of literacy. The pyramid base represents highly generalizable basic skills entailed in all reading tasks, (decoding skills, print and literacy conventions, recognition of high-frequency words, basic punctuation, etc). Most kids master these in the primary grades, and even those who struggle tend to master them before high school entry. As students progress, more sophisticated skills develop. These skills are not as widely applicable to different texts and reading situations, but neither are they linked to particular disciplinary specializations. They include decoding multisyllabic words, less common punctuation (such as split quotes), knowing more vocabulary including words not common in oral language, developing the cognitive endurance to maintain attention to extended discourse, monitoring comprehension, and using fix-up procedures such as rereading. They gain access to more complex forms of text organization, and begin to use author purpose as a tool for critical response. Most students learn these by the end of middle school, but many schoolers struggle with them. In high school, some students even begin to master more specialized reading routines/language uses, but these new routines, though powerful, tend to be constrained in their applicability to most reading tasks. The constraints on the generalizability of literacy skills for more advanced readers — symbolized here by the narrowing of the pyramid — are imposed by the increasingly disciplinary and technical turn in the nature of literacy tasks. Although most students manage to master basic and even intermediate literacy skills, many never gain proficiency with these more advanced skills.Progressing higher in the pyramid means learning more sophisticated, but less generalizable, skills and routines.Shanahan & Shanahan, 200826
27What makes literacy hard in the disciplines? The goals of reading and writing and the approaches to reading and writing are different depending on the content area.The texts are written differently.MathematicsScienceHistory/Social Studies27
28Math Reading Goal: arrive at “truth” Importance of “close reading” an intensive consideration of every word in the textRereading a major strategyHeavy emphasis on error detectionPrecision of understanding essentialConclusions subject to public argumentFor example, during think-alouds, the mathematicians emphasized rereading and close reading as two of their most important strategies. One of the mathematicians explained that, unlike other fields, even “function” words were important. “‘The’ has a very different meaning than ‘a,’” he explained. Students often attempt to read mathematics texts for the gist, or general idea, but this kind of text cannot be appropriately understood without close reading. Math reading requires a precision of meaning, and each word must be understood specifically in service to that particular meaning. In fact, the other mathematician noted that it sometimes took years of rereading for him to completely understand a particular proof.The mathematicians we studied were theoretical rather than applied mathematicians. In their field, errorless proofs are by their very nature true, and the purpose of their work is to create these proofs; hence, to create truth. Because proofs must be error free, they are read carefully in order to discover any possible error. Every word matters. Rereading is essential. One mathematician said, “I try to determine whether it’s [the solution to the problem] correct. That’s the important criteria, and it’s by no means assumed. It would be unusual to read a paper like this and not find something incorrect.” This mathematician is illustrating the belief that truth (correctness within the confines of a particular problem) is attainable if one can determine an error-free solution. However, errors are easy to make, so vigilance is required.28
29Mathematics Text 1.1 Introduction to Linear Equations A linear equation in n unknowns x1, xx…, xn is an equation of the forma1x1 + a2x2 +…+ anxn = b,where a1, a2,…,an, b are given real numbersFor example, with x and y instead of x1 and x2, the linear equation 2x + 3y = 6 describes the line passing through the points (3, 0) and (0, 2).Similarly, with x, y and z instead of x1, x2 and x3 the linear equation 2x + 3y + 4z = 12 describes the plan passing through the points (6, 0, 0),(0, 4, 0), (0, 0, 3).A system of m linear equations in n unknowns x1, x2, …, xn is a family of linear equations29
30Look inside the science text… Value on linking findings to other scientific principlesTransformation of text information to another visual representationMarshaling background knowledgeThe chemists were most interested in the transformation of information from one form to another. That is, when reading prose, they were visualizing, writing down formulas, or if a diagram or a chart were on the page, going back and forth between the graph and the chart. One chemist explained, “They give you the structure, the structure of the sensor is given, so I was looking at the picture as I was reading, and I tried to relate what was in the picture to what they were saying about how mercury binds to one part of the molecule.” This explanation, corroborated by the chemists’ other comments, helped us to understand that in chemistry, different or alternative representations (e.g., pictures, graphs or charts, text, or diagrams) of an idea are essential for a full understanding of the concepts. These various representations are processed recursively as reading progresses.Unlike historians, chemists create knowledge through experimentation. The findings of experiments are somewhat dependent upon the quality of the instrumentation, the design, and the statistical analysis. However, these variables are all decided upon prior to the actual experiment. The findings are generalizable to other experiments under the same conditions. Although chemists are not uncritical readers, we found that the chemists we studied did have more confidence than historians in the utility of the knowledge that had been created; they believed they could use that knowledge to predict what would happen under similar conditions. What is important to them in reading, consequently, was a full understanding of the way in which an experiment took place and the processes the experiment uncovered. Gaining that full understanding required them to think about the phenomenon being presented in prose, to visualize it, and to manipulate it in formulas and equations.
31College Intro to Science Text The Antarctic krill is (Euphausia superba) is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. Antarctic krill are shrimp-like invertebrates that live in large schools, called swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,000-30,000 individual animals per cubic meter. They feed directly on minute phytoplankton, thereby using the primary production energy that the phytoplankton originally derived from the sun in order to sustain their pelagic (open ocean) life cycle. They grow to a length of 6 cm, weigh up to 2 grams, and can live for up to six years. They are a key species in the Antarctic ecosystem and are, in terms of biomass, likely the most successful animal species on the planet.31
33History Reading History is interpretative Importance of authors and sourcing in interpretationConsideration of bias and perspective (including one’s own) are essentialHelpful to recognize history as an argument based on partial evidence (narratives are more than facts)Historians emphasized paying attention to the author/source during reading. Before reading, they would consider who the authors were and what their biases might be. Their reading purpose seemed to be to figure out which story that particular author wanted to tell; they were keenly aware that they were reading an interpretation and not “Truth.” One historian said when reading a text about Lincoln: “I saw, oh I don’t know him very well, but he [the author] is part of a right-wing group of southern conservatives who is a secessionist. I’m not sure that the best model for thinking about Lincoln as a president is one that comes from a racist. So I have my critical eyes up a little bit, so it’s a bit of a stretch to be friendly to, so I wanted to make sure to read it fairly.” In this nuanced example, the historian reveals that he does not read the text as truth, but rather as an interpretation that has to be judged based upon its credibility. He attempts to evaluate its credibility through an examination of the author’s biases. However, he also knows that he, as a reader, has his own biases, and that his disregard for right-wing secessionist groups might color his reading and he could miss important insights. He reads with a view that both author and reader are fallible and positioned. The varied emphases shown in these examples are related to the intellectual values of a discipline and the methods by which scholarship is created. History relies on document analysis (document being widely defined to include films, interview protocol, etc.). These are collected after an event occurs, and their selection/analysis take place somewhat simultaneously. Thus, it is possible for a historian to choose and analyze evidence, unwittingly perhaps, that corroborates a previously held perspective. The historians we studied read with that caution in mind. Unfortunately, the nature of historiography (how history is written/presented) is not often the subject of discussion in adolescent history classes. Students believe they are reading to learn “the facts,” and fail to consider potential bias (Shanahan & Shanahan)33
34Multiple Gist Text Set Chart of slaves owned by Jackson Text of Jackson’s inaugurationBank Veto Speech34
35Tools for Transforming Texts In the mind and on paperLanguage framesVisual displaysNotetaking guides
36Multiple Text Discussion Web in History YESNOText 1 EvidenceText 1 EvidenceText 2 EvidenceShould explorersrisk lives toachieve goals?Text 2 EvidenceOur ViewText 3 EvidenceText 3 Evidence36
37Guided Notetaking in Science Elements:Arctic KrillProperties:invertebrateLays eggs4 Stages to developmentlarvae, juveniles, gravid females, and other adultsEat phytoplanktonLay eggsProcessesEggs are laid at surface of water and dropHatched eggs rise to surfaceLarvae are at surfaceKrill reach adulthood (2-3 years)Key Details6,000-10,000 eggs laidEggs hatch at about 2,000-3,000 metersLarvae develop, nourished by yolkDevelop more legs, eyes, grow by molting, Eat algae under iceJuveniles move inland of adultsDifferent stages kept separate!AnalogiesLike a snake sheds its skin as it grows, so does the krill.Krill eat algae the same way a lawnmower takes in grassIllustrations:(Chart of different seasons and changes in the krill as it goes through the life cycle.)37
39Envelope fold Let’s Make a Foldable™ Focus Lesson Guided Instruction Collaborative LearningIndependent Learning
40A Model for Success for All Students TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Model for Success for All StudentsFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
41The sudden release of responsibility TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus Lesson“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
42TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY DIY SchoolTEACHER RESPONSIBILITY(none)“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradualrelease of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
43The “Good Enough” Classroom TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradualrelease of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
45A Model for Success for All Students TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”Focus LessonGuided Instruction“We do it”“You do ittogether”Collaborative“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYA Model for Success for All StudentsFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
46What are the qualities necessary for a good chocolate chip cookie?
47Should it be … Chewy? Warm? Does it have nuts? Are the chips white, semi-sweet,or dark?
59Thinking Aloud in MathBackground knowledge (e.g., When I see a triangle, I remember that the angles have to add to 180°.)Relevant versus irrelevant information (e.g., I’ve read this problem twice and I know that there is information included that I don’t need.)Selecting a function (e.g., The problem says ‘increased by’ so I know that I’ll have to add.)Setting up the problem (e.g., The first thing that I will do is … because …)Estimating answers (e.g., I predict that the product will be about 150 because I see that there are 10 times the number.)Determining reasonableness of an answer (e.g., I’m not done yet as I have to check to see if my answer is makes sense.)Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Anderson, H. (2010). Thinking and comprehending in the mathematics classroom (pp ). In K. Ganske& D. Fisher (Eds.), Comprehension across the curriculum: Perspectives and practices, K-12. New York: Guilford.
60Table Talk In what ways does Dina connect mathematical thinking to thinking aloud?How does she establish an environmentwhere learners explain their thinking?
61Virtual Frog Dissection Lab A biology teacher can model his or her thinking while performing a virtual frog dissection lab through specialized software. The teacher explains what he is looking for, how he makes decisions, and when he knows he has made an error.
62Thinking Aloud with a Calculator A math teacher can think aloud while operating an online scientific calculator. She explains how she sets up the problem and checks her answer.
63Livescribe Pulse Smartpen Teacher thinks aloud doing amath problem, then uploadsnotes to classroom wiki
64Thinking aloud with text Let’s make aFoldableThinking aloud with textfoldComprehensionComprehensionVocabularyText StructureText Features
65What do expert teachers model during shared readings of informational texts? Available atClick on “Journal Publications”Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2008). Shared readings, modeling comprehension, vocabulary, text structures, and text features for older readers. The Reading Teacher. 61(7),
69Using Text Features Headings Table of contents Captions Glossary IllustrationsChartsGraphsBold wordsTable of contentsGlossaryIndexTablesMargin notesItalicized words
70What Happened to Phineas? Attend the tale of Phineas Gage. Honest, well liked by friends and fellow workers on the Rutland and Burlington Railroads, Gage was a young man of exemplary character and promise until one day in September While tamping down the blasting powder for a dynamite charge, Gage inadvertently sparked an explosion. The inch thick tamping rod rocketed through his cheek, obliterating his left eye, on its way through his brain and out the top of his skull.Discover Magazine
71The rod landed several yards away, and Gage fell back in a convulsive heap. Yet a moment later he stood up and spoke. His fellow workers watched, aghast, then drove him by oxcart to a local hotel where a doctor, one John Harlow, dressed his wounds. As Harlow stuck his index fingers in the holes in Gage’s face and head until their tips met, the young man inquired when he would be able to return to work.Discover Magazine
72“Here is business enough for you. ” --What Phineas said to Dr “Here is business enough for you.” --What Phineas said to Dr. Harlow upon arriving at the hotel.
73Within two months the physical organism that was Phineas Gage had completely recovered - he could walk, speak, and demonstrate normal awareness of his surroundings. But the character of the man did not survive the tamping rod’s journey through his brain. In place of the diligent, dependable worker stood a foul-mouthed and ill-mannered liar given to extravagant schemes that were never followed through. “Gage,” said his friends, “was no longer Gage.”Discover Magazine
74Questions How did Phineas survive this penetrating brain injury? For how much longer did he live?
75Other Examples Annotating a piece of text in English Reading and interpreting an editorial cartoon in HistoryInterpreting a piece of sheet music in Band classThink alouds can be used across disciplines to show students how information is understood and interpreted.