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Improving Adolescent Literacy Through Quality Instruction Nancy Frey, Ph.D. PPT at www.fisherandfrey.com Click Resourceswww.fisherandfrey.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Improving Adolescent Literacy Through Quality Instruction Nancy Frey, Ph.D. PPT at www.fisherandfrey.com Click Resourceswww.fisherandfrey.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving Adolescent Literacy Through Quality Instruction Nancy Frey, Ph.D. PPT at Click Resourceswww.fisherandfrey.com

2 PPT at Click Resources Videos on YouTubes FisherandFrey Channel herandfrey

3 Health Sciences High and Middle College

4 Best School in the Universe

5 Essential Questions Quarterly schoolwide questions foster interdisciplinary connections

6 Early Predictors for Passing (or Failing) the CAHSEE Grade Point Average Absences Classroom Behavior These are present as early as fourth grade Zau, A. C., & Betts, J. R. (2008). Predicting success, preventing failure: An investigation of the California High School Exit Exam. Sacramento, CA: Public Policy Institute of California.

7 There are some myths in education…

8 Reverse effects Developmental effects Teacher effects Zone of desired effects Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. New York: Routledge. Negative Low Medium High Retention: d =

9 Reverse effects Developmental effects Teacher effects Zone of desired effects Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. New York: Routledge. Negative Low Medium High Homework: d =.29

10 … and some truths as well.

11 Reverse effects Developmental effects Teacher effects Zone of desired effects Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. New York: Routledge. Negative Low Medium High Small group learning: d = 0.49

12 Reverse effects Developmental effects Teacher effects Zone of desired effects Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. New York: Routledge. Negative Low Medium High Meta-cognitive Strategies: d = 0.69

13 Skill is the ability to apply concepts when not prompted to do so. Skill is the ability to apply concepts when not prompted to do so.

14 Reverse effects Developmental effects Teacher effects Zone of desired effects Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. New York: Routledge. Negative Low Medium High Reciprocal Teaching: d = 0.74

15 The Case for Disciplinary Literacy

16 Common Core State Standards

17 Fewer, Clearer, Higher

18 CCSS calls for 6 shifts More informational texts Shared responsibility for Literacy with Science, History/Social Studies, and Technical Subjects Increased text complexity Text-dependent questions Argumentation with text-based evidence Focus on academic vocabulary More informational texts Shared responsibility for Literacy with Science, History/Social Studies, and Technical Subjects Increased text complexity Text-dependent questions Argumentation with text-based evidence Focus on academic vocabulary

19 Read like a detective, write like a reporter.

20 Life and Career Skills Learning and Innovation Skills Information, Media, and Technology Skills Core Subject Knowledge Learning in a New Century requires all of these Partnership for 21st Century

21 Expository Persuasive Narrative

22 Argumentation and Discussion Extended Writing Close Reading

23 Why Cant the English Teachers Teach This Stuff? Reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing Literacy is utilized in all content areas Language is specialized in each area All learning occurs through language

24 Literacy=Language Language=Learning

25 Standards 6-12: Disciplines Dominate 25 ScienceHistoryMathEnglish Reading Science articles Primary source documents Extended word problems Novels, speeches, essays Writing Lab reportsEssays Explaining ones thinking Research papers Language Disciplinary vocabulary Differing points of view Public defense and rationales Authors word choice for mood, tone, motif

26 DisciplinaryLiteracy Intermediate Literacy Basic Literacy Increasing Specialization of Literacy Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008

27 What makes literacy hard in the disciplines ? The goals of reading and writing and the approaches to reading and writing are different depending on the content area. The texts are written differently. –Mathematics –Science –History/Social Studies

28 Math Reading Goal: arrive at truth Importance of close reading an intensive consideration of every word in the text Rereading a major strategy Heavy emphasis on error detection Precision of understanding essential Conclusions subject to public argument

29 Mathematics Text 1.1 Introduction to Linear Equations A linear equation in n unknowns x 1, x x …, x n is an equation of the form a 1 x 1 + a 2 x 2 +…+ a n x n = b, where a 1, a 2,…,a n, b are given real numbers For example, with x and y instead of x 1 and x 2, the linear equation 2x + 3y = 6 describes the line passing through the points (3, 0) and (0, 2). Similarly, with x, y and z instead of x 1, x 2 and x 3 the linear equation 2x + 3y + 4z = 12 describes the plan passing through the points (6, 0, 0), (0, 4, 0), (0, 0, 3). A system of m linear equations in n unknowns x 1, x 2, …, x n is a family of linear equations

30 Look inside the science text… Value on linking findings to other scientific principles Transformation of text information to another visual representation Marshaling background knowledge

31 The Antarctic krill is (Euphausia superba) is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. Antarctic krill are shrimp-like invertebrates that live in large schools, called swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,000-30,000 individual animals per cubic meter. They feed directly on minute phytoplankton, thereby using the primary production energy that the phytoplankton originally derived from the sun in order to sustain their pelagic (open ocean) life cycle. They grow to a length of 6 cm, weigh up to 2 grams, and can live for up to six years. They are a key species in the Antarctic ecosystem and are, in terms of biomass, likely the most successful animal species on the planet. College Intro to Science Text

32 Chart Accompanying the Passage

33 History Reading History is interpretative Importance of authors and sourcing in interpretation Consideration of bias and perspective (including ones own) are essential Helpful to recognize history as an argument based on partial evidence (narratives are more than facts)

34 Multiple Gist Text Set Chart of slaves owned by Jackson Text of Jacksons inauguration Bank Veto Speech

35 Tools for Transforming Texts In the mind and on paper Language frames Visual displays Notetaking guides

36 Multiple Text Discussion Web in History Should explorers risk lives to achieve goals? YES Text 1 Evidence Text 2 Evidence Text 3 Evidence NO Text 1 Evidence Text 2 Evidence Text 3 Evidence Our View

37 Elements: Arctic Krill Properties: invertebrate Lays eggs 4 Stages to development larvae, juveniles, gravid females, and other adults Eat phytoplankton Lay eggs Processes Eggs are laid at surface of water and drop Hatched eggs rise to surface Larvae are at surface Krill reach adulthood (2-3 years) Key Details 6,000-10,000 eggs laid Eggs hatch at about 2,000-3,000 meters Larvae develop, nourished by yolk Develop more legs, eyes, grow by molting, Eat algae under ice Juveniles move inland of adults Different stages kept separate! Analogies Like a snake sheds its skin as it grows, so does the krill. Krill eat algae the same way a lawnmower takes in grass Illustrations: (Chart of different seasons and changes in the krill as it goes through the life cycle.) Guided Notetaking in Science

38 Disciplinary Literacy Requires Quality Instruction Disciplinary Literacy Requires Quality Instruction

39 Lets Make a Foldable Envelope fold Focus Lesson Guided Instruction Collaborative Learning Independent Learning

40 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction I do it We do it You do it together Collaborative Independent You do it alone A Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

41 The sudden release of responsibility TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson I do it Independent You do it alone Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

42 DIY School TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY (none) STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Independent You do it alone Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

43 The Good Enough Classroom TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction I do it We do it Independent You do it alone Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

44 Time for a Story January 2006

45 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction I do it We do it You do it together Collaborative Independent You do it alone A Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

46 What are the qualities necessary for a good chocolate chip cookie?

47 Should it be … Chewy? Warm? Does it have nuts? Are the chips white, semi-sweet, or dark?

48 Feedback is not enough

49 Think about a time when you got feedback, but no direction…. Frustrated? Confused? Gave up altogether?

50 Teachers do the same thing with anchorless feedback

51 Unless there is an agreement on quality …

52 … we are immune to feedback.

53 Quality indicators anchor feedback

54 Establishing Purpose: Why are we doing this anyway?

55 Two Components: Content Purpose Language Purpose

56 The established purpose focuses on student learning, rather than an activity, task, or assignment.

57 Students can explain the established purpose in their own words.

58 Modeling Your Thinking

59 Thinking Aloud in Math Background knowledge (e.g., When I see a triangle, I remember that the angles have to add to 180°.) Relevant versus irrelevant information (e.g., Ive read this problem twice and I know that there is information included that I dont need.) Selecting a function (e.g., The problem says increased by so I know that Ill have to add.) Setting up the problem (e.g., The first thing that I will do is … because …) Estimating answers (e.g., I predict that the product will be about 150 because I see that there are 10 times the number.) Determining reasonableness of an answer (e.g., Im not done yet as I have to check to see if my answer is makes sense.) Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Anderson, H. (2010). Thinking and comprehending in the mathematics classroom (pp ). In K. Ganske & D. Fisher (Eds.), Comprehension across the curriculum: Perspectives and practices, K-12. New York: Guilford.

60 Table Talk In what ways does Dina connect mathematical thinking to thinking aloud? How does she establish an environment where learners explain their thinking?

61 Virtual Frog Dissection Lab

62 Thinking Aloud with a Calculator

63 Livescribe Pulse Smartpen Teacher thinks aloud doing a math problem, then uploads notes to classroom wiki

64 Lets make a Foldable fold Thinking aloud with text Comprehensio n VocabularyText StructureText Features

65 What do expert teachers model during shared readings of informational texts? Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2008). Shared readings, modeling comprehension, vocabulary, text structures, and text features for older readers. The Reading Teacher. 61(7), Available at Click on Journal Publications

66 Modeling Comprehension Inference Summarize Predict Clarify Question Visualize Monitor Synthesize Evaluate Connect

67 Word Solving: Looking Inside and Outside of Words Inside: Word parts (prefix, suffix, root, base, cognates) Outside: Context clues Outside: Resources (others, Internet, dictionary)

68 Using Text Structure Informational Texts –Problem/Solution, Compare/Contrast, Sequence, Cause/Effect, Description Narrative Texts –Story grammar (plot, setting, character) –Dialogue –Literary devices

69 Using Text Features Table of contents Glossary Index Tables Margin notes Italicized words Headings Captions Illustrations Charts Graphs Bold words

70 Discover Magazine What Happened to Phineas? Attend the tale of Phineas Gage. Honest, well liked by friends and fellow workers on the Rutland and Burlington Railroads, Gage was a young man of exemplary character and promise until one day in September While tamping down the blasting powder for a dynamite charge, Gage inadvertently sparked an explosion. The inch thick tamping rod rocketed through his cheek, obliterating his left eye, on its way through his brain and out the top of his skull.

71 Discover Magazine The rod landed several yards away, and Gage fell back in a convulsive heap. Yet a moment later he stood up and spoke. His fellow workers watched, aghast, then drove him by oxcart to a local hotel where a doctor, one John Harlow, dressed his wounds. As Harlow stuck his index fingers in the holes in Gages face and head until their tips met, the young man inquired when he would be able to return to work.

72 Here is business enough for you. --What Phineas said to Dr. Harlow upon arriving at the hotel.

73 Discover Magazine Within two months the physical organism that was Phineas Gage had completely recovered - he could walk, speak, and demonstrate normal awareness of his surroundings. But the character of the man did not survive the tamping rods journey through his brain. In place of the diligent, dependable worker stood a foul-mouthed and ill-mannered liar given to extravagant schemes that were never followed through. Gage, said his friends, was no longer Gage.

74 Questions How did Phineas survive this penetrating brain injury? For how much longer did he live?

75 Annotating a piece of text in English Reading and interpreting an editorial cartoon in History Interpreting a piece of sheet music in Band class Annotating a piece of text in English Reading and interpreting an editorial cartoon in History Interpreting a piece of sheet music in Band class Other Examples


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