Presentation on theme: "Eureka! The Roots of Philosophy in Psychology"— Presentation transcript:
1Eureka! The Roots of Philosophy in Psychology History and Systems of Psychology
2Click link in case of emergency The Game of PhilosophyClick link in case of emergency
3The Physicists Thales of Miletus (620-546 BCE): WaterCritical Tradition“Question Everything”Anaximander ( BCE)“Question Thales”BoundlessEvolution and CannibalismDon’t eat fish
4More Physics Empedocles (490-430 BCE) Heraclitus (535-475 BCE) The four elementsEidola perception theoryHeraclitus ( BCE)The only constant is changeFireNo man steps in the same river twiceNo stability = no knowlegeParmenides of Elea (early 5th century BCE)All movement is an illusion (Zeno’s paradox)Democritus ( BCE)Atoms
5Hippocrates (Ca. 460BCE, Khios, Greece) Attacked the conventional ideas of illnessEmpedocles'’ 4-element idea with humors in the bodyEarth: Black bileAir: Yellow bileWater: PhlegmFire: BloodThe body’s natural healing processRest, diet, exercise, fresh air, baths, massages
6Galen ( Ca. 140CE Rome)Hippocrates’ 4-humor idea extends to personalitiesBlood: SanguinePhlegm: PhlegmaticBlack bile: MelancholicYellow bile: Choleric
7Sophists Truth is in the mind of the beholder Rhetoric and logic teachersProtagoras ( BCE)No single truth existsIn order to understand a person’s actions or beliefs, one must understand the personChanges focus of philosophy from what is it all made up, to what can we know and how can we know it.
8Socrates (Ca. 469-399 BCE) Not really a sophist There was an actual truth in there somewhereThe purpose of life is to gain knowledgeThe unexamined life is not worth livingInductive definition
10In the Psyche Corner, Wearing Red Robes: PLATO! (Ca. 429–347 BCE) Everything in the everyday world is a manifestation of a pure formInteract with imperfect matter to make poor shadowThe allegory of the caveNothing is learned from experience; only remembered
11Levels of Knowledge Physicality is an impediment to true understanding “All those who attempt to gain knowledge by examining the physical world are doomed to ignorance, or at best, opinion.”
12Plato’s Tripartite Soul The Rational Soul (Reason) is immortal; all others are corruptibleMust suppress bodily needs for the good of ReasonCreated a dualistic theory of the soul, which resulted in a very powerful religious dogma
13And in the Soma corner, in blue robes and wielding a heavy book, ARISTOTLE! (Ca. 384-322 BCE) Rational thought is importantEssences exist within nature, not apart from itIn order to infer these essences, one must study their manifestationsTherefore, the body is not a hindrance to enlightenment
14Aristotle’s Tripartite Soul Vegetative (nutritive): PlantsGrowth, reproduction, feedingSensitive: Nonhuman animalsAbove plus response to environmentPleasure, pain, memoryRational: Human onlyAbove plus ability to engage in rational thought
15Motivation, Emotion, and Memory We are happiest when doing that which comes naturallyRational thought for humansEmotion serves to amplify existing tendenciesRemembering is a spontaneous recollection of something previously experiencedDiffers from Plato in that it is the result of sensory experienceNot nativisitic
16Aristotle's Principles of Memory ContiguityFrequencySimilarityContrast
18The Spirit of Mechanism The idea that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by laws of physics and chemistryJulien de La MettrieFever-induced hallucinationPeople are “enlightened machines”Human body is “nothing more than a watch that winds itself.”Died of an overdose of truffles and pheasant
19Doctrines du Jour Determinism: Acts are determined by past events Set a clock in motion, and it becomes predictableReductionism: Phenomena on one level (e.g., complex ideas) can be explained in terms of phenomena on another level (simple ideas)A clock is explained in terms of gears and springs
20Renee Descartes (aka Cartius) 1596-1650 Born wealthy enough to pursue intellectual pursuits and travel“He who lives well, lives well hidden.”Exceptional pupil at a Jesuit schoolMathematical prodigy
21It’s Good to be a Wealthy, Well-Connected Student Got special consideration from school director to arrange classes so that he could sleep until noon“Health reasons”Kept this habit up for most of his lifeParisian PlayboyExceptional gamblerHeavy drinkerExpert swordsmanOne lasting romantic affiliation3-year affair with an unknown Dutch womanProduced a daughter (?) who died at 5“The greatest sorrow of my life”
22One too many gambling debts, hangovers, or jealous others later… At around 21, served as “gentleman volunteer”HollandBavariaHungarySpirit of TruthFever-induced dreamDevote his life to apply math to all of the sciences and produce certainty of knowledge
23Application to Practical Concerns Returned to Paris, sold Dad’s propertyUsed the funds to live in comfort and solitudeLived in 13 towns, 24 houses, kept his address secretAlways near a Roman Catholic churchUsed geometry (Cartesian) to improve maneuverability of wheelchairsExperiments to find ways to keep hair from going greyProlific writer and questionable experimenter“I think therefore I lamb.”
24Descartes and the Mind-Body Problem Dualism vs MonismThe puppet with nothing to offerVersailles GardensThe soul (mind) and the pineal glandAnimal spiritsHollow nervesTwo-way interactionReflex action“no mind involvement”
25Native Rene Nativism vs Empiricism Descartes: Derived and Innate ideas Plato vs AristotleDescartes: Derived and Innate ideasBreak with platoDerived: Ideas that arise from external stimulusInnate: Ideas that develop of the mind aloneGodSelfPerfectionInfinityWill be inlfuential in the development of other theories (e.g., Gestalt) and will provide a springboard against others to rebelJohn Locke
26Perhaps Sleeping In is Good for the Health Got attention from 20-year-old Queen Christina of SwedenAsked him to be personal tutor of philosophyDeclined, but she eventually won him over in 1649Needed tutoring at 5:00 amDrafty castle, cold environmentDescartes of pneumonia died within a year
27A Problem With Mind/Body Dualism Too tall to fit in a coffinCut off head to ship separatelyShip with his body and skull sank just before dockingTook 17 years to restore his notesSkull disappeared and resurfaced in private collections for years afterward
28John Locke (1632-1704) Will initiate “British Empiricism” Rejects any innate ideas“Let us suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper.”Primary vs Secondary qualitiesPrimary: exist in an object independent of perception (e.g., size)Secondary exist in perception (e.g., tickle of the feather)The Shaftesbury rebellion
29Bishop George Berkeley (1685-1753) Initiated MentalismMental monistTaking Locke a step furtherIf there are two realities, one on the world and one in the mind…what is the difference?We can only be sure of our perceptionsHow, then can there be stability in the universe?Also 3D vision theoristAccommodation
30Berkeley and the Permanent Perceiver There was a young man who said "God, I find it exceedingly odd That this very tree Should continue to be When there is no one about in the quad.“The Answer:"Young man, your question is odd. I am always about in the quad. And that's why this tree Continues to be" Signed by, yours faithfully, God.
31David Hume (1711-1776) Another Mental Monist Takes God from Berkeley If there is no permanent perceiver, we can only be sure of our own mindsSolipsismNothing exists but the mind
32Hume Anticipating the Functionalists ImpressionsBasic elements of mental life (similar to perceptions)IdeasMental experiences in the absence of a stimulating objectVery careful to leave out physiology or external stimuliEarly associationism:SimilarityContiguityClear Aristotle influence!
33David Hartley ( )Added repetition to Hume’s laws of associationAs kids grow, a variety of sensory experiences and trains of associations of increasing complexity are establishedThus, higher levels of thought can be reduced to simpler sensationsFirst to apply laws of association to all types of mental activityDoctrine of specific vibrations
34James Mill (1775-1836) Ex-clergyman from Scotland No one could understand his sermonsThe Anti-BerkeleyAttempted to apply mechanism and destroy subjectivityMachines are no longer a metaphor for the mindThe mind IS a machineA passive entity that automatically responds to stimuli
35What If He Had a Son? Fill his head at an early age 5-h daily drills: Classic languagesMathematicsHistoryPoliticsRead Plato at 31st scholarly paper at 11Mastered standard univeristy curriculum at 12“Nervous Breakdown” (Severe depression) at 21So analytical, “I could not feel.”Poetry of Wordsworh helped
36John Stewart Mill (1806-1873) Mental chemistry Based on the discovery of H2OAdding H and O to get water, something completely newMixing colored lights to get white, something completely newCreative synthesisComplex ideas form from simple onesTakes on new qualities not present in its piecesThe whole is greater than the sum of the parts?
37Mechanism and Reductionism in the 19th Century AnalyticalEngine(Babbage, 1833)Tik TokFrank Baum (1914)Mary ShellyFrankenstein (1818)Babbage’s Brain(Harvested 1871)Charles Babbage
38Philosophy is NOT for Everyone It STILL Doesn't work?