2Learning from the past Progress ~ Spurts ~ Setbacks… What does this painting tell you about children?
3Changing Views of Childhood Miniature AdultsNeed of RedemptionBlank Slates – John LockeInnocents - RousseauEconomic ValueCompetent ChildCitizen with RightsProduct of your own HistoryPrinciples and values remarkedly similar over time, but there is new research, theories and realities that make us LOOK AGAIN!
4A continuum of influences & ideas Consider the Beliefs held by each individual and place them on the continuum of beliefs about children, education, teaching and learning.Learning is… Teaching is…Education is…Child is…Learning is…Teaching is…
5Current practice strongly reflects early influences European InfluencesCurrent practice strongly reflects early influences
6John Amos Comenius Czech 1592-1670; Minister with his own school Three Key IdeasChange from punitive to making learning easier, deeper and more pleasantTeacher engage children with nature; follow the childChildren should learn their own language, not LatinOrbis Pictus – first children’s picture bookLearn through senses; need to be active; developmental stages; child-centered
8Who? When? And Where? Swiss educator born in Zurich, Switzerland Studied theology at the University of ZurichIn 1769, he lived on his farm where he managed a school for poor children.In 1799 he directed a school at Bergdorf.In 1805, he was the director of a boarding school in Yverdon.He described all his philosophies on education in his book How GertrudeTeaches Her Children.
9View of the Child and Learning Believed that children need to discover ideas for themselves through their own activityTeachers must guide the child’s learning and nurture it rather than direct itLearning must be done through direct observation and sensory experience in the natural worldAll children – including children who lived in poverty- could benefit from education
10View of TeachingPromotes “whole child” point of view, which he called “the hand,heart, and head”Believed children learned in stages, mastering a skill before progressing to next stage.Opposed memorized learning, and replaced it with concrete learning. Ex. Use of tactile objectsIndividuality of each child is IMPORTANTChildren are motivated to learn by their interests, not threats or punishments
11Pestalozzi’s Influence Not only did Pestalozzi influence the elementary education system for Prussia, but also had a great influence on America.His book, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children, played a significant initial influence in that he passed his plans through into his practice.Educators today follow his idea of the ‘reflective practitioner.’ He is focused on observation and reflection; however still concerned with experimentation and action.The teachings of Pestalozzi became effective in immeasurable school systems.
12Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) Nicknamed, “The Father of Kindergarten” Maggie Leggour, Kellie Smith, Jamie Vanduzer, Noelle Rosen, Chelsea HuntNicknamed, “The Father of Kindergarten”GermanHis ideas spread throughout EuropeBasis for kindergartens in the United States
13Froebel’s BeliefsBelieved in the innate goodness and capacities of children, and saw God’s image in themTeaching should be based on students interests and teachers should understand there development by observing them directlyObserve and nurture without interferingLearning is a process of unfolding from within and it should be done on the child’s own timetable
14Froebel’s Gifts Used to guide and structure children’s play Concrete materials for children to manipulate in specific ways6 wooden balls in the colors of the spectrumCube that divided into 8 smaller cubes
15Froebel’s Occupations Planned experiences designed to train children’s eye hand coordination and mental activityDrawing on grid paperLacing paper stripsWeaving matsFolding and cutting paper into designs
16Froebel’s InfluenceThe creation of a large scale kindergarten in the United StatesToday many of his basic ideas are used in preschools and child care programsHis beliefs are still used and recognized over 150 years later
17By: Amanda O., Katherine B., Phil L., Jaclyn R., and Amanda K. Maria MontessoriBy: Amanda O., Katherine B., Phil L., Jaclyn R., and Amanda K.
18About MariaBorn in 1870 – 1952Major figure in the history of early childhood educationFirst woman in Italy to receive a medical degreeNominated for the Nobel Peace Prize
19HistoryMontessori worked with poor children whom many thought were mentally deficient.Believed children were not this way biologically, but rather because their environment was not set up for them to learn effectively.Created Children’s House in which she educated needy children to prove how successful they could be early in life.Same theory as Head Start used when they began their program.
20Key ElementsBelieved each child had unique potential to reveal rather than a “blank state” Teacher made a Prepared environment for their students The Montessori Method consisted of dividing the classroom into centers where students could use materials to work freely and independently to learnFocused on making the classroom a natural environment where she could observe the students and wanted each student to individually fulfill their potentialMaria Montessori did not have “play-time” scheduled in her classroom because she felt her method of work was fun
21ImpactSeveral elements of her approach remain widely accepted practices today Association Montessori International (AMI) and the American Montessori Society (AMS) provide information, teacher training, and certificationLasting contribution to the field was her development of Montessori materials and her impact on the organization of early childhood environments
23Kindergartens ~ Children’s Garden First K – Wisconsin 1856 – Margarethe SchurzElizabeth Peabody- social reformer…first English speaking KSusan Blow – expanded K and kept Froebels visionFirst public KindergartenDefended Froebel’s ideasFormed the International Kindergarten Union – became Association for Childhood Education International
24Progressive Education Similarities between Progressivism and Developmentally Appropriate Practice
25John Dewey Born in Burlington, Vermont (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952)Born in Burlington, VermontJohn and his two brothers grew up in a middle-class household.American psychologist, philosopher, educator, social critic and political activist.Received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1884.Also wrote about many other topics, including experience, nature , art, logic, democracy and ethics.“Education is a social process. Education is growth. Education is not a preparation for life; Education is life itself.”-John Dewey
26Views on Children Passive learners = waste of time Believed children should determine the curriculumChildren need to learn by experienceEngaging in active learning vs. lectureLearning is not just obtaining knowledge , but developing skills, habits and attitudes.*Passive learners absorb information compared to active learners who do and become involved*
27Views on Teaching & Learning Social institute-communityInfluence and assist children as they work togetherTeachers and parents working togetherSocial interactionIntegrated curriculumBuild on interestChild-Centered curriculumLearningInteractionTraditional approachGood judgment
28InfluencesDewey was influenced by G. Stanley Hall, William James, George Hegel and many others.Influenced by observing his own children at play, and immigrant English learnersHe has been influencing education for over 100 years and influenced progressive education in the 1920’sMajor influence on public education
29Nursery School Movement Based on the philosophy of studying and nurturing children’s development
30Patty Smith Hill ( )Patty’s father believed that girls should be prepared for a profession; her mother agreed and also thought that play was essential to childhood.These experiences as a child influenced her views of childhood and education for her entire life.Anna Bryan started a teacher training program in Louisville, Kentucky which Patty was one of the first students.She started her own kindergarten where she encouraged children’s play as a way to learn.
31Work as a Kindergarten Teacher 1896: Patty Hill and mentor Anna Bryan studied with G. Stanley Hall.Together they developed a new curriculum for teaching young children.Patty Hill believe in the importance of teaching the “whole child”.This caused her to value a multidisciplinary approach to the field.Included: Physicians, social workers, psychologists, and artists
32Patty Hill’s vision for kindergarten included 3 purposes: “To minister to the nature and needs of children from 4 to 6 years of age.”To see the relation of K to the first grade curriculum; lay the foundation that children need “without sacrificing the right of the kindergarten child to free, full development on his own level.”To connect kindergarten to the home, reduce the gap between the two, and build on the learning that takes place there.She feared public school kindergarten would take away from parent education, as well as push the children away from early reading, writing, and play.
33Other Important Contributions Developed resources such as building blocks, songs, poems, and books to use as fun teaching tools.Faculty of Teacher’s College in New York, considered a master teacher.Served as president of the IKU in Her report on the content of curriculum and the role of play became the vision of Kindergarten as we know it today.In 1926, she founded NANE which later changed its name to NAEYC. She was the first member and her views about early childhood education dominated the movement during its early years.
34Caroline PrattTeacher’s College: play freely and experiment with materialsI learn from children – Study of children in open-ended settingsPretend playSelf-directed plansField tripsSolve problems through playUnit blocksFounded The Play School in NYC Greenwich VillageCity and Country School
35Lucy Sprague Mitchell By: Kara, Alyssa, Jenna, & Jamie Prolific writer and authored a series of children’s books.Created a writers workshop for authors of children’s books.Among the best- known writers who were involved in the workshop were Margaret Wise Brown (Goodnight Moon, The Runaway Bunny) Ruth Krauss.Instrumental in efforts to expand early childhood education beyond laboratory schools and use it for true social reform.Mitchell lived to see the Bank Street approach used as the model for the Head Start program, a cornerstone of the war on poverty.
36Lucy Sprague Mitchell By: Kara, Alyssa, Jenna, & Jamie BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL EXPERIMENTSLaunched in 1916 to teach teachers and conduct researchGoals…Focus on child development rather than learning specific curriculum.A whole-child approach to learning and development.Observe how children’s development is stimulated by experiences and activities.Focus on scientific measurement of stages of development and establishing norms.
37Lucy Sprague Mitchell By: Kara, Alyssa, Jenna, & Jamie BANK STREET APPROACHMitchell’s educational philosophy for the Bank Street College, formerly the Bureau of Educational Experiences.Curriculum should be based on individual children’s developmentLearning occurs through interaction with the environment and other people.Children’s experiences in the “here and now” provide the launching pad for their learning.