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Presentation on theme: "BUILDING ON A TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE CHAPER TWO."— Presentation transcript:


2 Learning from the past Progress ~ Spurts ~ Setbacks… What does this painting tell you about children?

3 Changing Views of Childhood Miniature Adults Need of Redemption Blank Slates – John Locke Innocents - Rousseau Economic Value Competent Child Citizen with Rights Product of your own History

4 A continuum of influences & ideas Consider the Beliefs held by each individual and place them on the continuum of beliefs about children, education, teaching and learning. Child is… Education is… Learning is… Teaching is… Child is… Education is… Learning is…Teaching is…

5 Current practice strongly reflects early influences European Influences

6 John Amos Comenius Czech ; Minister with his own school Three Key Ideas Change from punitive to making learning easier, deeper and more pleasant Teacher engage children with nature; follow the child Children should learn their own language, not Latin Orbis Pictus – first childrens picture book Learn through senses; need to be active; developmental stages; child-centered

7 Johann Pestalozzi ( ) JOHANN PESTALOZZI By: Jaclyn Avdoyan Antoinette Burns Brianne Toomey Erin Hogan Jamie Jenkins

8 Who? When? And Where? Swiss educator born in Zurich, Switzerland Studied theology at the University of Zurich In 1769, he lived on his farm where he managed a school for poor children. In 1799 he directed a school at Bergdorf. In 1805, he was the director of a boarding school in Yverdon. He described all his philosophies on education in his book How GertrudeTeaches Her Children.

9 View of the Child and Learning Believed that children need to discover ideas for themselves through their own activity Teachers must guide the childs learning and nurture it rather than direct it Learning must be done through direct observation and sensory experience in the natural world All children – including children who lived in poverty- could benefit from education

10 View of Teaching Promotes whole child point of view, which he called the hand,heart, and head Believed children learned in stages, mastering a skill before progressing to next stage. Opposed memorized learning, and replaced it with concrete learning. Ex. Use of tactile objects Individuality of each child is IMPORTANT Children are motivated to learn by their interests, not threats or punishments

11 Pestalozzis Influence Not only did Pestalozzi influence the elementary education system for Prussia, but also had a great influence on America. His book, How Gertrude Teaches Her Children, played a significant initial influence in that he passed his plans through into his practice. Educators today follow his idea of the reflective practitioner. He is focused on observation and reflection; however still concerned with experimentation and action. The teachings of Pestalozzi became effective in immeasurable school systems.

12 Friedrich Froebel ( ) Maggie Leggour, Kellie Smith, Jamie Vanduzer, Noelle Rosen, Chelsea Hunt Nicknamed, The Father of Kindergarten German His ideas spread throughout Europe Basis for kindergartens in the United States

13 Froebels Beliefs Believed in the innate goodness and capacities of children, and saw Gods image in them Teaching should be based on students interests and teachers should understand there development by observing them directly – Observe and nurture without interfering Learning is a process of unfolding from within and it should be done on the childs own timetable

14 Froebels Gifts Used to guide and structure childrens play Concrete materials for children to manipulate in specific ways 6 wooden balls in the colors of the spectrum Cube that divided into 8 smaller cubes

15 Froebels Occupations Planned experiences designed to train childrens eye hand coordination and mental activity Drawing on grid paper Lacing paper strips Weaving mats Folding and cutting paper into designs

16 Froebels Influence The creation of a large scale kindergarten in the United States Today many of his basic ideas are used in preschools and child care programs His beliefs are still used and recognized over 150 years later

17 Maria Montessori By: Amanda O., Katherine B., Phil L., Jaclyn R., and Amanda K.

18 About Maria Born in 1870 – 1952 Major figure in the history of early childhood education First woman in Italy to receive a medical degree Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize

19 History Montessori worked with poor children whom many thought were mentally deficient. Believed children were not this way biologically, but rather because their environment was not set up for them to learn effectively. Created Childrens House in which she educated needy children to prove how successful they could be early in life. Same theory as Head Start used when they began their program.

20 Key Elements Believed each child had unique potential to reveal rather than a blank state Teacher made a Prepared environment for their students The Montessori Method consisted of dividing the classroom into centers where students could use materials to work freely and independently to learn Focused on making the classroom a natural environment where she could observe the students and wanted each student to individually fulfill their potential Maria Montessori did not have play-time scheduled in her classroom because she felt her method of work was fun

21 Impact Several elements of her approach remain widely accepted practices today Association Montessori International (AMI) and the American Montessori Society (AMS) provide information, teacher training, and certification Lasting contribution to the field was her development of Montessori materials and her impact on the organization of early childhood environments

22 Kindergarten Movement

23 Kindergartens ~ Childrens Garden First K – Wisconsin 1856 – Margarethe Schurz Elizabeth Peabody- social reformer…first English speaking K Susan Blow – expanded K and kept Froebels vision First public Kindergarten Defended Froebels ideas Formed the International Kindergarten Union – became Association for Childhood Education International

24 Similarities between Progressivism and Developmentally Appropriate Practice Progressive Education

25 John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) Education is a social process. Education is growth. Education is not a preparation for life; Education is life itself. -John Dewey Born in Burlington, Vermont John and his two brothers grew up in a middle-class household. American psychologist, philosopher, educator, social critic and political activist. Received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in Also wrote about many other topics, including experience, nature, art, logic, democracy and ethics.

26 Views on Children Passive learners = waste of time Believed children should determine the curriculum Children need to learn by experience Engaging in active learning vs. lecture Learning is not just obtaining knowledge, but developing skills, habits and attitudes. *Passive learners absorb information compared to active learners who do and become involved*

27 Views on Teaching & Learning Learning Interaction Traditional approach Good judgment Teaching Social institute-community Influence and assist children as they work together Teachers and parents working together Social interaction Integrated curriculum Build on interest Child-Centered curriculum

28 Influences Dewey was influenced by G. Stanley Hall, William James, George Hegel and many others. Influenced by observing his own children at play, and immigrant English learners He has been influencing education for over 100 years and influenced progressive education in the 1920s Major influence on public education

29 Based on the philosophy of studying and nurturing childrens development Nursery School Movement

30 Patty Smith Hill ( ) Pattys father believed that girls should be prepared for a profession; her mother agreed and also thought that play was essential to childhood. These experiences as a child influenced her views of childhood and education for her entire life. Anna Bryan started a teacher training program in Louisville, Kentucky which Patty was one of the first students. She started her own kindergarten where she encouraged childrens play as a way to learn.

31 Work as a Kindergarten Teacher 1896: Patty Hill and mentor Anna Bryan studied with G. Stanley Hall. Together they developed a new curriculum for teaching young children. Patty Hill believe in the importance of teaching the whole child. This caused her to value a multidisciplinary approach to the field. Included: Physicians, social workers, psychologists, and artists

32 Patty Hills vision for kindergarten included 3 purposes: 1.To minister to the nature and needs of children from 4 to 6 years of age. 2.To see the relation of K to the first grade curriculum; lay the foundation that children need without sacrificing the right of the kindergarten child to free, full development on his own level. 3.To connect kindergarten to the home, reduce the gap between the two, and build on the learning that takes place there. She feared public school kindergarten would take away from parent education, as well as push the children away from early reading, writing, and play.

33 Other Important Contributions Developed resources such as building blocks, songs, poems, and books to use as fun teaching tools. Faculty of Teachers College in New York, considered a master teacher. Served as president of the IKU in Her report on the content of curriculum and the role of play became the vision of Kindergarten as we know it today. In 1926, she founded NANE which later changed its name to NAEYC. She was the first member and her views about early childhood education dominated the movement during its early years.

34 Caroline Pratt Teachers College: play freely and experiment with materials I learn from children – Study of children in open-ended settings Pretend play Self-directed plans Field trips Solve problems through play Unit blocks Founded The Play School in NYC Greenwich Village City and Country School

35 Lucy Sprague Mitchell By: Kara, Alyssa, Jenna, & Jamie Prolific writer and authored a series of childrens books. Created a writers workshop for authors of childrens books. Among the best- known writers who were involved in the workshop were Margaret Wise Brown (Goodnight Moon, The Runaway Bunny) Ruth Krauss. Instrumental in efforts to expand early childhood education beyond laboratory schools and use it for true social reform. Mitchell lived to see the Bank Street approach used as the model for the Head Start program, a cornerstone of the war on poverty.

36 Lucy Sprague Mitchell By: Kara, Alyssa, Jenna, & Jamie BUREAU OF EDUCATIONAL EXPERIMENTS Launched in 1916 to teach teachers and conduct research Goals… 1.Focus on child development rather than learning specific curriculum. 2.A whole-child approach to learning and development. 3.Observe how childrens development is stimulated by experiences and activities. 4.Focus on scientific measurement of stages of development and establishing norms.

37 Lucy Sprague Mitchell By: Kara, Alyssa, Jenna, & Jamie BANK STREET APPROACH Mitchells educational philosophy for the Bank Street College, formerly the Bureau of Educational Experiences. Curriculum should be based on individual childrens development Learning occurs through interaction with the environment and other people. Childrens experiences in the here and now provide the launching pad for their learning.


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